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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802273/evidence-for-borrelia-bavariensis-infections-of-ixodes-uriae-within-seabird-colonies-of-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#1
Hannah J Munro, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The first report of members of the spirochete genus Borrelia in the seabird tick, Ixodes uriae, and seabird colonies occurred during the early 1990s. Since then, Borrelia spp. have been detected in these ticks and seabird colonies around the world. To-date, the primary species detected has been B. garinii, with rare occurrences of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae. During our research on Borrelia and I. uriae in seabird colonies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we have identified B. bavariensis in I...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799685/ecological-factors-influencing-small-mammal-infection-by-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-in-agricultural-and-forest-landscapes
#2
Grégoire Perez, Suzanne Bastian, Amélie Chastagner, Albert Agoulon, Olivier Plantard, Gwenaël Vourc'h, Alain Butet
Small mammals are key components of numerous tick-borne disease systems, as hosts for immature ticks and pathogen reservoirs. To study the factors influencing tick-borne infection in small mammals, we trapped small mammals and collected questing ticks in spring and autumn in 2012 and 2013 at 24 sites in a 10x15 km rural landscapes (Brittany, France). Tissue samples were screened by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Of the two dominant small mammal species captured, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) had higher prevalence than wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) for both infections, presumably because of specific differences in immunological defenses...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782459/leptospira-spp-vaccinal-antibodies-do-not-react-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-peptides-used-in-the-accuplex-4
#3
Amber L Caress, Scott Moroff, Michael R Lappin
We attempted to determine if Leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with Borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (AccuPlex 4 BioCD; Antech). Staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a B. burgdorferi nonendemic area. The dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial Leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona, then booster vaccinated 3 wk later...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776227/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-ehrlichia-canis-anaplasma-spp-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-d-immitis-in-hunting-dogs-from-southern-italy
#4
Diego Piantedosi, Benedetto Neola, Nicola D'Alessio, Francesca Di Prisco, Mario Santoro, Laura Pacifico, Giovanni Sgroi, Luigi Auletta, Jesse Buch, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Vincenzo Veneziano
Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen...
August 4, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775250/modulation-of-the-tick-gut-milieu-by-a-secreted-tick-protein-favors-borrelia-burgdorferi-colonization
#5
Sukanya Narasimhan, Tim J Schuijt, Nabil M Abraham, Nallakkandi Rajeevan, Jeroen Coumou, Morven Graham, Andrew Robson, Ming-Jie Wu, Sirlei Daffre, Joppe W Hovius, Erol Fikrig
The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick Ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans. Here we show that B. burgdorferi colonization increases the expression of several tick gut genes including pixr, encoding a secreted gut protein with a Reeler domain. RNA interference-mediated silencing of pixr, or immunity against PIXR in mice, impairs the ability of B. burgdorferi to colonize the tick gut. PIXR inhibits bacterial biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771127/interactions-between-host-immune-response-and-antigenic-variation-that-control-borrelia-burgdorferi-population-dynamics
#6
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
The population dynamics of pathogens within hosts result from interactions between host immune responses and mechanisms of the pathogen to evade or resist immune responses. Vertebrate hosts have evolved adaptive immune responses to eliminate the infection, while many pathogens evade immune clearance through altering surface antigens. Such interactions can result in a characteristic pattern of pathogen population dynamics within hosts consisting of population growth after infection, rapid population decline following specific immune responses, followed by persistence at low densities during a chronic infection stage...
August 4, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768731/improved-serodiagnostic-performance-for-lyme-disease-by-use-of-two-recombinant-proteins-in-elisa-as-compared-to-standardized-two-tier-testing
#7
Gary L Bradshaw, R Kelley Thueson, Todd J Uriona
The most reliable test method for the serological confirmation of Lyme Disease (LD) is a 2-tiered method recommended by the CDC in 1995. The first-tier test is a low specificity ELISA test and the second-tier tests are higher specificity IgG and IgM Western blots. This study describes the selection of two Borrelia burgdorferi-recombinant proteins and evaluation of their performance in a simple 1-tier test for the serological confirmation of LD. These two proteins were generated from (a) the full length dbpA gene combined with the invariable region 6 of the VlsE gene (dbpA/C6) and (b) the full length OspC gene...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768603/tick-surveillance-for-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-isolates-in-mongolia-and-japan
#8
Yukie Iwabu-Itoh, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Oyunnomin Naranbaatar, Enkhmandakh Yondonjamts, Kiwa Furuno, Kyunglee Lee, Kozue Sato, Hiroki Kawabata, Nobuhiro Takada, Masako Andoh, Hiroko Kajita, Yosaburo Oikawa, Minoru Nakao, Makoto Ohnishi, Masahisa Watarai, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ken Maeda, Ai Takano
Borrelia miyamotoi, recently recognized as a human pathogenic spirochete, was isolated from Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus in northern Mongolia and Honshu Island, a major island in Japan. Although no human B. miyamotoi infections have been reported in Mongolia, the prevalence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from Mongolia is higher than that in ticks from Hokkaido, Japan, where human cases have been reported. Moreover, the multi-locus sequence analysis of cultured isolates revealed that B. miyamotoi isolates in Mongolia belong to the Siberian type, a sequence type that was originally reported from isolates from I...
July 14, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#9
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750865/human-head-lice-and-pubic-lice-reveal-the-presence-of-several-acinetobacter-species-in-algiers-algeria
#10
Nassima Mana, Meriem Louni, Philippe Parola, Idir Bitam
There are two majorspecies of medically important lice that parasitize humans: Phthirus pubis, found in pubic hair, and Pediculus humanus. Pediculus humanus consists of two eco types that live in specific niches on the human host: body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), found on the human body and clothing, and head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis), found on the scalp. To date, only body lice are known to be vectors of human disease; however, it has recently been reported that the DNA of several bacterial agents has been detected in head lice, raising questions about their role in the transmission of pathogens...
August 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748396/disagreement-between-the-results-from-three-commercial-tests-for-the-detection-of-borrelia-specific-serum-antibodies-in-the-netherlands-associated-with-antibiotic-treatment-for-lyme-borreliosis-a-retrospective-study
#11
T van Gorkom, K Kremer, W Voet, D W Notermans, B J M Vlaminckx, S U C Sankatsing, S F T Thijsen
The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is challenging because of the often non-specific symptoms and persisting antibodies after infection. We investigated the diagnostic characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an immunoblot for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies using different test strategies in individuals with and without antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis. This retrospective study included healthy individuals, patients with active Lyme neuroborreliosis and patients treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742149/predicting-the-risk-of-lyme-borreliosis-after-a-tick-bite-using-a-structural-equation-model
#12
Agnetha Hofhuis, Jan van de Kassteele, Hein Sprong, Cees C van den Wijngaard, Margriet G Harms, Manoj Fonville, Arieke Docters van Leeuwen, Mariana Simões, Wilfrid van Pelt
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantification of the risk of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite can aid development of prevention strategies against Lyme borreliosis. METHODS: We used 3,525 single tick bite reports from three large prospective studies on the transmission risk of tick-borne pathogens to humans, with 50 reports of Lyme borreliosis during the follow-up period, among 1,973 reports with known outcome. A structural equation model was applied to estimate the risk of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite, and quantify the influence of: developmental stage of the tick, detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742123/molecular-and-maldi-tof-identification-of-ticks-and-tick-associated-bacteria-in-mali
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adama Zan Diarra, Lionel Almeras, Maureen Laroche, Jean-Michel Berenger, Abdoulaye K Koné, Zakaria Bocoum, Abdoulaye Dabo, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Ticks are considered the second vector of human and animal diseases after mosquitoes. Therefore, identification of ticks and associated pathogens is an important step in the management of these vectors. In recent years, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been reported as a promising method for the identification of arthropods including ticks. The objective of this study was to improve the conditions for the preparation of tick samples for their identification by MALDI-TOF MS from field-collected ethanol-stored Malian samples and to evaluate the capacity of this technology to distinguish infected and uninfected ticks...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736193/relapsing-fever-causative-agent-in-southern-iran-is-a-closely-related-species-to-east-african-borreliae
#14
Saied Reza Naddaf, Behnaz Ghazinezhad, Elham Kazemirad, Sally Jane Cutler
We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B...
July 17, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735651/the-effect-of-artesunate-on-short-term-memory-in-lyme-borreliosis
#15
B K Puri, J S Hakkarainen-Smith, J A Monro
Lyme borreliosis is associated with memory deficits. While this may be related to cerebral infection by Borrelia bacteria, it may also be caused by concomitant co-infection by Babesia protozoa. The anti-malarial artemisinin-derivative artesunate has been shown to be effective against a number of Babesia species and to have efficacy against human cerebral malaria. We hypothesised that concomitant administration of artesunate in Lyme borreliosis patients would help alleviate the severity of self-reported short-term memory impairment...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735308/bactericidal-activity-of-octenidine-to-various-genospecies-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-spirochetes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Urszula Rogulska, Grażyna Lewandowska, Tomasz Chmielewski
The aim of our studies was to invent a reliable method for detection of the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against Borrelia burgdorferi in suspension (in vitro) and in cell line cultures (in vivo). In the suspension method, 0.01% octenidine at 20°C and 35°C was bactericidal to Borrelia afzeli; Borrelia garini, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto after 5 minutes treatment. Increase of the temperature to 35°C speed up the bactericidal effect to 1 minute. The bactericidal action of octenidine towards B. burgdorferi spirochetes growing in fibroblasts was less effective and needed a longer time to kill them than in the suspension...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730535/the-recombead-borrelia-antibody-index-cxcl13-and-total-igm-index-for-laboratory-diagnosis-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis-in-children
#17
B H Skogman, M Lager, A J Henningsson, I Tjernberg
For laboratory diagnostics of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), the recomBead Borrelia antibody index (AI) assay has shown promising results in a mixed age population, but has not previously been evaluated with specific focus on paediatric patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the recomBead Borrelia AI assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the laboratory diagnosis of LNB in children. We also wanted to explore whether early markers, such as CXCL13 in CSF and/or total IgM index could be useful as complementary diagnostic tools...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722620/case-report-infectious-diseases-in-pilgrims-visiting-the-holy-land
#18
Orna Nitzan, Arnon Blum, Esther Marva, Adina Katz, Bat-Sheva Tzadok, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Gad Baneth, Avi Peretz
Every year Christian pilgrims from around the world visit the holy sites located around the Sea of Galilee. Some become ill during their stay with infectious diseases that were acquired in their country of origin, and are hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center. They pose a diagnostic challenge due to language barriers, the rarity of these infections in Israel, and the fact that diagnostic tests are not readily available. All patient records from 2015 of Holy Land tourists hospitalized at Poriya Medical Center were screened for the diagnosis of imported zoonotic diseases that are not commonly diagnosed in Israel...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719293/case-report-clinical-features-of-a-case-of-suspected-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease-in-hokkaido-japan
#19
Kimiaki Yamano, Takuya Ito, Kaori Kiyanagi, Hirotaka Yamazaki, Mutsubu Sugawara, Takashige Saito, Norio Ohashi, Aya Zamoto-Niikura, Kozue Sato, Hiroki Kawabata
We herein report a case of suspected Borrelia miyamotoi disease in Hokkaido, Japan. The patient complained of lassitude, arthralgia, and high fever after a tick bite. Furthermore, at the time of consultation, the patient exhibited momentary loss of consciousness and low blood pressure. Laboratory tests revealed elevation of liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein. Seroconversion to B. miyamotoi glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase antigen suggested the patient was infected with a relapsing fever group Borrelia species...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717130/polymicrobial-infections-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#20
Diana Pisa, Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Several studies have advanced the idea that the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be microbial in origin. In the present study, we tested the possibility that polymicrobial infections exist in tissue from the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus region of patients with AD using immunohistochemistry (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and highly sensitive (nested) PCR. We found no evidence for expression of early (ICP0) or late (ICP5) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in brain sections. A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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