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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789639/fludarabine-and-neurotoxicity-in-engineered-t-cell-therapy
#1
Kate L Lowe, Crystal L Mackall, Elliot Norry, Rafael Amado, Bent K Jakobsen, Gwendolyn Binder
Adoptive T-cell therapy, incorporating engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), target tumor antigens with high affinity and specificity. To increase the potency of adoptively transferred T cells, patients are conditioned with lymphodepleting chemotherapy regimens prior to adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT), and data suggest that fludarabine is an important component of an effective regimen. In a recent clinical trial using CAR-T cells engineered to target the CD19 B-cell antigen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, JCAR-015 (NCT02535364), two patient deaths due to cerebral edema led to trial suspension...
May 7, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772769/damage-evaluation-of-concrete-column-under-impact-load-using-a-piezoelectric-based-emi-technique
#2
Shuli Fan, Shaoyu Zhao, Baoxin Qi, Qingzhao Kong
One of the major causes of damage to column-supported concrete structures, such as bridges and highways, are collisions from moving vehicles, such as cars and ships. It is essential to quantify the collision damage of the column so that appropriate actions can be taken to prevent catastrophic events. A widely used method to assess structural damage is through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) damage index established by the collected data; however, the RMSD index does not truly provide quantitative information about the structure...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770279/testing-methods-to-mitigate-caribbean-yellow-band-disease-on-orbicella-faveolata
#3
Carly J Randall, Elizabeth M Whitcher, Tessa Code, Clayton Pollock, Ian Lundgren, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Erinn M Muller
Outbreaks of coral diseases continue to reduce global coral populations. In the Caribbean, yellow band is a severe and wide-spread disease that commonly affects corals of the Orbicella spp. complex, significantly impeding coral reproduction, and hindering the natural recovery of Orbicella spp. POPULATIONS: Caribbean yellow-band disease (CYBD) lesions may be severe, and often result in the complete loss of coral tissue. The slow spread of CYBD, however, provides an opportunity to test methods to mitigate the disease...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757432/estimation-of-effective-dose-from-external-exposure-due-to-short-lived-nuclides-in-the-prefectures-surrounding-fukushima
#4
Hirokazu Miyatake, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Gen Suzuki
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment. Since the accident, measurements of radiation in the environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides have been performed by various organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously over widespread areas. Based on the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the prefectures surrounding Fukushima...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750973/effects-of-nutritional-prehabilitation-with-and-without-exercise-on-outcomes-of-patients-who-undergo-colorectal-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Chelsia Gillis, Katherine Buhler, Lauren Bresee, Francesco Carli, Leah Gramlich, Nicole Culos-Reed, Tolulope T Sajobi, Tanis R Fenton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although there have been meta-analyses of the effects of exercise prehabilitation on patients undergoing colorectal surgery, little is known about the effects of nutrition-only (oral nutritional supplements and/or counseling) and multi-modal (oral nutritional supplements and/or counseling with exercise) prehabilitation on clinical outcomes and patient function after surgery. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to determine the individual and combined effects of nutrition-only and multi-modal prehabilitation, compared with no prehabilitation (control), on outcomes of patients undergoing colorectal resection...
May 8, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739658/application-of-a-short-term-air-quality-action-plan-in-madrid-spain-under-a-high-pollution-episode-part-ii-assessment-from-multi-scale-modelling
#6
Rafael Borge, Jose Luis Santiago, David de la Paz, Fernando Martín, Jessica Domingo, Cristina Valdés, Beatriz Sánchez, Esther Rivas, Mª Teresa Rozas, Sonia Lázaro, Javier Pérez, Álvaro Fernández
Air pollution continues to be one of the main issues in urban areas. In addition to air quality plans and emission abatement policies, additional measures for high pollution episodes are needed to avoid exceedances of hourly limit values under unfavourable meteorological conditions such as the Madrid's short-term action NO2 protocol. In December 2016 there was a strong atmospheric stability episode that turned out in generalized high NO2 levels, causing the stage 3 of the NO2 protocol to be triggered for the first time in Madrid (29th December)...
May 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734753/a-ble-based-pedestrian-navigation-system-for-car-searching-in-indoor-parking-garages
#7
Sheng-Shih Wang
The continuous global increase in the number of cars has led to an increase in parking issues, particularly with respect to the search for available parking spaces and finding cars. In this paper, we propose a navigation system for car owners to find their cars in indoor parking garages. The proposed system comprises a car-searching mobile app and a positioning-assisting subsystem. The app guides car owners to their cars based on a “turn-by-turn” navigation strategy, and has the ability to correct the user’s heading orientation...
May 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727246/strategies-for-enhancing-adoptive-t-cell-immunotherapy-against-solid-tumors-using-engineered-cytokine-signaling-and-other-modalities
#8
Thomas Shum, Robert L Kruse, Cliona M Rooney
Cancer therapy has been transformed by the demonstration that tumor-specific T-cells can eliminate tumor cells in a clinical setting with minimal long-term toxicity. However, significant success in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma with T-cells using native receptors or redirected with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has not been recapitulated in the treatment of solid tumors. This lack of success is likely related to the paucity of costimulatory and cytokine signaling available in solid tumors, in addition to a range of inhibitory mechanisms...
May 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716964/nuclear-receptor-car-suppresses-gadd45b-p38-mapk-signaling-to-promote-phenobarbital-induced-proliferation-in-mouse-liver
#9
Takeshi Hori, Kosuke Saito, Rick Moore, Gordon P Flake, Masahiko Negishi
Phenobarbital (PB), a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, induces hepatic proliferation and promotes development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rodents. Nuclear receptor constitutive active/androstane receptor (NR1I3/CAR) regulates the induction and promotion activities of PB. Here, it is demonstrated that PB treatment results in dephosphorylation of a tumor suppressor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the liver of C57BL/6 and C3H/HeNCrlBR mice. The molecular mechanism entails CAR binding and inhibition of the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45B)-MAPK kinase 6 (MKK6) scaffold to repress phosphorylation of p38 MAPK...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702453/characterizing-regional-scale-temporal-evolution-of-air-dose-rates-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#10
Haruko M Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito
In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698488/hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections-in-the-central-african-republic-twenty-five-years-after-a-fulminant-hepatitis-outbreak-indicate-continuing-spread-in-asymptomatic-young-adults
#11
Narcisse Patrice Komas, Sumantra Ghosh, Mariama Abdou-Chekaraou, Pierre Pradat, Nasser Al Hawajri, Alexandre Manirakiza, Gina Laure Laghoe, Claudine Bekondi, Ségolène Brichler, Jean-Omer Ouavéné, Abdoulaye Sépou, Brice Martial Yambiyo, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Valentin Fikouma, Athénais Gerber, Natali Abeywickrama Samarakoon, Dulce Alfaiate, Caroline Scholtès, Nora Martel, Frédéric Le Gal, Hugo Lo Pinto, Ikram Amri, Olivier Hantz, David Durantel, Jean-Louis Lesbordes, Emmanuel Gordien, Philippe Merle, Tudor Drugan, Christian Trépo, Fabien Zoulim, Jean-Claude Cortay, Alan Campbell Kay, Paul Dény
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) increases morbidity in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. In the mid-eighties, an outbreak of HDV fulminant hepatitis (FH) in the Central African Republic (CAR) killed 88% of patients hospitalized in Bangui. We evaluated infections with HBV and HDV among students and pregnant women, 25 years after the fulminant hepatitis (FH) outbreak to determine (i) the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in this population, (ii) the clinical risk factors for HBV and/or HDV infections, and (iii) to characterize and compare the strains from the FH outbreak in the 1980s to the 2010 HBV-HDV strains...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698381/three-rotavirus-outbreaks-in-the-postvaccine-era-california-2017
#12
Rachel M Burke, Jacqueline E Tate, Nora Barin, Carly Bock, Michael D Bowen, David Chang, Rashi Gautam, George Han, John Holguin, Thalia Huynh, Chao-Yang Pan, Rebecca Quenelle, Catherine Sallenave, Cindy Torres, Debra Wadford, Umesh Parashar
Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe diarrhea among U.S. children (1). Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are licensed for use in the United States, both of which have demonstrated good field effectiveness (78%-89%) against moderate to severe rotavirus illness (2), and the use of these vaccines has substantially reduced the prevalence of rotavirus in the United States (3). However, the most recent national vaccine coverage estimates indicate lower full rotavirus vaccine-series completion (73%) compared with receipt of at least 3 doses of vaccines containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (95%), given on a similar schedule to rotavirus vaccines (4)...
April 27, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696339/yarrowia-lipolytica-morphological-mutant-enables-lasting-in-situ-immobilization-in-bioreactor
#13
Marie Vandermies, Tambi Kar, Frédéric Carly, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Frank Delvigne, Patrick Fickers
In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a Yarrowia lipolytica morphological mutant growing exclusively in the pseudohyphal morphology. The gene responsible for this phenotype, YALI0E06519g, was identified as homologous to the mitosis regulation gene HSL1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Taking advantage of its morphology, we achieved the immobilization of the Δhsl1 mutant on the metallic structured packing of immobilized-cell bioreactors. We obtained significant cell retention and growth on the support during shake flask and bioreactor experiments without an attachment step prior to the culture...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690930/simple-modification-of-trauma-mechanism-alarm-criteria-published-for-the-traumanetwork-dgu-%C3%A2-may-significantly-improve-overtriage-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Philipp Braken, Felix Amsler, Thomas Gross
BACKGROUND: No consensus exists in the literature on the use of uniform emergency room trauma team activation criteria (ERTTAC). Today excessive over- or undertriage rates continue to be a challenge for most trauma centres. Application of ERTTAC, published for use in the German TraumaNetwork DGU® , at a Swiss trauma centre resulted in a high overtriage rate. The aim of the investigation was to analyse the ERTTAC in detail with the intention of possible improvement. METHODS: The investigation included consecutive adult (age > 15 years) trauma patients treated at the emergency department of a level II trauma centre from 01...
April 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663871/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-zinc-supplementation-to-improve-markers-of-mortality-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-hiv-positive-drinkers-in-st-petersburg-russia
#15
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653358/anaerobic-treatment-of-n-n-dimethylformamide-containing-wastewater-by-co-culturing-two-sources-of-inoculum
#16
Zhe Kong, Lu Li, Rei Kurihara, Kengo Kubota, Yu-You Li
The complete methanogenic degradation of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was achieved in this study. Initially, DMF was found to be feebly degradable by a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) using normal anaerobic digestion sludge (ADS) even after 120-day's culturing. However, aerobic DMF-degrading activated sludge (AS) was rapidly cultivated in a continuous aeration reactor (CAR). A specially designed anaerobic co-cultured sludge (ACS) made by artificially mixing AS with ADS was successfully domesticated by a long term repeated batch experiment...
April 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628798/versatile-car-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Fuliang Chu, Jingjing Cao, Sattva S Neelalpu
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been clinically proven to efficiently combat haematological malignancies. However, continuous efforts are required to increase the specificity of CAR T-cells against tumour versus normal tissues, and are essential to improve their antitumour activity in solid tumours. This review summarises the structure of major CAR designs, and strategies to overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment, and reduce toxicities. Along with reviewing currently available techniques that allow the elimination of CAR T-cells after they fulfil their desired functions, using suicide genes, drug elimination strategies are also introduced...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616522/further-options-and-survival-results-after-failure-following-ecls-implantation
#18
Leopold Rupprecht, Daniele Camboni, Alois Philipp, Dirk Lunz, Thomas Müller, Christof Schmid, Andreas Keyser
BACKGROUND: A retrospective study was designed to analyze the outcome of patients with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) who needed a consecutive cardiac or pulmonary support system. METHODS: From 2006 to 2016, 93 out of 587 patients with their age ranging from 2.4 to 77.3 years required an exchange of an ECLS by another mechanical support system. Sixty- one patients were inhospital cases, 39 patients were referred with ECLS from other institutions by ambulance car (n=15) or helicopter (n=24)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614629/genetic-modifiers-of-severity-in-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Alicia K Chang, Carly C Ginter Summarell, Parendi T Birdie, Vivien A Sheehan
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common single disease disorders world-wide. It is remarkable for its clinical heterogeneity, even among individuals with identical genotypes. Some individuals experience morbidity and mortality in early childhood, while others have a relatively mild course, and normal or near normal life expectancy. Many clinical complications are associated with SCD; most notably frequent pain episodes, stroke, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, nephropathy, retinopathy and pulmonary hypertension...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609935/efficacy-and-safety-of-vernonia-cinerea-l-less-for-smoking-cessation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Panupong Puttarak, Patarachai Pornpanyanukul, Thunyaluk Meetam, Katha Bunditanukul, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Several randomized controlled trials have investigated Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. for smoking cessation but there remains no critical summary of overall findings. This study uses systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the efficacy and safety of V. cinerea. METHODS: Nine databases were searched through November 2017. Randomized controlled trials that reported the smoking cessation effect of V. cinerea were included. Data were extracted by two independent researchers...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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