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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319627/what-s-eating-you-lone-star-tick-amblyomma-americanum
#1
H Harris Reynolds, Dirk M Elston
Amblyomma americanum, also known as the lone star tick, is found in much of the eastern United States. Since the mid-20th century, the lone star tick has been implicated in human disease. Today, A americanum remains an important vector for tick-borne illness. In addition to others, species of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Borrelia are all transmitted by the lone star tick. Recently described conditions such as Southern tick-associated rash illness and anaphylaxis to red meat following tick bites have been attributed to the lone star tick...
February 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303129/there-is-a-method-to-the-madness-strategies-to-study-host-complement-evasion-by-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-spirochetes
#2
REVIEW
Ashley L Marcinkiewicz, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin
Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. and Europe, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and disseminate from the site of tick bites to tissues leading to erythema migrans skin rash, arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Relapsing fever borreliae, carried by ticks and lice, trigger reoccurring fever episodes. Following transmission, spirochetes survive in the blood to induce bacteremia at the early stages of infection, which is thought to promote evasion of the host complement system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303005/ligand-co-crystallization-of-aminoacyl-trna-synthetases-from-infectious-disease-organisms
#3
Spencer O Moen, Thomas E Edwards, David M Dranow, Matthew C Clifton, Banumathi Sankaran, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Amit Sharma, Colin Manoil, Bart L Staker, Peter J Myler, Donald D Lorimer
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acid, an essential precursor step to loading of charged tRNAs onto the ribosome and addition of the amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain during protein synthesis. Because of this important biological function, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have been the focus of anti-infective drug development efforts and two aaRS inhibitors have been approved as drugs. Several researchers in the scientific community requested aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to be targeted in the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) structure determination pipeline...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302772/chromosome-and-megaplasmid-sequences-of-borrelia-anserina-sakharoff-1891-the-agent-of-avian-spirochetosis-and-type-species-of-the-genus
#4
Haitham Elbir, Parth Sitlani, Sven Bergström, Alan G Barbour
Sequences of the linear chromosome and plasmids of Borrelia anserina, the cause of avian spirochetosis of poultry, revealed a smaller genome than those of other Borrelia spp. transmitted by argasid ticks. Missing or disrupted genes included a dam methylase and those in the pathway for synthesis of phospholipids from glycerol.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298245/serological-and-molecular-prevalence-of-canine-vector-borne-diseases-cvbds-in-korea
#5
Guk-Hyun Suh, Kyu-Sung Ahn, Jong-Ho Ahn, Ha-Jung Kim, Christian Leutenegger, SungShik Shin
BACKGROUND: Previous surveys in dogs from Korea indicated that dogs are exposed to a variety of vector- borne pathogens, but perception for a nation-wide canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) occurrence has been missing. We report here results of both serological and molecular prevalence studies for major CVBDs of dogs from all over the South Korean Peninsula except for Jeju Island. RESULTS: Serological survey of 532 outdoor dogs revealed the highest prevalence for Dirofilaria immitis (25...
March 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288773/serological-detection-of-antibodies-to-anaplasma-spp-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-ehrlichia-canis-and-of-dirofilaria-immitis-antigen-in-dogs-from-costa-rica
#6
Víctor M Montenegro, Marta C Bonilla, Darwin Kaminsky, Juan José Romero-Zúñiga, Susanne Siebert, Friederike Krämer
In a study in Costa Rica 314 serum samples from dogs throughout all seven provinces were tested using a commercial kit for the detection of circulating antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ehrlichia canis, and of circulating antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of 6.4% (20/314) and 38.2% (120/314) were positive for Anaplasma spp. (An) and E. canis (Ec) antibodies. Overall, 8.0% (25/314) were positive for D. immitis (Di) antigen. One single dog reacted positive with B. burgdorferi s...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288714/bacteria-associated-with-marginal-zone-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Maurilio Ponzoni, Andrés J M Ferreri
In the last decades some bacteria have been associated with a various extent with marginal zone (extra nodal, nodal and splenic types) lymphomas are frequently associated with chronic infections, with important clinical, molecular, biological, and therapeutic implications. The well-known correlation between Helicobacter pylori and gastric MALT-lymphoma, the recently reported links between Chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal MALT-lymphoma and Borrelia burgdorferi and cutaneous MALT lymphoma constitute the most studied examples; in addition, Campylobacter jejuni and some more recent associations encompassing Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Haemophilus influenzae will be further reported...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287618/metabolomics-of-the-tick-borrelia-interaction-during-the-nymphal-tick-blood-meal
#8
J Charles Hoxmeier, Amy C Fleshman, Corey D Broeckling, Jessica E Prenni, Marc C Dolan, Kenneth L Gage, Lars Eisen
The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286500/diet-induced-obesity-does-not-alter-tigecycline-treatment-efficacy-in-murine-lyme-disease
#9
Helena Pětrošová, Azad Eshghi, Zoha Anjum, Nataliya Zlotnikov, Caroline E Cameron, Tara J Moriarty
Obese individuals more frequently suffer from infections, as a result of increased susceptibility to a number of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, obesity can alter antibiotic treatment efficacy due to changes in drug pharmacokinetics which can result in under-dosing. However, studies on the treatment of bacterial infections in the context of obesity are scarce. To address this research gap, we assessed efficacy of antibiotic treatment in diet-induced obese mice infected with the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285593/the-enzootic-life-cycle-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-tick-borne-rickettsiae-an-epidemiological-study-on-wild-living-small-mammals-and-their-ticks-from-saxony-germany
#10
Anna Obiegala, Nina Król, Carolin Oltersdorf, Julian Nader, Martin Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. While small mammals are confirmed reservoirs for certain Borrelia spp., little is known about the reservoirs for tick-borne rickettsiae. Between 2012 and 2014, ticks were collected from the vegetation and small mammals which were trapped in Saxony, Germany. DNA extracted from ticks and the small mammals' skin was analyzed for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and B...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285585/searching-for-lyme-borreliosis-in-australia-results-of-a-canine-sentinel-study
#11
Peter J Irwin, Ian D Robertson, Mark E Westman, Martine Perkins, Reinhard K Straubinger
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis is a common tick-borne disease of the northern hemisphere that is caused by bacterial spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (Bbsl) complex. To date, there has been no convincing evidence for locally-acquired Lyme borreliosis on the Australian continent and there is currently a national debate concerning the nature and distributions of zoonotic tick-transmitted infectious disease in Australia. In studies conducted in Europe and the United States, dogs have been used as sentinels for tick-associated illness in people since they readily contact ticks that may harbour zoonotic pathogens...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270812/borrelia-burgdorferi-keeps-moving-and-carries-on-a-review-of-borrelial-dissemination-and-invasion
#12
REVIEW
Jenny A Hyde
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270232/melting-pot-of-tick-borne-zoonoses-the-european-hedgehog-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-various-tick-borne-diseases-in-natural-cycles-urban-and-suburban-areas
#13
Setareh Jahfari, Sanne C Ruyts, Ewa Frazer-Mendelewska, Ryanne Jaarsma, Kris Verheyen, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are urban dwellers and host both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus. These ticks transmit several zoonotic pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Borrelia miyamotoi and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". It is unclear to what extent hedgehogs in (sub) urban areas contribute to the presence of infected ticks in these areas, which subsequently pose a risk for acquiring a tick-borne disease...
March 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265270/borrelia-burgdorferi-manipulates-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-to-establish-persistence-in-rodent-reservoir-hosts
#14
REVIEW
Karen E Tracy, Nicole Baumgarth
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex is capable of establishing persistent infections in a wide variety of species, particularly rodents. Infection is asymptomatic or mild in most reservoir host species, indicating successful co-evolution of the pathogen with its natural hosts. However, infected humans and other incidental hosts can develop Lyme disease, a serious inflammatory syndrome characterized by tissue inflammation of joints, heart, muscles, skin, and CNS. Although B. burgdorferi infection induces both innate and adaptive immune responses, they are ultimately ineffective in clearing the infection from reservoir hosts, leading to bacterial persistence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262480/presence-of-borrelia-in-different-populations-of-ixodes-pararicinus-from-northwestern-argentina
#15
Maria N Saracho Bottero, Patrick S Sebastian, Luis A Carvalho, Leonor Guardia Claps, Mariano Mastropaolo, Atilio J Mangold, José M Venzal, Santiago Nava
This work was performed to evaluate the presence of Borrelia in different populations of Ixodes pararicinus from northwestern Argentina (Jujuy, Salta and Tucumán provinces). Questing adults and nymphs of I. pararicinus were collected from vegetation, and I. pararicinus nymphs were also collected on birds. Eighty-two ticks were tested for Borrelia presence by PCR targeting the gene flagellin and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region. Pools of ticks positive to Borrelia were formed by two nymphs collected on Turdus rufiventris in Tucumán, one nymph collected on Syndactyla rufosuperciliata in Jujuy, one nymph collected on Turdus nigriceps in Tucumán, three nymphs collected on T...
February 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261565/borrelia-diversity-and-co-infection-with-other-tick-borne-pathogens-in-ticks
#16
Cristian Raileanu, Sara Moutailler, Ionuţ Pavel, Daniela Porea, Andrei D Mihalca, Gheorghe Savuta, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat
Identifying Borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in Europe and the USA. The medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing ticks in Romania, a gateway into Europe...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261180/tick-humoral-responses-marching-to-the-beat-of-a-different-drummer
#17
REVIEW
Adela S Oliva Chávez, Dana K Shaw, Ulrike G Munderloh, Joao H F Pedra
Ticks transmit a variety of human pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Multiple pathogens that are transmitted simultaneously, termed "coinfections," are of increasing importance and can affect disease outcome in a host. Arthropod immunity is central to pathogen acquisition and transmission by the tick. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce humoral responses through the Toll and Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260991/detection-of-lyme-disease-bacterium-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-blacklegged-ticks-collected-in-the-grand-river-valley-ontario-canada
#18
John D Scott, Janet E Foley, John F Anderson, Kerry L Clark, Lance A Durden
We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259789/evaluation-of-a-serological-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-disease-in-europe
#19
Setareh Jahfari, Denis S Sarksyan, Nadezda M Kolyasnikova, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Alexander E Platonov
BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. We describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories. METHODS: Serum of patients with PCR-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD), Lyme borreliosis (LB), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and healthy blood donors (HBD) were collected in Udmurt Republic, Russia...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256234/vancomycin-reduces-cell-wall-stiffness-and-slows-swim-speed-of-the-lyme-disease-bacterium
#20
Michael W Harman, Alex E Hamby, Ross Boltyanskiy, Alexia A Belperron, Linda K Bockenstedt, Holger Kress, Eric R Dufresne, Charles W Wolgemuth
Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, is a tick-transmitted pathogen that requires motility to invade and colonize mammalian and tick hosts. These bacteria use a unique undulating flat-wave shape to penetrate and propel themselves through host tissues. Previous mathematical modeling has suggested that the morphology and motility of these spirochetes depends crucially on the flagellar/cell wall stiffness ratio. Here, we test this prediction using the antibiotic vancomycin to weaken the cell wall...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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