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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785403/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-advances-and-future-expectations
#1
REVIEW
Yingjun Xie, Yien Xiang, Jiyao Sheng, Dan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yao, Yongsheng Yang, Xuewen Zhang
Primary liver cancer is a common kind of digestive cancers with high malignancy, causing 745,500 deaths each year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major pathological type of primary liver cancer. Traditional treatment methods for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have shown poor efficacy in killing residual cancer cells for a long time. In recent years, tumor immunotherapy has emerged as a promising method owing to its safety and efficacy with respect to delaying the progression of advanced tumors and protecting postoperative patients against tumor relapse and metastasis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783126/systemic-therapy-for-intermediate-and-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-sorafenib-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Luc Raoul, Masatoshi Kudo, Richard S Finn, Julien Edeline, Maria Reig, Peter R Galle
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment landscape changed a decade ago, with sorafenib demonstrating survival benefit in the first-line setting and becoming the first systemic therapy to be approved for HCC. More recently, regorafenib and nivolumab have received approval in the second-line setting after sorafenib, with further positive phase 3 studies emerging in the first line (lenvatinib non-inferior to sorafenib) and second line versus placebo (cabozantinib and ramucirumab). A key recommendation in the management of patients receiving sorafenib is to promote close communication between the patient and the physician so that adverse events (AEs) are detected early and severe AEs can be prevented...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779970/transarterial-chemoembolization-plus-iodine-125-implantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Ze-Xin Zhu, Xiao-Xue Wang, Ke-Fei Yuan, Ji-Wei Huang, Yong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignancy in liver. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as an effective treatment in advanced HCC patients. Recent studies showed iodine-125 seed (a low-energy radionuclide) can provide long-term local control and increase survival for HCC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of TACE plus iodine-125 seed in comparison with TACE alone for HCC. METHODS: A comprehensive search of studies among PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted with published date from the earliest to January 10th, 2018...
May 17, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760542/mouse-models-for-investigating-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-derived-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Kazuki Takakura, Tsunekazu Oikawa, Yoichi Tomita, Yusuke Mizuno, Masanori Nakano, Chisato Saeki, Yuichi Torisu, Masayuki Saruta
As the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by infection with the hepatotropic viruses hepatitis B and hepatitis C decreases, greater attention has become focused on HCC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which has shown increasing prevalence in correspondence with the overall increase in metabolic syndrome over the recent decades. Several clinical population studies have shown a positive relationship between NASH and HCC, while also providing initial insights into the underlying mechanisms of HCC development from NASH...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734514/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-the-treatment-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers with a high recurrence rate. Currently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the first-line treatment for cases refractory to conventional therapies. However, the acquisition of somatic mutations can result in TKI resistance. Clinical evidence suggests that acquired immunity contributes to the suppression of tumor recurrence, indicating the potential of induced anti-tumor immune reaction for the treatment of HCC. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have become available for the treatment of malignancies...
May 7, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722445/review-article-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721779/novel-treatment-strategy-with-radiofrequency-ablation-and-surgery-for-pregnant-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report
#7
Megumi Matsuo, Katsunori Furukawa, Hiroaki Shimizu, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Tsukasa Takayashiki, Satoshi Kuboki, Shigetsugu Takano, Daisuke Suzuki, Nozomu Sakai, Shingo Kagawa, Hiroyuki Nojima, Masayuki Ohsuka
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during pregnancy is rare, with a poor prognosis. Recently, however, increasing resection rates have improved survival rate. Currently, various surgeries are safely performed after the second trimester and termination of pregnancy is not always necessary. However, surgery is sometimes limited by gestational age or the patient's will. When patients with HCC refuse surgery during pregnancy, we face specific problems with respect to curability and fetal life...
May 2, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709676/liver-stiffness-measurement-in-the-primary-care-setting-detects-high-rates-of-advanced-fibrosis-and-predicts-liver-related-events-in-hepatitis-c
#8
Stephen Bloom, William Kemp, Amanda Nicoll, Stuart K Roberts, Paul Gow, Anouk Dev, Sally Bell, Siddharth Sood, Ian Kronborg, Virginia Knight, Diana Lewis, John Lubel
BACKGROUND: As many as 70% of individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are managed solely in primary care. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of elevated liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in a cohort of community managed CHC patients and to evaluate predictors of advanced liver disease and liver related events. METHODS: A prospective cohort of adult CHC patients were recruited from 21 primary care practises throughout Victoria, Australia. Inclusion criteria included the presence of CHC for >6months, no recent (<18months) specialist input and no history of hepatocellular carcinoma...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705792/outlook-immunotherapy-in-gastrointestinal-carcinoma-innovative-strategies
#9
Markus Moehler, Katrin Göpfert, Heinz-Josef Lenz
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are emerging as a therapeutic approach for patients with advanced or metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies following the recent Food and Drug Administration and Asian approvals for colorectal, gastric, and hepatocellular carcinoma. As discussed in earlier articles, phase I-II trials demonstrate quite positive clinical activity, particularly in patients with immunogenic cancer subtypes. This outreach paper discusses some of the next innovative immunotherapy strategies under development...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705790/immunotherapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Bernd Heinrich, Carolin Czauderna, Jens U Marquardt
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly and rapidly evolving cancers worldwide. The current systemic treatment strategies in advanced tumor stages remain limited despite promising preclinical and early-phase clinical results for some compounds, highlighting an unmet clinical need. Since the majority of HCCs evolve in the background of a chronic inflammatory liver damage, HCCs can be considered a paradigm for inflammation-induced cancers, which renders immunotherapeutic strategies particularly promising for this tumor entity...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689631/novel-approaches-for-molecular-targeted-therapy-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Yuji Eso, Hiroyuki Marusawa
Systemic chemotherapy using a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor is an established treatment for advanced-stage tumors in various organs. Comprehensive genomic analyses using next-generation sequencing technology revealed the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and provided evidence for the use of therapeutic agents effective against multiple targets in tumor cells. Recently, the efficacy and safety of a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lenvatinib, was confirmed by a randomized global phase III trial and thus lenvatinib was approved as first-line therapy for HCC, providing a new therapeutic option for patients in an advanced stage...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673151/tumor-molecular-profiling-for-an-individualized-approach-to-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-patient-case-study
#12
Kristine Posadas, Anita Ankola, Zhaohai Yang, Nelson S Yee
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence, and the associated mortality rate remains among the highest. For advanced HCC, sorafenib has been shown to slightly prolong survival, and regorafenib and nivolumab, both recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), may produce clinical benefits to a limited extent. Systemic chemotherapy has been shown to produce a modest response, but there is no clinically valid biomarker that can be used to predict which patients may benefit...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662642/successful-retreatment-with-grazoprevir-and-elbasvir-for-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-who-discontinued-prior-treatment-with-ns5a-inhibitor-including-regimens-due-to-adverse-events
#13
Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Reina Sasaki, Yuki Haga, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tomoko Saito, Kazufumi Kobayashi, Soichiro Kiyono, Yoshihiko Ooka, Eiichiro Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Hitoshi Maruyama, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato
Background: Sustained virologic response (SVR) by interferon and interferon-free treatment can results in the reduction of advanced liver fibrosis and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recent interferon-free treatment for HCV shortens the duration of treatment and leads to higher SVR rates, without any serious adverse events. However, it is important to retreat patients who have had treatment-failure with HCV non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor-including regimens...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658823/totally-laparoscopic-mini-alpps-using-a-novel-approach-of-laparoscopic-assisted-transmesenteric-portal-vein-embolization
#14
Juan Pekolj, Fernando A Alvarez, David Biagiola, Lucas Villegas, Victoria Ardiles, Eduardo de Santibañes
BACKGROUND: The initial mortality rates of associating liver partition and portal vein occlusion for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) were high. However, recent data from the International Registry show a continuous reduction of early mortality and major morbidity due to risk adjustment in patient selection and less invasive techniques in stage-1 surgery. During the first ALPPS International Consensus in 2015, we introduced a paradigm inversion of ALPPS, the so-called "Mini-ALPPS." METHODS: We combined a partial liver partition with a novel technique of laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous cannulation of the inferior mesenteric vein for intraoperative transmesenteric portal vein embolization...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625923/wilson-s-disease-a-2017-update
#15
Aurélia Poujois, France Woimant
Wilson's disease (WD) is characterised by a deleterious accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. It is one of those rare genetic disorders that benefits from effective and lifelong treatments that have dramatically transformed the prognosis of the disease. In Europe, its clinical prevalence is estimated at between 1.2 and 2/100,000 but the genetic prevalence is higher, at around 1/7000. Incomplete penetrance of the gene or the presence of modifier genes may account for the difference between the calculated genetic prevalence and the number of patients diagnosed with WD...
April 3, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604220/liver-angiopoietin-2-is-a-key-predictor-of-de-novo-or-recurrent-hepatocellular-cancer-after-hcv-direct-acting-antivirals
#16
Francesca Faillaci, Luca Marzi, Rosina Critelli, Fabiola Milosa, Filippo Schepis, Elena Turola, Silvia Andreani, Gabriele Vandelli, Veronica Bernabucci, Barbara Lei, Federica D'Ambrosio, Laura Bristot, Luisa Cavalletto, Liliana Chemello, Pamela Sighinolfi, Paola Manni, Antonino Maiorana, Cristian Caporali, Marcello Bianchini, Maria Marsico, Laura Turco, Nicola de Maria, Mariagrazia Del Buono, Paola Todesca, Luca di Lena, Dante Romagnoli, Paolo Magistri, Fabrizio di Benedetto, Savino Bruno, Gloria Taliani, Gianluigi Giannelli, Maria-Luz Martinez-Chantar, Erica Villa
Recent reports suggested that direct acting antivirals (DAAs) might favor hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).In Study 1,we studied the proangiogenic liver microenvironment in 242 DAAs-treated chronic Hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis.Angiopoietin-2 expression was studied in tissue (cirrhotic and/or neoplastic) from recurrent,de novo,non-recurrent HCC or patients never developing HCC.Circulating Angiopoietin-2,vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF),and C-reactive protein were also measured. In Study 2,we searched for factors associated with de novo HCC in 257 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies enrolled in a dedicated prospective study...
March 31, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599899/reactivation-of-hepatitis-b-after-liver-transplantation-current-knowledge-molecular-mechanisms-and-implications-in-management
#17
REVIEW
Ranjit Chauhan, Shilpa Lingala, Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Nivedita Lahiri, Smruti R Mohanty, Jian Wu, Tomasz I Michalak, Sanjaya K Satapathy
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major global health problem affecting an estimated 350 million people with more than 786000 individuals dying annually due to complications, such as cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver transplantation (LT) is considered gold standard for treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver failure and HCC. However, post-transplant viral reactivation can be detrimental to allograft function, leading to poor survival. Prophylaxis with high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and anti-viral drugs have achieved remarkable progress in LT by suppressing viral replication and improving long-term survival...
March 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597300/polymer-mediated-delivery-of-sirnas-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-variables-affecting-specificity-and-effectiveness
#18
REVIEW
Rossella Farra, Francesco Musiani, Francesca Perrone, Maja Čemažar, Urška Kamenšek, Federica Tonon, Michela Abrami, Aleš Ručigaj, Mario Grassi, Gabriele Pozzato, Deborah Bonazza, Fabrizio Zanconati, Giancarlo Forte, Maguie El Boustani, Lucia Scarabel, Marica Garziera, Concetta Russo Spena, Lucia De Stefano, Barbara Salis, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio, Gabriele Grassi, Barbara Dapas
Despite the advances in anticancer therapies, their effectiveness for many human tumors is still far from being optimal. Significant improvements in treatment efficacy can come from the enhancement of drug specificity. This goal may be achieved by combining the use of therapeutic molecules with tumor specific effects and delivery carriers with tumor targeting ability. In this regard, nucleic acid-based drug (NABD) and particularly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are attractive molecules due to the possibility to be engineered to target specific tumor genes...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589101/regression-of-human-cirrhosis-an-update-18-years-after-the-pioneering-article-by-wanless-et-al
#19
REVIEW
Prodromos Hytiroglou, Neil D Theise
Cirrhosis has been traditionally viewed as an irreversible, end-stage condition. Eighteen years ago, Wanless, Nakashima, and Sherman published a study that was based on the concept that hepatic architecture is under constant remodeling in the course of chronic liver diseases, even during their most advanced stages; depending on the balance between injury and repair, the histologic changes might be progressing or regressing. These authors described in detail the morphologic features of regressing cirrhosis, identified a set of histologic features of regression that they called the "hepatic repair complex," and provided convincing morphologic evidence that incomplete septal cirrhosis represents regressed cirrhosis...
March 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570187/-systemic-treatment-options-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Magdolna Dank, Péter Padányi
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver, with increasing incidence worldwide. Chronic liver diseases, especially liver cirrhosis, are the primary risk factors in the pathogenesis. Curative therapy is usually possible only in early disease, however, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Until recently sorafenib was the only viable option for systemic treatment, however, over the past years many new targeted and immunotherapy drugs proved to be efficient in first and second line as well...
March 23, 2018: Magyar Onkologia
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