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Roberta Carvalho Basile, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Elenice Mantovani, Virgínia Nazário Bonoldi, Delphim da Graça Macoris, Antonio de Queiroz-Neto
Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Carolina Moreira Blanco, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Alexandro Guterres da Silva, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Liana Strecht, Maria Ogrzewalska, Elba Regina S de Lemos
Information about tick fauna and monitoring of pathogen prevalences in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in various habitat types can enhance knowledge about the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens in Brazil. This work shows the results of a study of tick parasitism of wild rodents and marsupials collected in seven localities in the southern part of Brazil, within Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. A total of 61 ticks were collected from small mammals, and after identification to the species level, the ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, family Anaplasmataceae, and protozoa of the genus Babesia...
October 15, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Xenia Naj, Stefan Linder
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. If an infection with Borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Successful elimination of B. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. Accordingly, host immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Peter Kraiczy
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Samiksha Nayak, Archana Sridhara, Rita Melo, Luciana Richer, Natalie H Chee, Jiyoon Kim, Vincent Linder, David Steinmiller, Samuel K Sia, Maria Gomes-Solecki
Currently, diagnostic testing for Lyme disease is done by determination of the serologic responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, with the exception of the early localized phase of disease where diagnosis must be done clinically. Here, we describe the use of microfluidics technology to develop a multiplexed rapid lab-on-a-chip point of care (POC) assay for the serologic diagnosis of human Lyme disease. Following ELISA screening of 12 candidate antigens, we tested 8 on a microfluidic diagnostic system, called mChip-Ld, using a set of 60 serological samples...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katherine Sayler, Jessica Rowland, Carisa Boyce, Emma Weeks
Tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the United States. In Florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as B. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in North Central Florida. Ticks were collected by dragging and flagging methods over a four month period in early 2014, identified, and tested by PCR for multiple pathogens including Anaplasma, Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species...
September 24, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
L Maes, T Carolus, V De Preter, S Ignoul, R Cartuyvels, L Braeken, P-J D'Huys, V Saegeman, B Kabamba, M Raymaekers
This study reports the evaluation of the technical and clinical validation of the O-DiaBorburg kit (DIA), Borrelia burgdorferi PCR kit, ISEX (GENE), and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Real-TM (SAC) for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in cerebrospinal fluid based on both Borrelia DNA and CSF samples from patients with clinical suspicion of neuroborreliosis. This validation study was done by analysing the kits on the Rotorgene Q (RGQ), CFX96, and LightCycler480 (LC480). For all kits, the linear range was larger on RGQ than on CFX96 and LC480...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Mariam Meddeb, Wassila Carpentier, Nicolas Cagnard, Sophie Nadaud, Antoine Grillon, Cathy Barthel, Sylvie Josiane De Martino, Benoît Jaulhac, Nathalie Boulanger, Frédéric Schramm
In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site for bacterial inoculation by the infected tick and for cutaneous manifestations. We previously showed that different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from tick and from different clinical stages of the Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) elicited a very similar transcriptional response in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, using whole transcriptome microarray chips, we aimed to compare the transcriptional response of normal human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 3 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to 3 main pathogenic species (B...
2016: PloS One
William K Arnold, Christina R Savage, Catherine A Brissette, Janakiram Seshu, Jonathan Livny, Brian Stevenson
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, differentially expresses numerous genes and proteins as it cycles between mammalian hosts and tick vectors. Insights on regulatory mechanisms have been provided by earlier studies that examined B. burgdorferi gene expression patterns during cultivation. However, prior studies examined bacteria at only a single time point of cultivation, providing only a snapshot of what is likely a dynamic transcriptional program driving B. burgdorferi adaptations to changes during culture growth phases...
2016: PloS One
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A Roome, L Hill, V Al-Feghali, C G Murnock, J A Goodsell, R Spathis, R M Garruto
There is a public perception that the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. This study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of Borrelia in adult Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the black-legged tick, collected from white-tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguous counties west of the Hudson Valley in upstate New York...
October 4, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, we report a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Zhiming Ouyang, Jianli Zhou
Rrp2 encodes a putative bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP) in Borrelia burgdorferi. Point mutation (G239C) of Rrp2 abolishes the transcriptional activation of σ(54) -dependent rpoS. In contrast to canonical bEBPs that are dispensable for bacterial growth, Rrp2 is essential for borrelial growth in BSK medium. It has been believed that Rrp2's ATPase activity is not required for cell growth, but experimental evidence supporting this notion has been lacking. In particular, it has remained unclear whether the residue G239 is involved in Rrp2's presumptive ATPase activity...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Lauren M K Mason, Alex Wagemakers, Cornelis van 't Veer, Anneke Oei, Wouter J van der Pot, Kalam Ahmed, Tom van der Poll, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Joppe W R Hovius
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the skin of the host where it encounters and interacts with two dendritic cell (DC) subsets; Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs (DDCs). These cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors, mature and migrate out of the skin into draining lymph nodes, where they orchestrate adaptive immune responses. In order to investigate the response of skin DCs during the early immunopathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis, we injected B. burgdorferi intradermally into full-thickness human skin and studied the migration of DCs out of the skin, the activation profile and phenotype of migrated cells...
2016: PloS One
Ana M Palomar, Aránzazu Portillo, Paula Santibáñez, David Mazuelas, Lidia Roncero, Óscar Gutiérrez, José A Oteo
The genus Borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as Lyme disease. Birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. Herein, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of Spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. Nucleic acid extracts from 174 Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), 108 Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzango, 34 Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 17 Ixodes ricinus (L...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Daniel R Rissi, Paula M Krimer
Lyme disease in dogs can be effectively prevented by vaccination against antigens expressed by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi during transmission by the tick vector Ixodes sp. Lyme vaccine efficacy has traditionally been based on indicators of infection following wild-caught tick challenge whereas most other types of vaccine are required to demonstrate protection from clinical signs of disease. In this vaccination-challenge study we sought to demonstrate the ability of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine to protect from infection and to prevent synovial lesions consistent with Borreliosis...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
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