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Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Xiang Zhang, Adil Mardinoglu, Leo A B Joosten, Jan A Kuivenhoven, Yang Li, Mihai G Netea, Albert K Groen
Immunity and cellular metabolism are tightly interconnected but it is not clear whether different pathogens elicit specific metabolic responses. To address this issue, we studied differential metabolic regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers challenged by Candida albicans, Borrelia burgdorferi , lipopolysaccharide, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro . By integrating gene expression data of stimulated PBMCs of healthy individuals with the KEGG pathways, we identified both common and pathogen-specific regulated pathways depending on the time of incubation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiao-Xia Ma, Peng Ma, Qiu-Yan Chang, Zhen-Bin Liu, Derong Zhang, Xiao-Kai Zhou, Zhong-Ren Ma, Xin Cao
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonotic infection. In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon-related amino acid usage in the B. burgdorferi genome and bias in synonymous codon usage of the translation initiation region of coding sequences were analyzed. Additionally, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to several of its hosts was analyzed in the context of synonymous codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that nucleotide content at the third synonymous position of a codon influenced the synonymous codon usage pattern, but the strand-specific factor did not influence the synonymous codon usage pattern of B...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Maciej Bura, Alicja Bukowska, Michał Michalak, Aleksandra Bura, Mariusz J Nawrocki, Marek Karczewski, Iwona Mozer-Lisewska
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV exposure markers in FRs from a single forest district in Greater Poland in relation to anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) IgG, and anti-Borrelia spp...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Valentina Caputo, Fiorella Santi, Antonio Cascio, Marcello Trizzino, Claudia Colomba
Trombiculiasis is a common but underreported ectoparasitosis characterized by an infestation of the skin by the larval stage of various species of mites belonging to the phylum Arthropoda, class Arachnida, subclass Acarina. Clinical manifestations consist of pruritic erythematous and urticarial macules and papules located on covered thin and glabrous skin. In recent studies Neotrombicula autumnalis larvae have been described as the possible vectors of pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ana Carreras-González, Nicolás Navasa, Itziar Martín-Ruiz, José Luis Lavín, Mikel Azkargorta, Estíbaliz Atondo, Diego Barriales, Nuria Macías-Cámara, Miguel Angel Pascual-Itoiz, Leticia Sampedro, Julen Tomás-Cortázar, Ainize Peña-Cearra, Aize Pellón, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Leticia Abecia, Félix Elortza, Ana M Aransay, Héctor Rodríguez, Juan Anguita
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system with the ability to phagocytose and induce a global pattern of responses that depend on several signaling pathways. We have determined the biosignature of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and human blood monocytes using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. We identified a common pattern of genes that are transcriptionally regulated and overall indicate that the response to B. burgdorferi involves the interaction of spirochetal antigens with several inflammatory pathways corresponding to primary (triggered by pattern-recognition receptors) and secondary (induced by proinflammatory cytokines) responses...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Scott R Larson, Xia Lee, Susan M Paskewitz
Two species of mice, the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque; Rodentia: Cricetidae) and the woodland deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner; Rodentia: Cricetidae), serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens in many parts of North America. However, the role P. maniculatus plays in the amplification and maintenance of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichiaceae) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) is not well understood. In northern Wisconsin, from 2012 to 2014, 560 unique mice were captured at 83 sites distributed across five forests...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hanna Carlsson, Christina Ekerfelt, Anna J Henningsson, Lars Brudin, Ivar Tjernberg
BACKGROUND: Determinants of a subclinical course of Lyme borreliosis (LB) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent, sex and age profiles of subclinical Borrelia seroconversion in a LB endemic area in Sweden and to map blood cellular Borrelia-specific immune marker patterns in individuals with a previous subclinical LB course compared with patients previously diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). METHODS: A large group of 1113 healthy blood donors was screened for multiple IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies and asked to complete a health inquiry regarding previous LB...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Bessie H Lockwood, Iga Stasiak, Madeleine A Pfaff, Christopher A Cleveland, Michael J Yabsley
The geographical distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma maculatum ticks is poorly understood in Kentucky. We conducted a convenience survey of wildlife species (white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus canadensis) and black bears (Ursus americanus)) for ticks from October 2015 to January 2017. We detected four tick species including Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor albipictus, I. scapularis and A. maculatum. Although the former two tick species were previously known to be widely distributed in Kentucky, we also found that I...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
A Gryczyńska, T Gortat, M Kowalec
The anticipated worldwide surge in urban environments is generating ever-greater interest in the study of host-pathogen interactions in this specific type of habitat. We investigated the potential of city-inhabiting rodents to serve as the main Lyme borreliosis agents (Borrelia spp.) reservoir. We also tried to verify if anthropogenic disturbances changing the vertebrate species community composition may also alter the scheme of Borrelia spp. circulation. A total of 252 Apodemus mice (A. agrarius, A. flavicollis, A...
March 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Aurélie Morand, Emmanouil Angelakis, Mehdi Ben Chaabane, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Skin infections are among the leading causes of diseases in travelers. Diagnosing pathogens could be difficult. METHOD: We applied molecular assays for the diagnostic of a large collection of skin biopsies and swabs from travelers with suspected skin infections. All samples were tested by qPCR for Coxiella burnetti, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp., Borrelia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Tropheryma whipplei, Francisella tularensis, Mycobacteria sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Leishmania spp...
March 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Sándor Hornok, Krisztina Szőke, Péter Estók, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Anne-Jifke Haarsma, Dávid Kováts, Sándor A Boldogh, Pál Morandini, Sándor Szekeres, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Marina L Meli, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Beatrice Weibel, Enikő Gönczi, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mijntje M I Schellekens, Mayte E van Alebeek, Renate M Arntz, Nathalie E Synhaeve, Noortje A M M Maaijwee, Hennie C Schoonderwaldt, Maureen J van der Vlugt, Ewoud J van Dijk, Loes C A Rutten-Jacobs, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
BACKGROUND: The role of hypercoagulable states and preceding infections in the etiology of young stroke and their role in developing recurrent ischemic events remains unclear. Our aim is to determine the prevalence of these conditions in patients with cryptogenic stroke at young age and to assess the long-term risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with and without a hypercoagulable state or a recent pre-stroke infection with Borrelia or Syphilis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively included patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, aged 18-50, admitted to our hospital between 1995 and 2010...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
David J Lieske, Vett K Lloyd
Ixodes scapularis, a known vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), is undergoing range expansion in many parts of Canada. The province of New Brunswick, which borders jurisdictions with established populations of I. scapularis, constitutes a range expansion zone for this species. To better understand the current and potential future distribution of this tick under climate change projections, this study applied occupancy modelling to distributional records of adult ticks that successfully overwintered, obtained through passive surveillance...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ana Cláudia Norte, David Costantini, Pedro Miguel Araújo, Marcel Eens, Jaime Albino Ramos, Dieter Heylen
By draining resources, microparasites can negatively affect the host fitness, which in turn can result in reduced transmission when virulence leads to reductions in host population size. Therefore, for a microparasite to persist in nature, the level of harm it can do to its host is expected to be limited. We tested this hypothesis for tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infections in the blackbird Turdus merula, one of the most important avian reservoir hosts in Europe. Experimental and observational data were combined to examine the physiological effects caused by B...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Barbara A Qurollo, Peter A Larsen, Hajanirina H Rakotondrainibe, Karine Mahefarisoa, Tsiky Rajaonarivelo, Josia Razafindramanana, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Randall E Junge, Cathy V Williams
The discovery and characterization of emerging tick-borne organisms are critical for global health initiatives to improve animal and human welfare (One Health). It is possible that unknown tick-borne organisms underlie a subset of undiagnosed illness in wildlife, domesticated species, and humans. Our study lends support to the One Health concept by highlighting the prevalence of three blood-borne organisms in wild lemurs living in close proximity to domesticated species and humans. Previously, our team identified three novel, presumably tick-borne, intravascular organisms, belonging to the genera Babesia, Borrelia, and Neoehrlichia, circulating in two of Madagascar's lemur species...
February 17, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Kevin A Lawrence, Crystal L Richards, Frank C Gherardini
Polyamines are an essential class of metabolites found throughout all kingdoms in life. Borrelia burgdorferi harbors no enzymes to synthesize or degrade polyamines yet does contain a polyamine uptake system, potABCD. In this report, we describe the initial characterization of this putative transport system. After several unsuccessful attempts to inactivate potABCD, we placed the operon under the control of an inducible LacI promoter expression system. Analyses of this construct confirmed that potABCD was required for in vitro survival...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Ashley L Marcinkiewicz, Ilva Lieknina, Svetlana Kotelovica, Xiuli Yang, Peter Kraiczy, Utpal Pal, Yi-Pin Lin, Kaspars Tars
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the US and Europe. No potent human vaccine is currently available. The innate immune complement system is vital to host defense against pathogens, as complement activation on the surface of spirochetes results in bacterial killing. Complement system is inhibited by the complement regulator factor H (FH). To escape killing, B. burgdorferi produces an outer surface protein CspZ that binds FH to inhibit complement activation on the cell surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
T J Divers, R B Gardner, J E Madigan, S G Witonsky, J J Bertone, E L Swinebroad, S E Schutzer, A L Johnson
Borrelia burgdorferi infection is common in horses living in Lyme endemic areas and the geographic range for exposure is increasing. Morbidity after B. burgdorferi infection in horses is unknown. Documented, naturally occurring syndromes attributed to B. burgdorferi infection in horses include neuroborreliosis, uveitis, and cutaneous pseudolymphoma. Although other clinical signs such as lameness and stiffness are reported in horses, these are often not well documented. Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on exposure to B...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Bjørn Barstad, Hanne Quarsten, Dag Tveitnes, Sølvi Noraas, Ingvild S Ask, Maryam Saeed, Franziskus Bosse, Grete Vigemyr, Ilka Huber, Knut Øymar
The current diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) antibody index (AI) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), has insufficient sensitivity in the early phase of LNB. We aimed to elucidate the diagnostic value of Bb PCR in CSF from children with symptoms suggestive of LNB and explore Bb genotypes associated with LNB in children. Children were prospectively included into predefined groups with high or low likelihood of LNB based on diagnostic guidelines (LNB symptoms, CSF pleocytosis and Bb antibodies), or detection of other causative agents...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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