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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221107/use-of-mass-participation-outdoor-events-to-assess-human-exposure-to-tickborne-pathogens
#1
Jessica L Hall, Kathrin Alpers, Kevin J Bown, Stephen J Martin, Richard J Birtles
Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212410/a-high-throughput-genetic-screen-identifies-previously-uncharacterized-borrelia-burgdorferi-genes-important-for-resistance-against-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#2
Meghan E Ramsey, Jenny A Hyde, Diana N Medina-Perez, Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Maureen E Lundt, Xin Li, Steven J Norris, Jon T Skare, Linden T Hu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#3
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201991/plasmid-diversity-and-phylogenetic-consistency-in-the-lyme-disease-agent-borrelia-burgdorferi
#4
Sherwood R Casjens, Eddie B Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Benjamin J Luft, Steven E Schutzer, Claire M Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi. RESULTS: We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination events...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196664/new-records-of-ornithodoros-puertoricensis-fox-1947-ixodida-argasidae-parasitizing-humans-in-rural-and-urban-dwellings-panama
#5
Sergio E Bermúdez, Eduardo Castillo, Tyler D Pohlenz, Alexander Kneubehl, Aparna Krishnavajhala, Lillian Domínguez, Antonio Suárez, Job E López
The presence of ticks inside human constructions was evaluated in two localities from Colon province (Charco La Piedra and Espinar) and one from Panama province (Ancon, City of Panama). In two of houses, eight people from Charco La Piedra and one from Ancón reported "insect bites," which produced blisters for several weeks. The investigation resulted in the collection of argasid ticks, which were identified by morphology and sequencing the 16s ribosomal RNA gene, and later evaluated for the presence of relapsing fever Borrelia DNA...
February 5, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195158/infection-derived-lipids-elicit-an-immune-deficiency-circuit-in-arthropods
#6
Dana K Shaw, Xiaowei Wang, Lindsey J Brown, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Kathryn E Reif, Alexis A Smith, Alison J Scott, Erin E McClure, Vishant M Boradia, Holly L Hammond, Eric J Sundberg, Greg A Snyder, Lei Liu, Kathleen DePonte, Margarita Villar, Massaro W Ueti, José de la Fuente, Robert K Ernst, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
The insect immune deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the IMD signalling cascade remains unknown. Here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (PODAG) stimulate the IMD pathway of ticks. The tick IMD network protects against colonization by three distinct bacteria, that is the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the rickettsial agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188085/species-of-ticks-and-carried-pathogens-in-owned-dogs-in-spain-results-of-a-one-year-national-survey
#7
Agustín Estrada-Peña, Xavier Roura, Angel Sainz, Guadalupe Miró, Laia Solano-Gallego
This study presents the results of a national survey in Spain on the distribution of ticks on owned dogs, their phenology and the associated pathogens over one year. In the study, 1628 adult ticks were collected on 660 dogs presented to 26 veterinary practices, of which 507 dogs (76.8%) carried at least one adult tick. The primary species of ticks were Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (53%), Dermacentor reticulatus (9%), Ixodes ricinus (9%), and I. hexagonus (4%). Parasitism by two species of these ticks was rare...
February 3, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184973/-cxcl-13-as-a%C3%A2-biomarker-in-the-diagnostics-of-neuroborreliosis
#8
C Waiß, W Kindler, B Ströbele, C Aspöck, S Oberndorfer
BACKGROUND: The chemokine CXCL-13 is a potential intrathecal biomarker for neuroborreliosis (NB). According to the literature the sensitivity of CXCL-13 in the diagnostics of NB varies between 88% and 100% and the specificity between 63% and 99.7%. The objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of CXCL-13 in the diagnosis of NB in an endemic area of Borrelia burgdorferi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of data from August 2014 to August 2016, 63 patients with clinically suspected NB were identified...
February 9, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182723/antibody-responses-to-borrelia-burgdorferi-detected-by-western-blot-vary-geographically-in-canada
#9
Nicholas H Ogden, Julie Arsenault, Todd F Hatchette, Samir Mechai, L Robbin Lindsay
Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180323/the-borrelia-burgdorferi-telomere-resolvase-rest-possesses-atp-dependent-dna-unwinding-activity
#10
Shu Hui Huang, McKayla R Cozart, Madison A Hart, Kerri Kobryn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179027/genome-scaffolding-and-annotation-for-the-pathogen-vector-ixodes-ricinus-by-ultra-long-single-molecule-sequencing
#11
Wibke J Cramaro, Oliver E Hunewald, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Claude P Muller
BACKGROUND: Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I...
February 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175945/-neuroborreliosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-course
#12
R Dersch, S Rauer
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Serological testing should only be performed when typical neurological symptoms are present because false positive results are common due to a high seroprevalence in the population. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be performed if Lyme neuroborreliosis is suspected...
February 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175927/borrelia-associated-fasciitis-two-cases
#13
Caroline Lang, Isabelle Masouyé, Michael Mühlstädt, Sandrine Quenan, Gürkan Kaya, Emmanuel Laffitte
is missing (Short communication).
February 8, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175297/borrelia-primed-and-infected-mice-deficient-of-interleukin-17-develop-arthritis-after-neutralization-of-gamma-interferon
#14
Joseph Kuo, Thomas F Warner, Ronald F Schell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170447/comparison-of-mkp-and-bsk-h-media-for-the-cultivation-and-isolation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#15
Eva Ružić-Sabljić, Vera Maraspin, Daša Stupica, Tereza Rojko, Petra Bogovič, Franc Strle, Tjaša Cerar
The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166814/closely-related-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-strains-exhibit-similar-fitness-in-single-infections-and-asymmetric-competition-in-multiple-infections
#16
Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Julia Brown, Danielle M Tufts, Ching-I Huang, Helge Kampen, Stephen J Bent, Durland Fish, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162921/the-first-case-of-imported-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease-concurrent-with-lyme-disease
#17
Rentaro Oda, Satoshi Kutsuna, Yoshiyuki Sekikawa, Igen Hongo, Kozue Sato, Makoto Ohnishi, Hiroki Kawabata
Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging infectious disease caused by B. miyamotoi. Although BMD has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Japan, no case of imported BMD has been described in the world. Here, we report a 63-year-old American man living in Japan who presented with malaise, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. We suspected Lyme disease because of his travel history to Minnesota and presence of erythema migrans. Serologic analysis supported our diagnosis, and doxycycline was administered for 14 days...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158751/borrelia-burgdorferi-bbi39-paralogs-are-targets-of-protective-immunity-inducing-microbicidal-responses-and-reducing-pathogen-persistence-either-in-hosts-or-in-the-vector
#18
Preeti Singh, Deepshikha Verma, Brian T Backstedt, Simarjot Kaur, Manish Kumar, Alexis A Smith, Kavita Sharma, Xiuli Yang, José F Azevedo, Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ozlem Buyuktanir, Utpal Pal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154563/host-immune-evasion-by-lyme-and-relapsing-fever-borreliae-findings-to-lead-future-studies-for-borrelia-miyamotoi
#19
REVIEW
Brandee L Stone, Catherine A Brissette
The emerging pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of Ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of Lyme disease in the US, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms caused by infection with B. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. However, B. miyamotoi has adapted to different vectors and reservoirs, which could result in unique physiology, including immune evasion mechanisms. Lyme Borrelia utilize a combination of Ixodes-produced inhibitors and native proteins [i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153903/toward-a-complete-north-american-borrelia-miyamotoi-genome
#20
Luke C Kingry, Adam Replogle, Dhwani Batra, Lori A Rowe, Christopher Sexton, Marc Dolan, Neeta Connally, Jeannine M Petersen, Martin E Schriefer
Borrelia miyamotoi, of the relapsing-fever spirochete group, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human illness in the northern hemisphere. Here, we present the chromosome, eight extrachromosomal linear plasmids, and a draft sequence for five circular and one linear plasmid of a Borrelia miyamotoi strain isolated from an Ixodes sp. tick from Connecticut, USA.
February 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
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