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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328436/role-of-exosomes-and-exosomal-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-potential-in-diagnosis-and-antitumour-treatments-review
#1
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Wei Li, Li Qin, Yun-Long Pan
Communication between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their environment is essential for the development and progression of HCC. Exosomes, which are microvesicles secreted by a number of cell types, are carriers of intercellular information and regulate the tumour microenvironment. Studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in the communication between HCC cells, endothelial cells and stem cells, and that they serve important roles in the metastasis and invasion, immune evasion and immunotherapy of HCC...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326816/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-prospects-for-prevention-and-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Caryn L Elsegood, Janina Ee Tirnitz-Parker, John K Olynyk, George Ct Yeoh
The global prevalence of liver cancer is rapidly rising, mostly as a result of the amplified incidence rates of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and obesity in recent decades. Treatment options for liver cancer are remarkably limited with sorafenib being the gold standard for advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma but offering extremely limited improvement of survival time. The immune system is now recognised as a key regulator of cancer development through its ability to protect against infection and chronic inflammation, which promote cancer development, and eliminate tumour cells when present...
November 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282298/%C3%AE-catenin-mrna-silencing-and-mek-inhibition-display-synergistic-efficacy-in-preclinical-tumor-models
#3
Shanthi Ganesh, Xue Shui, Kevin Craig, Martin Koser, Girish R Chopda, Wendy A Cyr, Chengjung Lai, Henryk Dudek, Weimin Wang, Bob Brown, Marc Abrams
Colorectal carcinomas (CRC) harbor well-defined genetic abnormalities including aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK pathways, often simultaneously. While the MAPK pathway can be targeted using potent small molecule drugs, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors, β-catenin inhibition has been historically challenging. RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have advanced to the stage of clinical viability, and are especially well-suited for transcriptional modulators such as β-catenin. In this study, we report therapeutic effects of combined targeting of these pathways with pharmacological agents...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282035/somatostatin-and-cxcr4-chemokine-receptor-expression-in-hepatocellular-and-cholangiocellular-carcinomas-tumor-capillaries-as-promising-targets
#4
Daniel Kaemmerer, Robin Schindler, Franziska Mußbach, Uta Dahmen, Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann, Olaf Dirsch, Jörg Sänger, Stefan Schulz, Amelie Lupp
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCC) display an exceptionally poor prognosis. Especially for advanced disease no efficient standard therapy is currently available. Recently, somatostatin analogs have been evaluated for the treatment of HCC, however, with contradictory results. Besides, for both malignancies the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been discussed as a possible new target structure. METHODS: Expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 1, 2A, 3, 4, and 5, and of CXCR4 was evaluated in a total of 71 HCCs and 27 CCCs by immunohistochemistry using well-characterized novel monoclonal antibodies...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279997/outcomes-of-surgery-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-tumor-thrombus-in-the-inferior-vena-cava-or-right-atrium
#5
REVIEW
Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Hiroaki Nagano
The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with tumor thrombus (TT) in the inferior vena cava (IVC) or right atrium (RA) is extremely poor. We reviewed the recent surgical treatments and outcomes of this form of advanced HCC. TT is classified into three types according to its anatomic location relative to the heart: the inferior hepatic type (type I), where the TT is in the IVC below the diaphragm; the superior hepatic type (type II), where the TT is in the IVC above the diaphragm, but still outside the RA; and the intracardiac type (type III), where the TT is above the diaphragm and has entered the RA...
December 26, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235266/host-genetic-variations-associated-with-disease-progression-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Kentaro Matsuura, Yasuhito Tanaka
Treatment with recently-developed interferon-free oral regimens combining direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) results in the elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in almost all chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. In the era of DAAs, surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after eradication of HCV by anti-HCV therapy is particularly important. As is well known, an advanced state of hepatic fibrosis is the major risk factor for developing HCC. Therefore, an increased understanding of various factors associated with disease progression and development of HCC in CHC patients is essential for implementing personalized treatment and surveillance of disease progression and HCC...
December 13, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234639/hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-macrovascular-invasion-defining-the-optimal-treatment-strategy
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte E Costentin, Cristina R Ferrone, Ronald S Arellano, Suvranu Ganguli, Theodore S Hong, Andrew X Zhu
Background: Tumoral macrovascular invasion (MVI) of hepatic and/or portal vein branches is a common phenomenon in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with poorer prognosis when compared to HCC without MVI. Summary: Current international guidelines for the management of HCC recommend sorafenib as the only treatment option in case of MVI. Despite guideline recommendations, several alternative options have been tested to manage HCC with MVI: surgery, transarterial chemoembolization, external or internal radiation, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, percutaneous treatment, cryotherapy, or the combination of two or more of these strategies, with or without sorafenib...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207173/microrna%C3%A2-196b-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-foxp2-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Zhaoxiang Yu, Xiaobo Lin, Ming Tian, Weiping Chang
Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent research has shown that miR‑196b is implicated in metastasis by regulating the migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of miR‑196b and its role as well as the underlying mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Here, we detected miR‑196b expression in HCC and matched non-tumor tissues with qRT‑PCR. We found that miR‑196b displayed higher expression in HCC patient tissues and cells...
December 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190996/surgical-resection-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-portal-vein-tumor-thrombus-in-the-asia-pacific-region-beyond-the-barcelona-clinic-liver-cancer-treatment-algorithms-a-review-and-update
#9
REVIEW
Jia-Zhou Ye, Yan-Yan Wang, Tao Bai, Jie Chen, Bang-De Xiang, Fei-Xiang Wu, Le-Qun Li
Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) usually worsens prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as characterized by aggressive disease progression, impaired liver function and tolerance to treatment. Conventionally, the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) accepted the Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) treatment algorithms, identifying PVTT as an absolute contra-indication of surgical resection for HCC. HCC-PVTT patients are offered sorafenib as the standard treatment...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189132/polyphenols-novel-signaling-pathways
#10
Marie-Louise Ricketts, Bradley S Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death globally. The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of risk factors including hypertension, hyperglycemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increased visceral adiposity, is a significant risk factor for the development of CVD. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often referred to as the hepatic manifestation of MetS, is a constellation of progressive liver disorders closely linked to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance...
November 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184856/optimal-therapy-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-resistance-or-intolerance-to-sorafenib-challenges-and-solutions
#11
REVIEW
Emily M Ray, Hanna K Sanoff
The only US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved first-line systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is sorafenib; however, resistance or intolerance to sorafenib is unfortunately common. In this review, we briefly describe systemic therapies that can be considered for patients with HCC who show resistance or intolerance to sorafenib. For all patients with HCC who need systemic therapy, we strongly advocate for participation in clinical trials. Cytotoxic chemotherapy plays a minor role in the treatment of advanced HCC, with some data supporting the use of FOLFOX (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and GEMOX (gemcitabine-oxaliplatin)...
2017: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184682/survival-differences-among-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-the-stage-of-disease-and-therapy-received-pre-and-post-sorafenib-era
#12
Chintan Shah, Lazarus K Mramba, Rohit Bishnoi, Harini Bejjanki, Hardik Satish Chhatrala, Sreenivasa R Chandana
Background: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing. Development of newer therapeutic modalities has changed the paradigm of HCC treatment in recent years. So, the aim of our study is to analyze the impact of these treatment modalities into the survival of HCC patients, based on the stage of HCC in real life practice. Methods: We analyzed the data from the SEER database: Incidence - SEER 18 Regs Research Data + Hurricane Katrina Impacted Louisiana Cases, Nov 2015 Sub (1973-2013 varying)...
October 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181069/sorafenib-combined-with-hepatectomy-in-patients-with-intermediate-stage-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Lei Zhuang, Tianfu Wen, Mingqing Xu, Jiayin Yang, Wentao Wang, Hong Wu, Yong Zeng, Lvnan Yan, Yonggang Wei, Bo Li
Introduction: Guidelines based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification system recommend that hepatic resection should be performed only in patients in BCLC stage A. Patients with stage B or stage C should receive palliative or no treatment. However, actual clinical practice varies, and a recent analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surgery outcomes in high volume surgical centers throughout the world concluded that hepatectomy can provide survival benefit for selected patients in all three BCLC stages...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158695/pnpla3-expression-and-its-impact-on-the-liver-current-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Michael Trauner
A single-nucleotide polymorphism occurring in the sequence of the human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3), known as I148M variant, is one of the best characterized and deeply investigated variants in several clinical scenarios, because of its tight correlation with increased risk for developing hepatic steatosis and more aggressive part of the disease spectrum, such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Further, the I148M variant is positively associated with alcoholic liver diseases, chronic hepatitis C-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152431/intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-with-advanced-planning-techniques-in-a-challenging-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patient
#15
Smith Apisarnthanarax, Jatinder Saini, Avril O'Ryan-Blair, Jackie Castro, Stephen R Bowen
The use of radiation therapy has been increasing over recent years for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Proton beam therapy (PBT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for HCC patients due to its dosimetric advantages of sparing more normal liver tissue from radiation at low to moderate doses compared to photon-based treatments while still delivering high doses of radiation to tumors. The PBT therapy may be particularly beneficial in high-risk HCC cirrhotic patients with large, bulky tumors and/or vascular invasion complicated by surrounding perfusion abnormalities...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152116/microrna-526b-servers-as-a-prognostic-factor-and-exhibits-tumor-suppressive-property-by-targeting-sirtuin-7-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Xin Liu, Liu Yang, Jianfeng Tu, Wenwei Cai, Meiqi Zhang, Zhangxuan Shou, Yingmin Yao, Qiuran Xu
Recent studies have reported that microRNA-526b (miR-526b) is implicated in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of miR-526b and its role as well as underlying mechanisms are largely unknown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we detected miR-526b expression difference between HCC and matched nontumor tissues with qRT-PCR. We found that miR-526b displayed lower expression in HCC patient tissues and cells. Clinical analysis revealed that low miR-526b expression correlated with large tumor size, venous infiltration, advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150921/tgf-%C3%AE-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-when-a-friend-becomes-an-enemy
#17
Marco Arrese, Daniel Cabrera, Alejandra Hernandez, Luis Astete, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide accounting for more than 700 thousand deaths per year. Most of the HCC develops in a cirrhotic liver, a microenvironment where fibrotic tissue replaces parenchymal cells. Thus, there is a close connection between fibrosis and HCC development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process is a crucial step to advance in novel therapeutic or pharmacological strategies to prevent or improve the course of this malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150490/gut-roundtable-meeting-paper-selected-recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Gerbes, Fabien Zoulim, Herbert Tilg, Jean-François Dufour, Jordi Bruix, Valérie Paradis, Riad Salem, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Peter R Galle, Tim F Greten, Jean-Charles Nault, Matias A Avila
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks number three among the most frequent causes of death from solid tumors worldwide. With obesity and fatty liver diseases as risk factors on the rise, HCC represents an ever increasing challenge. While there is still no curative treatment for most patients numerous novel drugs have been proposed, but most ultimately failed in phase III trials. This manuscript targets therapeutic advances and most burning issues. Expert key point summaries and urgent research agenda are provided regarding risk factors, including microbiota, need for prognostic and predictive biomarkers and the equivocal role of liver biopsy...
November 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113334/exosomal-mir-665-as-a-novel-minimally-invasive-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#19
Zhen Qu, Junhua Wu, Junyi Wu, Anlai Ji, Guanghui Qiang, Yong Jiang, Chunping Jiang, Yitao Ding
Recent studies have shown that circulating microRNAs are potential biomarkers for various types of malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel serological biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis and prognosis. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles (30-100 nm). Exosomal miR-665 levels in HCC patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (P < 0.05), and exosomal miR-665 levels were significantly upregulated in tumours larger in size (> 5 cm), in tumours with local invasion and in those at an advanced clinical stage (stage III/IV) of HCC (P = 0...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113030/recent-advances-in-transarterial-embolotherapies-in-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Edward Wolfgang Lee, Sarah Khan
Management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be maximized with the utilization of multiple treatment modalities including transplant, surgical resection and locoregional therapies including ablative therapies and transarterial embolotherapies. Although transplant and surgical resection offer the best clinical outcomes, a limited number of patients are amenable to these surgical treatment options due to the advanced disease at presentation. Transarterial embolotherapies including conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE), bland transarterial embolization (TAE), drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) and selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Yttrium 90 (90Y) have played an increasingly important role for these patients with unresectable HCC...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
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