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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153449/the-changing-epidemiology-of-open-fractures-in-vehicle-occupants-pedestrians-motorcyclists-and-cyclists
#1
Dennis Winkler, Stuart T Goudie, Charles M Court-Brown
AIMS: To investigate the changing epidemiology of open fractures in vehicle occupants, pedestrians, motorcyclists and cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on all non-spinal open fractures admitted to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh after a road traffic accident between 1988 and 2010 were collected and analysed to provide information about the changing epidemiology in different patient groups. Demographic information was collected on all patients with the severity of injury being analysed with the Injury Severity Score (ISS), Musculoskeletal Index (MSI) and the number of open fractures...
November 14, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134429/self-driving-cars-and-engineering-ethics-the-need-for-a-system-level-analysis
#2
Jason Borenstein, Joseph R Herkert, Keith W Miller
The literature on self-driving cars and ethics continues to grow. Yet much of it focuses on ethical complexities emerging from an individual vehicle. That is an important but insufficient step towards determining how the technology will impact human lives and society more generally. What must complement ongoing discussions is a broader, system level of analysis that engages with the interactions and effects that these cars will have on one another and on the socio-technical systems in which they are embedded...
November 13, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120666/like-grandparents-like-parents-empirical-evidence-and-psychoanalytic-thinking-on-the-transmission-of-parenting-styles
#3
Pietro De Carli, Angela Tagini, Diego Sarracino, Alessandra Santona, Valentina Bonalda, Paola Elena Cesari, Laura Parolin
The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psychoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119587/perceptions-and-expected-immediate-reactions-to-severe-storm-displays
#4
Ihnji Jon, Shih-Kai Huang, Michael K Lindell
The National Weather Service has adopted warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area than its previous county-wide warnings. However, these polygons are not defined in terms of numerical strike probabilities (ps ). To better understand people's interpretations of warning polygons, 167 participants were shown 23 hypothetical scenarios in one of three information conditions-polygon-only (Condition A), polygon + tornadic storm cell (Condition B), and polygon + tornadic storm cell + flanking nontornadic storm cells (Condition C)...
November 9, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104805/three-year-follow-up-of-participants-from-a-self-weighing-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Lua Wilkinson, Carly R Pacanowski, David Levitsky
Frequent self-weighing is associated with weight loss maintenance. Several years ago, we investigated frequent self-weighing's effect on weight loss and found the participants lost a significant amount of weight. Three years after this trial's end, participants were contacted for an update on their weight and self-weighing frequency. Weight change and self-weighing frequency since the end of the study were assessed. We hypothesized that participants who maintained frequent self-weighing behavior would have maintained their weight loss...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098431/an-app-for-patient-education-and-self-audit-within-an-enhanced-recovery-program-for-bowel-surgery-a-pilot-study-assessing-validity-and-usability
#6
Nicolò Pecorelli, Julio F Fiore, Pepa Kaneva, Abarna Somasundram, Patrick Charlebois, A Sender Liberman, Barry L Stein, Franco Carli, Liane S Feldman
INTRODUCTION: While patient engagement and clinical audit are key components of successful enhanced recovery programs (ERPs), they require substantial resource allocation. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and usability of a novel mobile device application for education and self-reporting of adherence for patients undergoing bowel surgery within an established ERP. METHODS: Prospectively recruited patients undergoing bowel surgery within an ERP used a novel app specifically designed to provide daily recovery milestones and record adherence to 15 different ERP processes and six patient-reported outcomes (PROs)...
November 2, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064890/carotid-artery-reactivity-predicts-events-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#7
Anke C C M van Mil, Sjaak Pouwels, Jelmer Wilbrink, Michiel C Warlé, Dick H J Thijssen
OBJECTIVE: Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have increased risk on future cerebro- and cardiovascular events. Our aim was to examine whether carotid artery reactivity (CAR; a novel, simple procedure to examine endothelial function) predicts cardiovascular events in PAD patients. BACKGROUND: Increased risk for future cardiovascular events in PAD patients is likely related to endothelial dysfunction, highlighting the necessity for simple assessment of endothelial function...
October 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046826/incorporation-of-functional-elements-enhances-the-antitumor-capacity-of-car-t-cells
#8
REVIEW
Le Qin, Ruocong Zhao, Peng Li
As chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have displayed an unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of CD19-positive malignances, it is believed that this cell therapy will be a milestone in the history of mankind's conquering of cancer. However, there are some issues that restrict CAR T cells from reaching their optimal anti-tumor capacity, especially in the treatment of solid tumors. Inhibitory cytokines, immune checkpoint molecules, hypoxia and other adverse factors have been reported to be involved in this process...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045612/fractional-flow-reserve-and-myocardial-perfusion-by-computed-tomography-a-guide-to-clinical-application
#9
Joanne D Schuijf, Brian S Ko, Marcelo F Di Carli, Jacqueline Hislop-Jambrich, Abdul-Rahman Ihdayhid, Sujith K Seneviratne, João A C Lima
The aim of this paper is to provide a guide to the clinical application of the functional computed tomography (CT) techniques fractional flow reserve (CT FFR) and myocardial perfusion (CTP) in patients presenting for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Both techniques have recently been introduced to complement coronary CT angiography (CTA) with physiological information. Evidence supporting their diagnostic accuracy accumulates at a fast pace, and both techniques are moving from research tools to clinical applications for specific subgroups of patients...
October 17, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035088/the-last-25-years-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiology-and-the-next-25
#10
Paul E Peppard, Erika W Hagen
Considerable new knowledge regarding the epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults arose from large-scale population-based epidemiologic investigations that initiated in the late 1980s to 1990s; these investigations have continued to produce relevant findings in recent years. In this Perspective, we briefly comment on the past 25 years of adult population-based OSA epidemiology and discuss selected ways in which the field can further progress over the coming decades. Population-based studies have shown that OSA is common in both men and women, and that prevalence is increasing...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034170/changes-over-time-in-population-level-transport-satisfaction-and-mode-of-travel-a-13-year-repeat-cross-sectional-study-uk
#11
Jonathan R Olsen, Laura Macdonald, Anne Ellaway
AIM: The aim of the study was to examine changes over time in satisfaction with usual transport mode, explore individual and area level characteristics as mediators in the likelihood of transport satisfaction, and whether any changes in transport satisfaction varied by these factors over time. METHODS: Adults from West Central Scotland, United Kingdom, who participated at both waves of the repeat cross-sectional 'Transport, Health and Well-being Study' conducted in 1997 (n=2735) and 2010 (n=2024) were assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030586/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-not-detected-in-u-s-survey-of-pet-salamanders
#12
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019456/introduction-paving-the-old-new-way-from-qing-to-china
#13
Ori Sela
The funeral procession of Sheng Xuanhuai (, 1844-1916) - the renowned Qing scholar-official, financier, and "father of Chinese industrialism" - meandered through the streets of Shanghai on 18 November 1917. The funeral was a grand event, one that was purportedly documented in film, later to be distributed as the first "news short-film" () in China. The North China Herald reported on the event in some detail, at times in rather florid language, and suggested that "the cortege was splendid and impressive, bringing back the days of the Manchu emperors...
September 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017143/protective-effect-of-carvacrol-on-acetic-acid-induced-colitis
#14
Marilia Trindade de Santana Souza, Daiane Franco Teixeira, Janaíne Prata de Oliveira, Alan Santos Oliveira, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Cristiane Bani Correa, Enilton Aparecido Camargo
The pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be problematic, and requires new alternative options. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can treat experimental colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=8/group) were subjected to intrarectal administration of acetic acid (5%) to induce colitis. Mice were pretreated with CAR (25, 50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) every 12h for three days prior to the induction...
October 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988171/post-trauma-coping-in-the-context-of-significant-adversity-a-qualitative-study-of-young-people-living-in-an-urban-township-in-south-africa
#15
Rachel M Hiller, Sarah L Halligan, Mark Tomlinson, Jackie Stewart, Sarah Skeen, Hope Christie
OBJECTIVE: Compared with knowledge of the post-trauma needs of young people living in developed countries, little is known about the needs of those in low-middle-income countries. Such information is crucial, particularly as young people in these environments can be at increased risk of experiencing trauma, coupled with less available resources for formal support. The aim of this study was to explore post-trauma coping and support-seeking of young people living in a high-adversity settlement in South Africa...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982247/defining-and-measuring-recovery-from-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-the-physician-perspective
#16
Andrew R Devendorf, Carly T Jackson, Madison Sunnquist, Leonard A Jason
PURPOSE: To inform an operationalised definition of recovery from myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) for research and practice. Without a consensus on defining and measuring recovery, there will continue to be controversy amongst researchers, clinicians, and patients when interpreting treatment outcomes. METHOD: This study explores physicians' views on recovery from ME and CFS. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 physician participants who are experts in the ME and CFS field...
October 5, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978471/tonic-4-1bb-costimulation-in-chimeric-antigen-receptors-impedes-t-cell-survival-and-is-vector-dependent
#17
Diogo Gomes-Silva, Malini Mukherjee, Madhuwanti Srinivasan, Giedre Krenciute, Olga Dakhova, Yueting Zheng, Joaquim M S Cabral, Cliona M Rooney, Jordan S Orange, Malcolm K Brenner, Maksim Mamonkin
Antigen-independent tonic signaling by chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can increase differentiation and exhaustion of T cells, limiting their potency. Incorporating 4-1BB costimulation in CARs may enable T cells to resist this functional exhaustion; however, the potential ramifications of tonic 4-1BB signaling in CAR T cells remain unclear. Here, we found that tonic CAR-derived 4-1BB signaling can produce toxicity in T cells via continuous TRAF2-dependent activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and augmented FAS-dependent cell death...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962622/malaria-case-management-by-community-health-workers-in-the-central-african-republic-from-2009-2014-overcoming-challenges-of-access-and-instability-due-to-conflict
#18
Laura Ruckstuhl, Christian Lengeler, Jean Méthode Moyen, Helle Garro, Richard Allan
BACKGROUND: In the Central African Republic (CAR), decades of armed conflict have crippled the public health system. This has left the population without timely access to life-saving services and therefore vulnerable to the numerous consequences of infectious diseases, including malaria. As a response, in 2008 an international non-governmental organization started a network of community health workers (CHWs) in the highly malaria-endemic region of northwest CAR. The area has experienced years of violent clashes between rebel groups and seen hundreds of thousands of people displaced...
September 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961190/current-peptide-and-protein-candidates-challenging-hiv-therapy-beyond-the-vaccine-era
#19
REVIEW
Koollawat Chupradit, Sutpirat Moonmuang, Sawitree Nangola, Kuntida Kitidee, Umpa Yasamut, Marylène Mougel, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations...
September 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960119/the-use-of-sports-imagery-and-terminology-on-cigarette-packs-from-fourteen-countries
#20
Cerise Kleb, Kevin Welding, Joanna E Cohen, Katherine C Smith
BACKGROUND: Tobacco companies have historically associated their products with sports through event sponsorship and sports-themed advertising campaigns. Such linkages serve to enhance brand image by connecting cigarette brands to ideals associated with sports such as strength, individual accomplishment, and a healthy body. Public health policy progress has created restrictions for tobacco sponsorship and restricted traditional advertising avenues for tobacco products. Nonetheless, the pack itself remains as a mechanism by which to link cigarettes to sports and sporting prowess...
September 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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