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hepatocellular carcinoma recent advances

Masatoshi Kudo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasound and gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI are the most important imaging modalities in diagnosing HCC. There are 2 non-contradictory HCC treatment algorithms in Japan. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of advanced HCC with main or branch portal vein invasion. Regorafenib, as a second-line systemic treatment, prolongs survival in patients with intermediate and advanced HCC who progressed on sorafenib...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Zhongzhi Jia, Guomin Jiang, Feng Tian, Chunfu Zhu, Xihu Qin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Over the past two decades, several advances have been made in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) radioembolization has recently been made a treatment option for patients with HCC and PVTT. However, there is still a need to systematicly evaluate the outcomes of 90 Y radioembolization for HCC and PVTT. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of 90 Y radioembolization for HCC and PVTT...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Stijn Van Hees, Peter Michielsen, Thomas Vanwolleghem
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients have an almost 100-fold increased risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is the fifth most common and third most deadly cancer worldwide. Up to 50% of newly diagnosed HCC cases are attributed to HBV infection. Early detection improves survival and can be achieved through regular screening. Six-monthly abdominal ultrasound, either alone or in combination with alpha-fetoprotein serum levels, has been widely endorsed for this purpose. Both techniques however yield limited diagnostic accuracy, which is not improved when they are combined...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Christian P Strassburg
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents an increasing health burden worldwide and a challenging disease both in terms of diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: The literature available on PubMed for the period of 1990-2016 was reviewed with reference to liver allocation, HCC, liver transplantation (LT), and prediction, and the allocation rules of the German Transplant Act were reviewed. RESULTS: Due to etiological and geographical diversity, HCC is not a homogeneous disease...
August 2016: Visc Med
Chun Gao
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary study field, which has emerged as an integrated approach of molecular pathology and epidemiology, and investigates the relationship between exogenous and endogenous exposure factors, tumor molecular signatures, and tumor initiation, progression, and response to treatment. Molecular epidemiology broadly encompasses MPE and conventional-type molecular epidemiology. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide and remains as a major public health challenge...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Kaja Blagotinšek, Damjana Rozman
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common malignant liver tumor in humans, which incidence and mortality have increased in Europe and United States in the last years. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, when it is not amenable to curative therapies, so there is an urgent need for new, more effective therapeutic tools and strategies. The molecular mechanisms of hepatocarinogenesis and HCC progression have been increasingly understood with intense research in recent years...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jörg Trojan, Oliver Waidmann
Sorafenib is still the only systemic drug approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, several investigational agents mainly targeting angiogenesis failed in late-phase clinical development due to either toxicity or lack of benefit. Recently, data of the RESORCE trial, a placebo-controlled Phase III study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC and documented disease progression after systemic first-line treatment with sorafenib, were presented at the ESMO World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, 2016...
2016: J Hepatocell Carcinoma
Zhilu Xu, Xiang Zhang, Jennie Lau, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more severe form of NAFLD and causes subsequent pathological changes including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammation is the key pathological change in NASH and involves a series of cytokines and chemokines. The C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), which is known as a pro-inflammation chemokine, was recently proven to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NASH...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Qian Wang, Wei Yu, Tao Huang, Yan Zhu, Changshan Huang
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) was first identified as a transcription factor to play an important role in different biological processes of osteoblast and chondrocyte, including differentiation and migration. Recently, RUNX2 has been implicated in promigratory/proinvasive behavior in different human malignancies. In the present study, we demonstrated that the RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression were both increased significantly in HCC tissues and cell lines. High RUNX2 expression was correlated obviously with poor clinicopathological characteristics including multiple tumor nodes, high histological grading, venous infiltration and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage...
September 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Timothy Hardy, Derek A Mann
Knowledge of the fundamental epigenetic mechanisms governing gene expression and cellular phenotype are sufficiently advanced that novel insights into the epigenetic control of chronic liver disease are now emerging. Hepatologists are in the process of shedding light on the roles played by DNA methylation, histone/chromatin modifications and non-coding RNAs in specific liver pathologies. Alongside these discoveries are advances in the technologies for the detection and quantification of epigenetic biomarkers, either directly from patient tissue or from body fluids...
September 13, 2016: Gut
Andrea Ribeiro de Souza, Maria Reig, Jordi Bruix
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocelullar carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite the implementation of screening programs for high-risk individuals, a significant proportion of patients present with advanced disease at the moment of diagnosis. AREAS COVERED: In this review we will focus in the current treatment of advanced HCC, the research that has been done in the past few years, the achievements and failures in this setting and future perspectives...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Y Deng, J Cheng, B Fu, W Liu, G Chen, Q Zhang, Y Yang
A major barrier to effective cancer immunotherapy is immune suppression in favor of tumor progression. Additionally, the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has recently been recognized as a major mechanism of the promotion of immune suppression. However, how MDSCs are induced and the cells from which they arise remains unknown. Although studies have demonstrated that tumor-derived cytokines promote MDSC accumulation and activation, little is known regarding the role of the tumor stroma in MDSC accumulation and activation...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Aparna Jayachandran, Bijay Dhungel, Jason C Steel
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common and lethal malignancies worldwide despite the development of various therapeutic strategies. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for HCC initiation and progression is essential for the development of more effective therapies. The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has provided new insights into the development and progression of HCC. CSCs are specialized tumor cells that are capable of self-renewal and have long-term repopulation potential...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Hong-Lei Luo, Ming-de Huang, Jia-Ni Guo, Rui-Hua Fan, Xiao-Tian Xia, Jing-Dong He, Xiao-Fei Chen
Recent findings indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were dysregulated in many kinds of tumors including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 was found to be upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, while its clinical value and potential function in ESCC are still unknown. Expression of AFAP1-AS1 was measured in 65 ESCC tissues and corresponding noncancerous tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, which revealed that AFAP1-AS1 expression was markedly elevated in ESCC tissues and significantly associated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0...
August 30, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Nidhi Jariwala, Devanand Sarkar
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the second largest number of cancer related deaths globally with limited management options for the advanced disease. Although substantial research has identified molecular targets, with strong validation in pre-clinical in vivo studies, translation of therapeutics to clinics has shown modest success. In a recent manuscript in Hepatology, Zhou and Yang et al. unravel a novel p53 associated long non-coding RNA (PRAL) as a potential prognostic marker and molecular target in HCC...
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Cher Heng Tan, Sudhakar Kundapur Venkatesh
Recent advances in the noninvasive imaging of chronic liver disease have led to improvements in diagnosis, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A comprehensive evaluation of the liver may be performed with the quantification of the degree of hepatic steatosis, liver iron concentration, and liver fibrosis. In addition, MRI of the liver may be used to identify complications of cirrhosis, including portal hypertension, ascites, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review article, we discuss the state of the art techniques in liver MRI, namely, magnetic resonance elastography, hepatobiliary phase MRI, and liver fat and iron quantification MRI...
September 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
José Velosa
Approximately one-third of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have cirrhosis, and this is likely to increase in the near future. The risk of complications, mainly the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, depends on the presence of cirrhosis, and a significant increase in the incidence of cirrhosis-related events, including mortality, is likely in the following years. All-oral therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers a safe and short treatment, with cure rates over 90% in compensated cirrhosis...
August 24, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Maria Pia Brizzi, Daniele Pignataro, Marco Tampellini, Giorgio Vittorio Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
INTRODUCTION: The increasing knowledge of the genomic landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the development of molecular targeted therapies are a promising background for increasing the number of effective drugs for HCC patients. In recent years, many new drugs have been tested as an alternative to sorafenib or after sorafenib failure. AREAS COVERED: In this review, our aim is to describe the randomized trials recently conducted in HCC patients, in order to understand the main reasons potentially related to the failures of many drugs...
October 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Xin-Lei Gong, Shu-Kui Qin
Primary liver cancer, mainly consisting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is one of common malignancies worldwide, and prevalent among the Chinese population. A diagnosis of early stage HCC has proven to be very difficult because of its insidious feature in onset and development. At the time of diagnosis, most HCC cases are locally advanced and/or distant metastatic, which results in difficulty to be treated and poor prognosis. For advanced HCC, systemic therapy is frequently adopted as an important palliative method...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hideyuki Sakurai, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Toshiyuki Okumura
The number of patients treated by proton beam therapy in Japan since 2000 has increased; in 2016, 11 proton facilities were available to treat patients. Notably, proton beam therapy is very useful for pediatric cancer; since the pediatric radiation dose to normal tissues should be reduced as much as possible because of the effect of radiation on growth, intellectual development, endocrine organ function and secondary cancer development. Hepatocellular carcinoma is common in Asia, and most of the studies of proton beam therapy for liver cancer have been reported by Japanese investigators...
October 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
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