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Fu-Cai Tang, Hong-Yan Wang, Ming-Ming Ma, Tian-Wang Guan, Long Pan, Dun-Chen Yao, Ya-Lan Chen, Sheng-Jie Li, Hang Yang, Xiao-Qin Zhu, Yong-Sheng Tu
Reactive oxygen species‑induced cyclophilin A (CyPA) release from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may be inhibited by simvastatin in vitro. The present study aimed to further examine the effect of simvastatin on serum CyPA levels and the basigin (CD147)‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2‑cyclin pathway during thoracic aorta remodeling. The mechanisms through which simvastatin may inhibit CyPA secretion from VSMCs were further investigated. Serum CyPA levels and the expression kinetics of CyPA‑associated signaling pathways were examined following simvastatin treatment in rat thoracic aortas during hypertension...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marwan Ibrahim Abdullah, Mohammed Najim Abed, Alan Richardson
Only 40% of patients with advanced ovarian cancer survive more than 5 years. We have previously shown that pitavastatin induces regression of ovarian cancer xenografts in mice. To evaluate whether the response of ovarian cancer cells to pitavastatin is potentiated by farnesyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors or geranylgeraniol transferase I inhibitors, we evaluated combinations of pitavastatin with zoledronic acid, risedronate and GGTI-2133 in a panel of ovarian cancer cells. Pitavastatin (IC50 = 0.6-14 μM), zoledronic acid (IC50 = 21-57 μM), risedronate (IC50 > 100 μM) or GGTI-2133 (IC50 > 25 μM) inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cell cultures...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rui Jin, Xin Luo, Kang Luan, Li Liu, Liang-Dan Sun, Sen Yang, Sheng-Quan Zhang, Xue-Jun Zhang
Mutation of genes encoding the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway cause a variety of diseases, including skin disorders. Mutation of four genes in this pathway, including mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase, have demonstrated to be responsible for porokeratosis (PK). However, the pathogenesis of PK remains unclear. In the present study, specific enzyme inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway, including pravastatin (PRA), alendronate (ALD), farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI‑277) and geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI‑298), were used to investigate the effect on differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shafi Kuchay, Carlotta Giorgi, Daniele Simoneschi, Julia Pagan, Sonia Missiroli, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Ana Collazo-Lorduy, Mireia Castillo-Martin, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Said M Sebti, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
In response to environmental cues that promote IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) generation, IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) located on the endoplasmic reticulum allow the 'quasisynaptical' feeding of calcium to the mitochondria to promote oxidative phosphorylation. However, persistent Ca2+ release results in mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and consequent apoptosis. Among the three mammalian IP3Rs, IP3R3 appears to be the major player in Ca2+ -dependent apoptosis. Here we show that the F-box protein FBXL2 (the receptor subunit of one of 69 human SCF (SKP1, CUL1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes) binds IP3R3 and targets it for ubiquitin-, p97- and proteasome-mediated degradation to limit Ca2+ influx into mitochondria...
June 22, 2017: Nature
Javad Alizadeh, Amir A Zeki, Nima Mirzaei, Sandipan Tewary, Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Aleksandra Glogowska, Pandian Nagakannan, Eftekhar Eftekharpour, Emilia Wiechec, Joseph W Gordon, Fred Y Xu, Jared T Field, Ken Y Yoneda, Nicholas J Kenyon, Mohammad Hashemi, Grant M Hatch, Sabine Hombach-Klonisch, Thomas Klonisch, Saeid Ghavami
The mevalonate (MEV) cascade is responsible for cholesterol biosynthesis and the formation of the intermediate metabolites geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) used in the prenylation of proteins. Here we show that the MEV cascade inhibitor simvastatin induced significant cell death in a wide range of human tumor cell lines, including glioblastoma, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer. Simvastatin induced apoptotic cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vaibhav Sidarala, Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Chronic hyperglycemia (HG) promotes pancreatic islet dysfunction which leads to the onset of T2DM. This study is aimed at defining regulatory roles of Rac1, a small G-protein, in the activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells, under the duress of HG conditions. We report significant stimulatory effects of HG (20 mM; 24 h) on p53 activation in INS-1 832/13 cells, normal rodent and human islets. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 (EHT1864 or NSC23766) significantly suppressed HG-induced p53 activation in INS-1 832/13 cells and rat islets, suggesting novel roles for this small G-protein in the activation of p53...
May 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Rajakrishnan Veluthakal, Daleep K Arora, Marc L Goalstone, Renu A Kowluru, Anjaneyulu Kowluru
BACKGROUND/AIMS: At least 300 prenylated proteins are identified in the human genome; the majority of which partake in a variety of cellular processes including growth, differentiation, cytoskeletal organization/dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Aberrant prenylation of proteins is implicated in human pathologies including cancer; neurodegenerative diseases, retinitis pigmentosa, and premature ageing syndromes. Original observations from our laboratory have demonstrated that prenylation of proteins [small G-proteins and γ-subunits of trimeric G-proteins] is requisite for physiological insulin secretion...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Muhammad Mansha, Udayappan Udhaya Kumari, Zoe Cournia, Nisar Ullah
In this study, a series of pyrazole-based structural analogues of GGTI-DU40 (1) have been synthesized and biologically evaluated for geranylgeranyltransferase 1 (GGT1) and farnesyltransferase (FT) inhibition. The screening results revealed that 2 (IC50 = 2.4 μM) and 5 (IC50 = 3.1 μM) are potent GGT1 inhibitors (GGTIs), possessing higher inhibitory activity compared to the control compound 1 (IC50 = 3.3 μM). The anti-proliferative efficacy of these compounds was further assayed against MDA-MB-231 cells which indicated a significantly higher activity of 2 (IC50 = 7...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Fernanda Cristina de Mesquita, Sergi Vila, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Carmen Peralta, Juan Carlos García-Pagán, Jaime Bosch, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), inducible by simvastatin, confers endothelial vasoprotection. Considering recent data suggesting activation of autophagy by statins, we aimed to: 1) characterize the relationship between autophagy and KLF2 in the endothelium, 2) assess this relationship in acute liver injury (cold ischemia/reperfusion) and 3) study the effects of modulating KLF2-autophagy in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Autophagic flux, the vasoprotective KLF2 pathway, cell viability and microvascular function were assessed in endothelial cells and in various pre-clinical models of acute liver injury (cold storage and warm reperfusion)...
January 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Rogelio Palomino-Morales, Sonia Perales, Carolina Torres, Ana Linares, Maria J Alejandre
Cholesterol-lowering effects apart, statins can improve the endothelial function, stabilize the atherosclerotic plaques, decrease the oxidative stress and inflammation and inhibit the thrombogenic response by means of the inhibition of isoprenoids, which serve as lipid attachments for intracellular signaling molecules. We aimed to evaluate whether the effect of statins on RhoA activity mediate extracellular matrix production, particularly affecting collagen type I, in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Our results showed that lovastatin decreased collagen expression in primary cultured chicken SMCs as determined by incorporation of [H3]-proline, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry...
2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Vernadeth B Alarcon, Yusuke Marikawa
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of the mevalonate pathway and prescription drugs that treat hypercholesterolemia, compromise preimplantation mouse development via modulation of HIPPO signaling. STUDY FINDING: HMG-CoA reductase activity is required for trophectoderm specification, namely blastocyst cavity formation and Yes-associated protein (YAP) nuclear localization, through the production of isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and the action of geranylgeranyl transferase...
May 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Shangfeng Gao, Jianbing Mo, Long Chen, Yan Wang, Xueqiang Mao, Yi Shi, Xianfeng Zhang, Rutong Yu, Xiuping Zhou
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death for Americans, and about 87% of all strokes are ischemic strokes. Astrogliosis plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of delayed neuronal death (DND) following ischemic stroke. Here we reported that astrocyte geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTI)-mediated Rac1 activation up-regulated NF-κB expression and promoted the neuronal apoptosis after oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by oxygen-glucose regeneration (OGD/R). We found that GGTIβ (a specific subunit of GGTI) and NF-κB-p65 levels as determined by Western blot and/or immunofluorescent analysis were significantly up-regulated in the reactive astrocytes both in rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and in cell OGD/R models...
April 2016: Neuropharmacology
Nisar Ullah, Muhammad Mansha, Patrick J Casey
The process of protein prenylation involves the covalent linkage of either farnesyl (15-carbon) or geranylgeranyl (20-carbon) isoprenoid lipds to conserved cysteine residues in the carboxyl-terminus of proteins. Protein geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase-I) is the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of the geranylgeranyl moiety from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to the target protein, which contains a Cterminal consensus sequence termed a CaaX motif. Geranylgeranylation is important to the function of a number of proteins, including the majority of Rho GTPases, G protein gamma subunits, and several other regulatory proteins...
2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Yang Ye, Xue Lv, Mei-hui Wang, Jun Zhu, Shi-quan Chen, Chen-yang Jiang, Guo-sheng Fu
Collagen I is the main component of extracellular matrix in cardiac fibrosis. Our previous studies have reported inhibition of farnesylpyrophosphate synthase prevents angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis, while the exact molecular mechanism was still unclear. This paper was designed to investigate the effect of alendronate, a farnesylpyrophosphate synthase inhibitor, on regulating angiotensin II-induced collagen I expression in cultured cardiac fibroblasts and to explore the underlying mechanism. By measuring the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I, we found that alendronate prevented angiotensin II-induced collagen I production in a dose-dependent manner...
December 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Jie Lu, Kohei Yoshimura, Koichi Goto, Craig Lee, Ken Hamura, Ohyun Kwon, Fuyuhiko Tamanoi
Small molecule inhibitors against protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I such as P61A6 have been shown to inhibit proliferation of a variety of human cancer cells and exhibit antitumor activity in mouse models. Development of these inhibitors could be dramatically accelerated by conferring tumor targeting and controlled release capability. As a first step towards this goal, we have encapsulated P61A6 into a new type of liposomes that open and release cargos only under low pH condition. These low pH-release type liposomes were prepared by adjusting the ratio of two types of phospholipid derivatives...
2015: PloS One
Carol P Y Lau, Kwok Chuen Wong, Lin Huang, Gang Li, Stephen K W Tsui, Shekhar Madhukar Kumta
A major barrier towards the study of the effects of drugs on Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT) has been the lack of an animal model. In this study, we created an animal model in which GCT stromal cells survived and functioned as proliferating neoplastic cells. A proliferative cell line of GCT stromal cells was used to create a stable and luciferase-transduced cell line, Luc-G33. The cell line was characterized and was found that there were no significant differences on cell proliferation rate and recruitment of monocytes when compared with the wild type GCT stromal cells...
November 2015: Connective Tissue Research
Parasuraman Aiya Subramani, Venkata Ramireddy Narala, R Dinakaran Michael, Dakshayani Lomada, Madhava C Reddy
Protein prenylation is a posttranslational modification that is indispensable for translocation of membrane GTPases like Ras, Rho, Ras etc. Proteins of Ras family undergo farnesylation by FTase while Rho family goes through geranylgeranylation by GGTase1. There is only an infinitesimal difference in signal recognition between FTase and GGTase1. FTase inhibitors mostly end up selecting the cells with mutated Ras proteins that have acquired affinity towards GGTase1 in cancer microcosms. Therefore, it is of interest to identify GGTase1 and FTase dual inhibitors using the docking tool AutoDock Vina...
2015: Bioinformation
Fariborz Mortazavi, Jie Lu, Ryan Phan, Michael Lewis, Kenny Trinidad, Amir Aljilani, Gholamhossein Pezeshkpour, Fuyuhiko Tamanoi
BACKGROUND: Key effector(s) of mutated KRAS in lung cancer progression and metastasis are unknown. Here we investigated the role of PAK1/Crk axis in transduction of the oncogenic KRAS signal in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We used NSCLC clinical specimens to examine the correlation among KRAS mutations (codon 12, 13 and 61); PAK1/Crk axis activation [p-PAK1(Thr423), p-Crk(Ser41)]; and adhesion molecules expression by immunohistochemistry. For assessing the role of proto-oncogene c-Crk as a KRAS effector, we inhibited KRAS in NSCLC cells by a combination of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) and geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor (GGTI) and measured p-Crk-II(Ser41) by western blotting...
May 9, 2015: BMC Cancer
Kenrie P Y Hui, Denise I T Kuok, Sara S R Kang, Hung-Sing Li, Mandy M T Ng, Christine H T Bui, J S Malik Peiris, Renee W Y Chan, Michael C W Chan
Highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses continue to transmit zoonotically, with mortality higher than 60%, and pose a pandemic threat. Antivirals remain the primary choice for treating H5N1 diseases and have their limitations. Encouraging findings highlight the beneficial effects of combined treatment of host targeting agents with immune-modulatory activities. This study evaluated the undefined roles of sterol metabolic pathway in viral replication and cytokine induction by H5N1 virus in human alveolar epithelial cells...
July 2015: Antiviral Research
Vaibhav Sidarala, Rajakrishnan Veluthakal, Khadija Syeda, Cornelis Vlaar, Philip Newsholme, Anjaneyulu Kowluru
It is well established that glucotoxicity (caused by high glucose concentrations; HG) underlies pathogenesis of islet dysfunction in diabetes. We have recently demonstrated that Nox2 plays a requisite role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under HG conditions, resulting in mitochondrial dysregulation and loss of islet β-cell function. Herein, we investigated roles of Nox2 in the regulation of downstream stress kinase (p38MAPK) activation under HG conditions (20mM; 24h) in normal rodent islets and INS-1 832/13 cells...
June 15, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
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