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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896682/methods-of-power-force-velocity-profiling-during-sprint-running-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin
The ability of the human body to generate maximal power is linked to a host of performance outcomes and sporting success. Power-force-velocity relationships characterize limits of the neuromuscular system to produce power, and their measurement has been a common topic in research for the past century. Unfortunately, the narrative of the available literature is complex, with development occurring across a variety of methods and technology. This review focuses on the different equipment and methods used to determine mechanical characteristics of maximal exertion human sprinting...
November 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893482/effects-of-sprint-training-with-and-without-weighted-vest-on-speed-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-male-soccer-players
#2
Ezequiel Rey, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Diego Fernández-Penedo
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect resisted sprint training using weighted vests (WV) compared with unresisted sprint training (US) on physical fitness (countermovement jump, 10 m sprint, 30 m sprint and repeated sprint ability (RSA)) in amateur male soccer players. 19 soccer players (age: 23.7±4.5 years; height: 178.3±5.8 cm; body mass: 72.9±5.2 kg) were randomly assigned to a WV (n= 10) or a US (n= 9) group. The intervention program had to be carried out 2 times a week over 6 weeks. The only difference between the two interventions was that the WV group performed all the sprints with an additional weight of 18...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857693/heavy-resistance-training-in-hypoxia-enhances-1rm-squat-performance
#3
Mathew W H Inness, François Billaut, Emily J Walker, Aaron C Petersen, Alice J Sweeting, Robert J Aughey
Purpose: To determine if heavy resistance training in hypoxia (IHRT) is more effective at improving strength, power, and increasing lean mass than the same training in normoxia. Methods: A pair-matched, placebo-controlled study design included 20 resistance-trained participants assigned to IHRT (FIO2 0.143) or placebo (FIO2 0.20), (n = 10 per group). Participants were matched for strength and training. Both groups performed 20 sessions over 7 weeks either with IHRT or placebo. All participants were tested for 1RM, 20-m sprint, body composition, and countermovement jump pre-, mid-, and post-training and compared via magnitude-based inferences...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843418/effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-ingestion-on-anaerobic-exercise-performance
#4
Ben M Krings, Jaden A Rountree, Matthew J McAllister, Patrick M Cummings, Timothy J Peterson, Brent J Fountain, JohnEric W Smith
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercises has been shown to increase performance, but there is limited research with CHO supplementation during strength and conditioning exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of CHO ingestion during acute testing sessions requiring participants to complete a strength and conditioning program designed for collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 7) performed a series of exercises while ingesting an amino-acid electrolyte control (CON) or CON plus varying levels of CHO...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834560/very-heavy-sled-training-for-improving-horizontal-force-output-in-soccer-players
#5
Jean-Benoît Morin, George Petrakos, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes, Scott R Brown, Pierre Samozino, Matt R Cross
Sprint running acceleration is a key feature of physical performance in team sports, and recent literature shows that the ability to generate large magnitudes of horizontal ground reaction force and mechanical effectiveness of force application are paramount. We tested the hypothesis that very-heavy loaded sled sprint training would induce an improvement in horizontal force production, via an increased effectiveness of application. Training-induced changes in sprint performance and mechanical outputs were computed using a field method based on velocity-time data, before and after an 8-week protocol (16 sessions of 10x20-m sprints)...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807523/effect-of-concurrent-resistance-and-sprint-training-on-body-composition-and-cardiometabolic-health-indicators-in-masters-cyclists
#6
Luke Delvecchio, Peter Reaburn, Gail Trapp, Marko T Korhonen
In older previously sedentary individuals endurance training imposes a more effective stimulus to enhance cardiometabolic health compared with resistance or sprint training. We examined the effect of replacing a portion of endurance training with combined resistance and/or sprint training and how this influences cardiometabolic health indicators in masters endurance cyclists. Twenty-seven well-trained male road cyclists (53.7±8.2 years) were allocated to a resistance and track sprint-cycling training group (RTC, n=10), an endurance and track sprint-cycling group (ETC, n=7) or a control endurance group (CTRL, n=10)...
October 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766131/eight-weeks-of-kettlebell-swing-training-does-not-improve-sprint-performance-in-recreationally-active-females
#7
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753506/changes-in-aerobic-capacity-and-glycaemic-control-in-response-to-reduced-exertion-high-intensity-interval-training-rehit-are-not-different-between-sedentary-men-and-women
#8
Richard S Metcalfe, Nicolas Tardif, Dylan Thompson, Niels B J Vollaard
Previously it has been reported that reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT; total training time of 3 × 10 min per week) improves maximal aerobic capacity in both sedentary men and women, but improves insulin sensitivity in men only. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a true sex difference in response to REHIT, or that these findings can be explained by the large interindividual variability in response inherent to all exercise training. Thirty-five sedentary participants (18 women; mean ± SD age for men and women, respectively: age, 33 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 years; body mass index, 25...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742803/skeletal-muscle-and-resistance-exercise-training-the-role-of-protein-synthesis-in-recovery-and-remodelling
#9
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644475/effects-of-pomegranate-extract-on-blood-flow-and-vessel-diameter-after-high-intensity-exercise-in-young-healthy-adults
#10
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Meredith G Mock
The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638041/the-effects-of-wearable-resistance-training-on-metabolic-kinematic-and-kinetic-variables-during-walking-running-sprint-running-and-jumping-a-systematic-review
#11
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618386/effects-of-velocity-loss-during-resistance-training-on-performance-in-professional-soccer-players
#12
Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Juan José González-Badillo
AIM: To analyze the effects of two resistance training (RT) programs that used the same relative loading but different repetition volume, using the velocity loss during the set as the independent variable: 15% (VL15) vs. 30% (VL30). METHODS: Sixteen professional soccer players with RT experience (age 23.8 ± 3.5 years, body mass 75.5 ± 8.6 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups: VL15 (n = 8) or VL30 (n = 8) that followed a 6-week (18 sessions) velocity-based squat training program...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601779/hang-cleans-and-hang-snatches-produce-similar-improvements-in-female-collegiate-athletes
#13
J L Ayers, M DeBeliso, T G Sevene, K J Adams
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548791/a-two-month-linear-periodized-resistance-exercise-training-improved-musculoskeletal-fitness-and-specific-conditioning-of-navy-cadets
#14
Antonios Vantarakis, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexandra Avloniti, Nikolaos Vezos, Ioannis I Douroudos, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Antonis Kambas, Stamatios Kalligeros, Ioannis G Fatouros
Major objectives of army and navy training are the development of readiness, performance, and injury prevention. Numerous studies have examined the effect of specific strength training programs (ST) on performance of Special Forces and military personnel. Although navy personnel have to address on board conditions that require the development of strength, agility, speed and task-specific endurance, there is no information regarding the effects of ST on navy-specific performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week ST on performance of navy cadets...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548790/effects-of-different-combinations-of-strength-power-and-plyometric-training-on-the-physical-performance-of-elite-young-soccer-players
#15
Ronaldo Kobal, Irineu Loturco, Renato Barroso, Saulo Gil, Rogério Cuniyochi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricoli
The combination of strength (ST) and plyometric training (PT) has been shown to be effective for improving sport specific performance. However, there is no consensus about the most effective way to combine these methods in the same training session, in order to produce greater improvements in neuromuscular performance of soccer players. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different combinations of ST and PT sequences on strength, jump, speed, and agility capacities of elite young soccer players...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548784/acute-kinematic-and-kinetic-adaptations-to-wearable-resistance-during-sprint-acceleration
#16
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin
Wearable resistance (WR) in the form of weighted vests and shorts enables movement specific sprint running to be performed under load. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in kinematics and kinetics when an additional load equivalent to 3% body mass (BM) was attached to the anterior or posterior surface of the lower limbs during sprint running. Nineteen male rugby athletes (age: 19.7 ± 2.3 years; body mass: 96.1 ± 16.5 kg; height: 181 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the study...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536252/hamstring-architectural-and-functional-adaptations-following-long-vs-short-muscle-length-eccentric-training
#17
Kenny Guex, Francis Degache, Cynthia Morisod, Matthieu Sailly, Gregoire P Millet
Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414074/light-load-maximal-lifting-velocity-full-squat-training-program-improves-important-physical-and-skill-characteristics-in-futsal-players
#18
Julio Torres-Torrelo, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Juan José González-Badillo
This study aimed to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training or combined resistance training and change of direction exercises on physical performance and motor skills in futsal players. Thirty-four futsal players were divided into full squat group (SG, n = 12), combined full squat and change of direction exercises group (S+CDG, n = 12) and control group (CG, n = 10). The resistance training for SG consisted of full squat with low load (~45-58% 1RM) and low volume (4-6 repetitions), whereas the S+CDG performed the same resistance training program combined with loaded change of direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405970/effects-of-acute-and-chronic-interval-sprint-exercise-performed-on-a-manually-propelled-treadmill-on-upper-limb-vascular-mechanics-in-healthy-young-men
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
T Dylan Olver, Steph M Reid, Alan R Smith, Mair Zamir, Peter W R Lemon, M Harold Laughlin, J Kevin Shoemaker
Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model)...
July 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379963/individual-response-to-different-forms-of-resistance-training-in-school-aged-boys
#20
John M Radnor, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver
The aim of this study was to examine individual responses to different forms of resistance training on measures of jumping and sprinting performance in school-aged boys. Eighty boys were categorized into two maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and randomly assigned to a plyometric training, resistance training, combined training, or control group. Intervention groups participated in training twice weekly for six weeks, with measures of acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height and reactive strength index collected pre and post intervention...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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