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pneumonia nosocomial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726611/added-value-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-a-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-outbreak1
#1
Elena Charpentier, Cécile Garnaud, Claire Wintenberger, Sébastien Bailly, Jean-Benjamin Murat, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Thibault Drouet, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Olivier Epaulard, Muriel Cornet, Sylvie Larrat, Danièle Maubon
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major threat for immunocompromised patients, and clusters of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) have been increasingly described in transplant units during the past decade. Exploring an outbreak transmission network requires complementary spatiotemporal and strain-typing approaches. We analyzed a PCP outbreak and demonstrated the added value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of P. jirovecii strains. Thirty-two PCP patients were included...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713357/extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-china-molecular-investigation-of-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-informing-therapy-and-clinical-outcomes
#2
Wenzi Bi, Haiyang Liu, Rhys A Dunstan, Bin Li, Von Vergel L Torres, Jianming Cao, Lijiang Chen, Jonathan J Wilksch, Richard A Strugnell, Trevor Lithgow, Tieli Zhou
The rise in diversity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae is becoming a serious antibiotic management problem. We sought to investigate the molecular characteristics and clinical implications of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae isolated from different nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) patients from July 2013 to November 2015. Even in combination treatment, meropenem did not protect against mortality of BSIs patients (P = 0.015). In contrast, tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobial agents significantly protected against mortality (P = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688711/outcomes-of-octogenarians-discharged-from-the-hospital-after-prolonged-intensive-care-unit-length-of-stay-after-cardiac-surgery
#3
Rakesh C Arora, Rizwan A Manji, Rohit K Singal, Brett Hiebert, Alan H Menkis
OBJECTIVE: Octogenarians offered complex cardiac surgery frequently experience a prolonged intensive care unit length of stay; however, minimal data exist on the outcomes of these patients. We sought to determine the rates and predictors of 1-year noninstitutionalized survival ("functional survival") and rehospitalization for octogenarian patients with prolonged intensive care unit length of stay after cardiac surgery and who were discharged from hospital. METHODS: The outcomes of discharged patients aged 80 years or more who underwent cardiac surgery with prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (≥5 consecutive days) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, were examined retrospectively from linked clinical and administrative provincial databases...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683724/first-report-of-cavitary-pneumonia-due-to-community-acquired-acinetobacter-pittii-study-of-virulence-and-overview-of-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#4
Romaric Larcher, Alix Pantel, Erik Arnaud, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter pittii is a nosocomial pathogen rarely involved in community-acquired infections. We report for the first time that A. pittii can be responsible for cavitary community-acquired pneumonia and study its virulence, and discuss its pathogenesis and treatment options. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman with a history of smoking and systemic lupus was admitted to Nimes University Hospital (France) with coughing and sputum lasting for three weeks...
July 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681941/the-respiratory-threat-posed-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Oriol Sibila
Respiratory infections are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. In recent years, an increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been described. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii have been identified as causative pathogens of different respiratory tract infections. Several studies have detected MDR-GNB in patients with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Furthermore, MDR-GNB have also been isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis having acute or chronic bronchial infection...
July 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681751/assessment-of-surgical-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neurosurgical-intensive-care-unit-patients-alarming-observations
#6
Deepashu Sachdeva, Daljit Singh, Poonam Loomba, Amandeep Kaur, Monica Tandon, Ishu Bishnoi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) and contributes to a longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, duration of MV, and a high morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of study was to determine the incidence of VAP in neurosurgery ICU patients and to assess the probable contributing neurosurgical risk factors like the site and nature of the lesion in the brain, the duration of surgery, blood loss during surgery, and infection elsewhere in the body, in the development of VAP...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677407/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-meropenem-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-patients-by-monte-carlo-simulation
#7
Lingti Kong, Yan Tang, Xiaohua Zhang, Guoyu Lu, Meiling Yu, Qingping Shi, Xiaofei Wu
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is a frequent complication among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, there are currently no pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to guide meropenem dosing in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the PK/PD properties of meropenem in these patients and whether the usual dosing regimens of meropenem (2-hour infusion, 1 g, every 8 hours) was suitable. METHODS: A total of 11 patients with a diagnosis of ICH complicated with NP were selected in the emergency internal medicine and treated with a 1-g/2-hours extended infusion model...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671150/emerging-trends-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-unit-of-a-tertiary-care-public-teaching-hospital-in-western-india
#8
Rakesh Bhadade, Minal Harde, Rosemarie deSouza, Ashwini More, Ramesh Bharmal
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia poses great challenge to an intensivist. Detailed information about hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is crucial for prevention and optimal management, thus improving quality Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Hence, we aimed to study the current trend of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospective observational cohort study, conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 18 months...
July 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671080/targeted-surveillance-and-infection-related-risk-factors-of-nosocomial-infection-in-patients-after-neurosurgical-operation
#9
Lixi Jiang, Linping Guo, Rentao Li, Suzhen Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of nosocomial infection in patients after neurosurgical operations, so as to provide reasonable, effective preventative measures in the future. A total of 1,600 patients with brain tumors, hydrocephalus, craniocerebral trauma and vascular disease treated in the neurosurgery room were chosen for targeted surveillance; and through analysis on the clinical data of patients, the incidence of nosocomial infection, the site of infection and the distribution of pathogens, we investigated the infection-related risk factors...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670975/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-bloodstream-infection-indian-experience
#10
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Chaitra Shankar, Susmitha Karunasree, Shantha Kumari, Raji Ravi, Ravikar Ralph
Increased incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative infection has resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the commonest MDR pathogens causing bacteraemia with limited therapeutic options such as colistin and tigecycline. Present study focused on molecular characterisation of MDR K. pneumoniae from bloodstream infection and their clinical outcome. A total of 115 K. pneumoniae from January 2015 to September 2016 were included in the study which comprised of phenotypically identified ESBL and carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670639/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-in-iran-a-review
#11
Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Tala Pourlak, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram- negative bacteria (GNB), particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have increased all over the world. ESBLs are characterized by their ability to hydrolyze β-lactams, early cephalosporins, oxyimino-thiazolyl cephalosporins, and monobactams, but not cephamycins or carbapenems. The rate of nosocomial infections caused by ESBL-producing GNB in Asia Pacific has increased and several studies have identified their prevalence in the region...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670449/no-nosocomial-transmission-under-standard-hygiene-precautions-in-short-term-contact-patients-in-case-of-an-unexpected-esbl-or-q-a-e-coli-positive-patient-a-one-year-prospective-cohort-study-within-three-regional-hospitals
#12
Dennis Souverein, Sjoerd M Euser, Bjorn L Herpers, Corry Hattink, Patricia Houtman, Amerens Popma, Jan Kluytmans, John W A Rossen, Jeroen W Den Boer
BACKGROUND: Many Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) positive patients are found unexpectedly in clinical cultures, besides patients who are screened and isolated based on risk factors. As unexpected HR-GNR positive patients are isolated after detection, transmission to contact patients possibly occurred. The added value of routine contact tracing in such situations within hospitals with standard hygiene precautions is unknown. METHODS: In 2014, this study was performed as a prospective cohort study...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670346/molecular-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-stool-specimens-of-outpatients-in-sentinel-hospitals-beijing-china-2010-2015
#13
Bing Lu, Haijian Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mei Qu, Ying Huang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with community-acquired infections and nosocomial infections. From 2010 to 2015, K. pneumoniae testing was included into the exiting diarrhea-syndrome surveillance with objective to estimate the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in diarrhea-syndrome patients, test antibiotics susceptibility and investigate molecular characteristics. METHODS: Stool specimens from diarrhea-syndrome outpatients were cultured and identified the pathogens by the Vitek2 Compact instrument...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638419/diagnostic-yield-of-a-direct-quantitative-smear-of-lower-respiratory-tract-secretions-in-patients-with-suspected-pneumonia-compared-to-a-semi-quantitative-culture
#14
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Maryam Sadeghi, Latif Gachkar, Samaneh Dolatshahi
BACKGROUND: Microorganism isolation from respiratory tract specimens is the standard of care in patients with suspected nosocomial and ventilator associated pneumonia. However, these methods are time-consuming and are influenced by several factors. A direct quantitative smear (DQS) with proper staining may be an easy, cost-effective, rapid method. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of direct smears compared to semi-quantitative culture methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospitalized, intubated patients with clinically suspected pneumonia and patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopic alveolar lavage (BAL) and trans-endotracheal aspiration (TEA) were enrolled in a prospective study...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636666/molecular-and-microbiological-report-of-a-hospital-outbreak-of-ndm-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-mexico
#15
Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Elvira Garza-González, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Humberto Barrios, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Santiago Petersen-Morfin, Jesus Silva-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiological, molecular and epidemiological data of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. METHODS: From September 2014 to July 2015, all CRE clinical isolates recovered during an outbreak in the Hospital Civil "Fray Antonio Alcalde" in Jalisco, Mexico were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase production, carbapenemase-encoding genes, and plasmid profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625267/-application-of-quality-control-chart-in-quality-control-for-nosocomial-infection-in-intensive-care-unit
#17
Yumei Cheng, Yuanyi Liu, Difen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of control chart in the management of nosocomial infection in intensive care unit (ICU) by using quality control chart to monitor the infections in ICU. METHODS: From October 2011 to June 2016, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), namely the three catheters, occurred in ICU of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University were monitored and recorded monthly, then the data was imput into the Excel, and the data was analyzed using SPSS...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623574/the-bactericidal-effect-of-simultaneous-titanium-oxide-on-common-hospital-bacteria
#18
Ziaeddin Bonyadi, Maisam Mirzaee, Mohammad Mehdi Ejtehadi, Mehdi Mokhtari
Bacteria prevalence has increased in health centers and hospitals. Infection control can decrease the number of bacteria. Bacteria cause 90% of nosocomial infections and fungi, viruses, or protozoa are less involved. Bacteria control can decrease the number of diseases. The Simultaneous titanium oxide (SMTiO) is a new method of disinfection. This process degrades bacteria by producing hydroxyl radical. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the bactericidal effect of simultaneous titanium oxide on common hospital bacteria...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617330/identification-of-pathogenic-factors-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-using-impedimetric-sensor-equipped-with-biomimetic-surfaces
#19
Duyen Thi Ngoc Huynh, Ah-Young Kim, Young-Rok Kim
K.pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections, such as, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic shock, and gastro intestinal disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, and fimbriae are recognized major virulence factors of K.pneumoniae and play key roles during early stages of infections. In this study, we functionalized the surface of gold electrode with mannose and mucin to monitor the adhesion-associated virulence factors of K.pneumoniae. The binding characteristics of K...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615687/multi-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-circulating-in-hospital-setting-whole-genome-sequencing-and-bayesian-phylogenetic-analysis-for-outbreak-investigations
#20
Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Alessandra Lo Presti, Marta Fogolari, Taj Azarian, Mattia Prosperi, Marco Salemi, Michele Equestre, Francesca Antonelli, Alessia Conti, Marina De Cesaris, Silvia Spoto, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Roberto Coppola, Giordano Dicuonzo, Silvia Angeletti
Carbapenems resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections are increasing worldwide representing an emerging public health problem. The application of phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses to bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) data have become essential in the epidemiological surveillance of multi-drug resistant nosocomial pathogens. Between January 2012 and February 2013, twenty-one multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae strains, were collected from patients hospitalized among different wards of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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