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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151040/meningoencephalitis-in-a-royal-marine-after-skinning-reindeer-in-norway
#1
Christopher A Pollard, D S Burns, B Ho, A McD Johnston
Meningoencephalitis presenting in service personnel overseas may present a diagnostic challenge due to the broad range of potential differential diagnosis as well as the requirement for rapid assessment and treatment. A 25-year-old Royal Marine was evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham, UK, with a history of rash consistent with erythema chronicum migrans, a seizure, and lymphocytic pleocytosis after skinning reindeer in Norway. Neuroborreliosis was suspected and empirical antibiotics were administered...
November 18, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149281/seroreactivity-to-the-c6-peptide-in-borrelia-miyamotoi-infections-occurring-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#2
Phillip J Molloy, Karen E Weeks, Brittany Todd, Gary P Wormser
Background: There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved diagnostic tests for Borrelia miyamotoi infection, an emerging tick-borne illness in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the FDA-approved C6 peptide ELISA currently used to diagnose Lyme disease may potentially serve as a diagnostic test for B. miyamotoi infections. Methods: Serum specimens from 30 patients from the Northeastern United States with B. miyamotoi infection established by a polymerase chain reaction assay of a blood specimen were tested using the C6 ELISA...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145396/detection-of-relapsing-fever-borrelia-spp-bartonella-spp-and-anaplasmataceae-bacteria-in-argasid-ticks-in-algeria
#3
Ismail Lafri, Basma El Hamzaoui, Idir Bitam, Hamza Leulmi, Reda Lalout, Oleg Mediannikov, Mohamed Chergui, Mohamed Karakellah, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127407/crystal-structure-of-borrelia-turicatae-protein-bta121-a-differentially-regulated-%C3%A2-gene-in-the-tick-mammalian-transmission-cycle-of-relapsing-fever-spirochetes
#4
Zhipu Luo, Alan J Kelleher, Rabih Darwiche, Elissa M Hudspeth, Oluwatosin K Shittu, Aparna Krishnavajhala, Roger Schneiter, Job E Lopez, Oluwatoyin A Asojo
Tick-borne relapsing fever (RF) borreliosis is a neglected disease that is often misdiagnosed. RF species circulating in the United States include Borrelia turicatae, which is transmitted by argasid ticks. Environmental adaptation by RF Borrelia is poorly understood, however our previous studies indicated differential regulation of B. turicatae genes localized on the 150 kb linear megaplasmid during the tick-mammalian transmission cycle, including bta121. This gene is up-regulated by B. turicatae in the tick versus the mammal, and the encoded protein (BTA121) is predicted to be surface localized...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126839/the-epidemic-typhus-and-trench-fever-are-risk-for-public-health-due-to-increased-migration-in-southeast-of-turkey
#5
Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125008/does-more-favourable-handling-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-increase-the-diagnostic-sensitivity-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-specific-pcr-in-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#6
Kristine J N Forselv, Åslaug R Lorentzen, Unn Ljøstad, Åse Mygland, Randi Eikeland, Vivian Kjelland, Sølvi Noraas, Hanne Quarsten
BACKGROUND: Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. METHODS: Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA)...
November 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124413/assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-hyalomma-aegyptium-h-marginatum-and-h-excavatum-ticks-through-tag-encoded-pyrosequencing
#7
Adem Keskin, Ahmet Bursali, David E Snow, Scot E Dowd, Saban Tekin
Ticks are among the most significant human-biting ectoparasites and they play a major role in transmission of many pathogenic agents to humans. In the present study, three species of Hyalomma ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum and H. excavatum, were examined for the presence of zoonotic bacteria, both male and female ticks alike. Examination of microbial diversity with tag-encoded pyrosequencing indicates that H. marginatum and H. excavatum were more diversity rich than H. aegyptium. Although numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial genera were detected, including Acidovorax, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bdellovibrio, Clostridium, Curvibacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Limnohabitans, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia, Sarcina, Sediminibacterium, Segetibacter Stenotrophomonas and Variovorax, the predominant zoonotic bacteria represented in these ticks were genera Borrelia, Francisella, and Rickettsia...
November 9, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121976/prevalence-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-questing-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-in-urban-and-suburban-areas-of-switzerland
#8
Corinne P Oechslin, Daniel Heutschi, Nicole Lenz, Werner Tischhauser, Olivier Péter, Olivier Rais, Christian M Beuret, Stephen L Leib, Sergei Bankoul, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann
BACKGROUND: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. RESULTS: Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub-) urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), 2...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120859/tick-borne-infections-and-co-infections-in-patients-with-non-specific-symptoms-in-poland-tick-borne-infections-and-co-infections
#9
Justyna Dunaj, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Izabela Swiecicka, Martin Andersson, Piotr Czupryna, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Grzegorz Zambrowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Sambor Grygorczuk, Maciej Kondrusik, Renata Świerzbińska, Sławomir Pancewicz
AIM: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 118 patients hospitalised for non-specific symptoms up to 8 weeks after tick bite from 2010 to 2013 were examined for tick-borne infections. ELISA, Western blot and/or molecular biology (PCR; fla gene; 16S rRNA; sequencing) and thin blood smears (MDD) were used...
November 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116038/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-proteins-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutics-against-lyme-disease
#10
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110020/granuloma-annulare-and-morphea-correlation-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-infections-and-chlamydia-related-bacteria
#11
Lauri Tolkki, Kati Hokynar, Seppo Meri, Jaana Panelius, Mirja Puolakkainen, Annamari Ranki
A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA) or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order), using a PCR-based method. Borrelia DNA was detected in 7/73 (9.6%) biopsies with GA and in 1/36 (2.8 %) biopsies with morphea, while Chlamydiales DNA was found in 53/73 (72...
November 7, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103949/association-of-borrelia-and-rickettsia-spp-and-bacterial-loads-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks
#12
Marie-Kristin Raulf, Daniela Jordan, Volker Fingerle, Christina Strube
In recent years, awareness of coinfections has increased as synergistic or antagonistic effects on interacting bacteria have been observed. To date, several reports on coinfections of ticks with Rickettsia and Borrelia spp. are available. However, associations are rarely described and studies are based on rather low sample sizes. In the present study, coinfections of Ixodes ricinus with these pathogens were investigated by determining their association in a meta-analysis. A total of 5079 tick samples examined for Rickettsia and Borrelia spp...
October 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102094/early-disseminated-lyme-disease-masquerading-as-mononucleosis-a%C3%A2-case-report
#13
Richard Tumminello, Lindsey Glaspey, Anita Bhamidipati, Patrick Sheehan, Sundip Patel
BACKGROUND: Disseminated Lyme disease can be difficult to diagnose, as it begins with nonspecific signs and symptoms, which, if not treated correctly, can lead to atrioventricular conduction blocks and meningitis. In addition, the diagnosis can be further complicated by potentially false-positive test results. CASE REPORT: We report a case of early-disseminated Lyme disease presenting with Borrelia meningitis and concomitant Lyme carditis, which was misdiagnosed as mononucleosis...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099340/humoral-immunity-in-mice-transplanted-with-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-recapitulates-that-of-human-infants
#14
Justin A Walker, Raja Vuyyuru, Tim Manser, Kishore R Alugupalli
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been referred to as "Human Immune System" (HIS) mice and are a translational platform for studying human immune responses in vivo. Human HSC sources used in generating HIS mice include fetal liver (FL), umbilical cord blood (CB), and adult bone marrow (BM). Since HSCs from FL, CB, and BM are produced at various stages of human development, we tested whether mice transplanted with these three HSCs differ in their immune responses...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084219/ecological-niche-modeling-and-distribution-of-ornithodoros-hermsi-associated-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-western-north-america
#15
Kylie M Sage, Tammi L Johnson, Michael B Teglas, Nathan C Nieto, Tom G Schwan
Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084186/-morphological-and-immunological-variation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-and-diagnostic-methods
#16
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Diagnostic problems observed in patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi are a significant impediment to therapeutic decision making. It appears that the pathogen is characterized by morphological and immunological variation in particular stages of development. The bacterium has the ability to morphologically transform into a cell wall deficient form of spheroplast, L-form, bleb-like spirochetes and round body/form cysts. It also has the ability to create biofilm, which is a major barrier to antibiotics...
October 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075628/selective-essential-oils-from-spice-or-culinary-herbs-have-high-activity-against-stationary-phase-and-biofilm-borrelia-burgdorferi
#17
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Nevena Zubcevik, Judith Miklossy, Ying Zhang
Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064060/regulation-of-gene-and-protein-expression-in-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#18
Brian Stevenson, Janakiram Seshu
The infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi necessitates persistent infection of both vertebrates and ticks, and efficient means of transmission between those two very different types of hosts. The Lyme disease spirochete has evolved mechanisms to sense its location in the infectious cycle, and use that information to control production of the proteins and other factors required for each step. Numerous components of borrelial regulatory pathways have been characterized to date. Their effects are being pieced together, thereby providing glimpses into a complex web of cooperative and antagonistic interactions...
October 25, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063857/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-activity-in-saliva-of-various-tick-species-and-its-appearance-during-the-feeding-period
#19
Marketa Rezkova, Jan Kopecky
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammatory process. In the skin, it contributes to immune containment of tick-transmitted pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi. In the saliva of some tick species, active compounds are present that inhibit detection of TNF in specific ELISA. We compared the presence of anti-TNF activity in saliva or salivary gland extract from 11 tick species from the family Ixodidae and demonstrated it in genera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844. Analysis of anti-TNF activity in Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) saliva during the feeding period showed that it is present in the late, rapid phase of engorgement...
October 20, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063358/geographic-distribution-and-incidence-of-lyme-borreliosis-in-the-west-of-ireland
#20
A Vellinga, H Kilkelly, J Cullinan, B Hanahoe, M Cormican
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common tick-transmitted infection in temperate regions. Infection often presents with erythema migrans and/or other clinical features in early infection. METHODS: Blood samples are submitted for testing for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme immunoassay and positive samples are confirmed by a reference laboratory by IgG and IgM line immune assay. A retrospective extraction of all laboratory requests and results for Lyme borreliosis from 2011 to 2014 was performed...
October 23, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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