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continuity of car

Daphne E Whitmer, Valerie K Sims, Michael E Torres
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. BACKGROUND: People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. METHOD: Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university...
October 19, 2016: Human Factors
Victor Puac-Polanco, Katherine M Keyes, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Motorcyclists are known to be at substantially higher risk per mile traveled of dying from crashes than car occupants. In 2014, motorcycling made up less than 1 % of person-miles traveled but 13 % of the total mortality from motor-vehicle crashes in the United States. We assessed the cohort effect of the baby-boomers (i.e., those born between 1946 and 1964) in motorcycle crash mortality from 1975 to 2014 in the United States. METHODS: Using mortality data for motorcycle occupants from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we performed an age-period-cohort analysis using the multiphase method and the intrinsic estimator method...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Adam Balkham, Sarah Alderson
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Health and Social Care Bill (2011) changed the role of GPs to include commissioning of health services. Aim This study aimed to identify any differences in the media portrayal of GPs before and after the introduction of the Bill. METHODS: We retrospectively searched four British newspapers over the period 2009-2013 using the media database Nexis. In order to directly compare the findings of the study with the work of Tanner et al...
October 17, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Emily Moulton, Kathryn Bradbury, Marianne Barton, Deborah Fein
The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), (Schopler et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 10(1):91-103, 1980) is a 15-item observation-based rating scale that yields a total score reflective of autism symptom severity. This study investigated the factor structure of the CARS in a sample of 2-year-old children with DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, 2000) diagnoses of AD or PDD-NOS. Following a preliminary internal cross-validation, principal axis factor analysis was completed (N = 282)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lyndsey S Benson, Elizabeth A Micks, Carly Ingalls, Sarah W Prager
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and surgical abortion complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 4,968 women undergoing surgical abortion at a large outpatient clinic network from September 2012 to July 2014. We used log-binomial regression to evaluate body mass index (BMI) as an independent risk factor for first- and second-trimester abortion complications. Body mass index was analyzed as both a continuous and categorical predictor...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Pooria Sarrami, Elizabeth Armstrong, Justine M Naylor, Ian A Harris
BACKGROUND: Whiplash injuries are among the leading injuries related to car crashes and it is important to determine the prognostic factors that predict the outcome of patients with these injuries. This meta-review aims to identify factors that are associated with outcome after acute whiplash injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search for all systematic reviews on outcome prediction of acute whiplash injury was conducted across several electronic databases...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Andrea Lauterio, Stefano Di Sandro, Salvatore Gruttadauria, Marco Spada, Fabrizio Di Benedetto, Umberto Baccarani, Enrico Regalia, Ernesto Melada, Alessandro Giacomoni, Matteo Cescon, Davide Cintorino, Giorgio Ercolani, Matteo Rota, Giorgio Rossi, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Andrea Risaliti, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Bruno Gridelli, Luciano De Carlis
BACKGROUND: Major concerns about donor morbidity and mortality still limit the use of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) to overcome the organ shortage. METHODS: The present study assessed donor safety in LDTL in Italy reporting donor postoperative outcomes in 246 living donation procedures performed by seven transplant centers. Outcomes were evaluated over two time periods using the validated Clavien 5-tier grading system, and several clinical variables were analyzed to determine the risk factors for donor morbidity...
October 6, 2016: Liver Transplantation
Risa Sawaki, Johanna Kreither, Carly J Leonard, Samuel T Kaiser, Britta Hahn, James M Gold, Steven J Luck
Schizophrenia clearly involves impairments of attention, but the precise nature of these impairments has been difficult to determine. One possibility is that the deficit in attention is a secondary consequence of a deficit in goal maintenance. However, recent research suggests that people with schizophrenia (PSZ) actually focus attention more strongly on objects containing goal-relevant features. To test these competing hypotheses, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from PSZ (N = 20) and healthy control subjects (HCS; N = 20) while they looked for a particular target color at fixation and tried to ignore lateral distractors that sometimes matched the target color (target-color distractors)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Birmania Heredia Rivera, Martín Gerardo Rodriguez
Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ann W St Claire, Michael S Amato, Raymond G Boyle, Peter Rode, Ann M Kinney
PURPOSE: To examine locations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmokers, 7 years after a statewide smoke-free policy. DESIGN: Data collected via statewide, random digit dial telephone survey. Response rates were 64.7% for landline and 73.5% for cell phone. SETTING: Minnesota, 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of 7887 nonsmoking adults. MEASURES: Self-reported locations of SHS exposure and opinions on smoke-free restrictions...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Michael Boice, Darin Salloum, Frederic Mourcin, Viraj Sanghvi, Rada Amin, Elisa Oricchio, Man Jiang, Anja Mottok, Nicolas Denis-Lagache, Giovanni Ciriello, Wayne Tam, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Elisa de Stanchina, Wing C Chan, Sami N Malek, Daisuke Ennishi, Renier J Brentjens, Randy D Gascoyne, Michel Cogné, Karin Tarte, Hans-Guido Wendel
The HVEM (TNFRSF14) receptor gene is among the most frequently mutated genes in germinal center lymphomas. We report that loss of HVEM leads to cell-autonomous activation of B cell proliferation and drives the development of GC lymphomas in vivo. HVEM-deficient lymphoma B cells also induce a tumor-supportive microenvironment marked by exacerbated lymphoid stroma activation and increased recruitment of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. These changes result from the disruption of inhibitory cell-cell interactions between the HVEM and BTLA (B and T lymphocyte attenuator) receptors...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Sung Ho Jang, Ji Hyun Yi, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Depression, a prevalent psychiatric disorder, is associated with abnormality in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, we report on a patient with severe depression who showed injury of the dorsolateral prefronto-thalamic tract following mild traumatic brain injury, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A 63-year-old female patient suffered an in-car accident...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Woo Young Jang, Bo-Ram Lee, Jain Jeong, Younghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Park Song, Hyerim Kim, Soyoung Jang, Hyunmin Kim, Kyung-Il Joo, Jeong-Woong Lee, Yeon Sik Choo, Eunjoo Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive abilities. In AD, amyloid β (Aβ) protein aggregates in the brain of patients, forming amyloid plaques. Aβ plaques are known to be surrounded by activated microglial cells. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is elevated from several hundred to 1000-fold as part of the immune response against various injuries, including trauma, infection, and inflammation. Additionally, continuous elevation of SAA is related to the development of amyloidosis...
September 5, 2016: Brain Research
Elise Omaki, Wendy C Shields, Eileen McDonald, Mary E Aitken, David Bishai, James Case, Andrea Gielen
BACKGROUND: Although proven measures for reducing injury due to motor vehicle collision and residential fires exist, the number of families properly and consistently using child passenger restraints and smoke alarms remains low. This paper describes the design of the Safety In Seconds (SIS) 2.0 study, which aims to evaluate the impact of a smartphone app on parents' use of child restraints and smoke alarms. METHODS: SIS is a multisite randomised controlled trial...
September 5, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Rui Li, Wencheng Su, Zhangping Lu
OBJECTIVE: We studied the changes of driving fatigue levels for experienced and inexperienced drivers at three periods of the day: 9:00-12:00, 12:00-14:00, and 16:00-18:00. METHODS: 30 drivers were involved in 120 min real-car driving, and sleepiness ratings ((Stanford Sleepiness Scale , SSS), electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and heart rates (HR) were recorded. Together with principal component analysis, the relationship between EEG signals and HR was explored and used to determine a comprehensive indicator of driving fatigue...
September 2, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mark J Lenart, Jeffrey M Carness
A 23-year-old woman at 41 weeks and 6 days estimated gestational age underwent continuous spinal analgesia for labor after a recognized, unintended dural puncture. Excellent analgesia was maintained throughout labor and vaginal delivery, the intrathecal catheter was left in situ for 24 hours postpartum, and the catheter was subsequently removed without apparent complication. On physical examination during her anesthesia postoperative visit, clear fluid was noted to be slowly draining from the catheter insertion site...
September 1, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Michal Kicinski, Nelly D Saenen, Mineke K Viaene, Elly Den Hond, Greet Schoeters, Michelle Plusquin, Vera Nelen, Liesbeth Bruckers, Isabelle Sioen, Ilse Loots, Willy Baeyens, Harry A Roels, Tim S Nawrot
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to induce neurotoxicity in rodents. Several recent epidemiological studies reported negative associations between residential outdoor air pollution and neurobehavioral performance. We investigated in a population of non-smoker adolescents the associations between the urinary concentration of trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA-U), a metabolite of benzene and used as proxy-biomarker of traffic exposure, and two neurobehavioral domains, i...
August 25, 2016: Environmental Research
Elizabeth M Laurenzana, Denise M Coslo, M Veronica Vigilar, Anthony M Roman, Curtis J Omiecinski
Humans in industrialized areas are continuously exposed to phthalate plasticizers, prompting concerns of their potential toxicities. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown that various phthalates activate several mammalian nuclear receptors, in particular the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), although often at concentration levels of questionable relevance to human exposure. We discovered that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), two of the highest volume production agents, were potent activators of human CAR2 (hCAR2), a unique human CAR splice variant and, to a lesser degree, human PXR (hPXR)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Tiffany N Grooms, Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Danial A Malik, Lee B Sims, Carli P Whittington, Kenneth E Palmer, Nobuyuki Matoba, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Despite current prophylactic strategies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain significant contributors to global health challenges, spurring the development of new multipurpose delivery technologies to protect and treat virus infections. However, there are few methods currently available to prevent - and none-to-date that cure - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or combinations of STIs. While current oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis have protected against HIV infection, they have primarily relied on antiretrovirals (ARVs) to inhibit infection...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
David E Amacher
INTRODUCTION: If a drug is found to be an inducer of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes via activation of nuclear receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), it is likely that drug transporters regulated through these same receptors will be induced as well. This review highlights what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate transporter expression and where the research is directed. AREAS COVERED: This review is focused on publications that describe the role of activated hepatic nuclear receptors in the subsequent regulation of drug uptake and/or efflux transporters following exposure to xenobiotics...
August 22, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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