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resisted sprint training

Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Juan José González-Badillo
AIM: To analyze the effects of two resistance training (RT) programs that used the same relative loading but different repetition volume, using the velocity loss during the set as the independent variable: 15% (VL15) vs. 30% (VL30). METHODS: Sixteen professional soccer players with RT experience (age 23.8 ± 3.5 years, body mass 75.5 ± 8.6 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups: VL15 (n = 8) or VL30 (n = 8) that followed a 6-week (18 sessions) velocity-based squat training program...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
J L Ayers, M DeBeliso, T G Sevene, K J Adams
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Antonios Vantarakis, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Avloniti, Nikolaos Vezos, Ioannis I Douroudos, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Antonis Kambas, Stamatios Kalligeros, Ioannis G Fatouros
Major objectives of army and navy training are the development of readiness, performance, and injury prevention. Numerous studies have examined the effect of specific strength training programs (ST) on performance of Special Forces and military personnel. Although navy personnel have to address on board conditions that require the development of strength, agility, speed and task-specific endurance, there is no information regarding the effects of ST on navy-specific performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week ST on performance of navy cadets...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ronaldo Kobal, Irineu Loturco, Renato Barroso, Saulo Gil, Rogério Cuniyochi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricoli
The combination of strength (ST) and plyometric training (PT) has been shown to be effective for improving sport specific performance. However, there is no consensus about the most effective way to combine these methods in the same training session, in order to produce greater improvements in neuromuscular performance of soccer players. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different combinations of ST and PT sequences on strength, jump, speed, and agility capacities of elite young soccer players...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin
Wearable resistance (WR) in the form of weighted vests and shorts enables movement specific sprint running to be performed under load. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in kinematics and kinetics when an additional load equivalent to 3% body mass (BM) was attached to the anterior or posterior surface of the lower limbs during sprint running. Nineteen male rugby athletes (age: 19.7 ± 2.3 years; body mass: 96.1 ± 16.5 kg; height: 181 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the study...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kenny Guex, Francis Degache, Cynthia Morisod, Matthieu Sailly, Gregoire P Millet
Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Julio Torres-Torrelo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Juan José González-Badillo
This study aimed to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training or combined resistance training and change of direction exercises on physical performance and motor skills in futsal players. Thirty-four futsal players were divided into full squat group (SG, n = 12), combined full squat and change of direction exercises group (S+CDG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 10). The resistance training for SG consisted of full squat with low load (~45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-6 repetitions), whereas the S+CDG performed the same resistance training program combined with loaded change of direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
T Dylan Olver, Steph M Reid, Alan R Smith, Mair Zamir, Peter W R Lemon, M Harold Laughlin, J Kevin Shoemaker
Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
John M Radnor, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver
The aim of this study was to examine individual responses to different forms of resistance training on measures of jumping and sprinting performance in school-aged boys. Eighty boys were categorized into two maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and randomly assigned to a plyometric training, resistance training, combined training, or control group. Intervention groups participated in training twice weekly for six weeks, with measures of acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height and reactive strength index collected pre and post intervention...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bret Contreras, Andrew D Vigotsky, Brad J Schoenfeld, Chris Beardsley, Daniel Travis McMaster, Jan Reyneke, John Cronin
The barbell hip thrust may be an effective exercise for increasing horizontal force production and may thereby enhance performance in athletic movements requiring a horizontal force vector, such as horizontal jumping and sprint running. The ergogenic ability of the squat is well known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six-week front squat and hip thrust programs in adolescent male athletes. Vertical jump height, horizontal jump distance, 10 m and 20 m sprint times, and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force were among the measured performance variables, in addition to front squat and hip thrust three-repetition maximum (3 RM) strength...
May 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Paul J Arciero, Rohan C Edmonds, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Christopher L Gentile, Caitlin Ketcham, Christopher Darin, Mariale Renna, Qian Zheng, Jun Zhu Zhang, Michael J Ormsbee
We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals...
2016: Nutrients
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Luis Suarez-Arrones, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, José Antonio Casajús, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral resistance training on single-leg power output, between-limb imbalance (BLI), bilateral deficit (BLD), change of direction (COD), linear sprinting and jumping performance in young elite basketball players. METHODS: Twenty-two young (U-16 to U-19) male basketball players were randomly assigned either to exclusive unilateral (UNI) (n=11) or bilateral (BIL) (n=11) resistance training group during a 6-week period...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Yassine Negra, Helmi Chaabene, Mehréz Hammami, Younés Hachana, Urs Granacher
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared to soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed two different protocols: 1) regular soccer training with five sessions per-week (n=11); age= 12.7±0.3 years); 2) regular soccer training with three sessions per-week and HVRT with two sessions per-week (n=13; age= 12...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
F Pareja-Blanco, D Rodríguez-Rosell, L Sánchez-Medina, J Sanchis-Moysi, C Dorado, R Mora-Custodio, J M Yáñez-García, D Morales-Alamo, I Pérez-Suárez, J A L Calbet, J J González-Badillo
We compared the effects of two resistance training (RT) programs only differing in the repetition velocity loss allowed in each set: 20% (VL20) vs 40% (VL40) on muscle structural and functional adaptations. Twenty-two young males were randomly assigned to a VL20 (n = 12) or VL40 (n = 10) group. Subjects followed an 8-week velocity-based RT program using the squat exercise while monitoring repetition velocity. Pre- and post-training assessments included: magnetic resonance imaging, vastus lateralis biopsies for muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber type analyses, one-repetition maximum strength and full load-velocity squat profile, countermovement jump (CMJ), and 20-m sprint running...
March 31, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Nataša J Janjić, Darko V Kapor, Dragan V Doder, Aleksandar Petrović, Slobodan Jarić
A mathematical model was developed for the assessment of the starting velocity and initial velocity and force of a 100-m sprint, based on a non-homogeneous differential equation with the air resistance proportional to the velocity, and the initial conditions for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]The use of this model requires the measurement of reaction time and segmental velocities over the course of the race. The model was validated by comparison with the data obtained from 100-m sprints of men: Carl Lewis (1988), Maurice Green (2001) and Usain Bolt (2009), and women: Florence Griffith-Joyner, Evelyn Ashford and Drechsler Heike (1988) showing a high level of agreement...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Bettina Karsten, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Gokhan Kandemir, Tahir Hazir, Andreas Klose, Fernando Naclerio
UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. METHODS: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention)...
2016: PloS One
R Mora-Custodio, D Rodríguez-Rosell, F Pareja-Blanco, J M Yañez-García, J J González-Badillo
This study aimed to analyze the effects of resistance training (RT) load on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-seven physically active women were randomly distributed into 3 groups: a low-load group (LLG); a moderate-load group (MLG); and a control group (CG). The RT consisted of full squat exercise with a low load (40-60% 1RM, LLG) or a moderate load (65-80% 1RM, MLG). Sprint times (T10, T20, and T10-20), countermovement jump (CMJ), estimated one-repetition maximum (1RMest) and velocity attained against the first (FMPV) and the last load (LMPV) common to both tests were assessed pre- and post-test...
June 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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