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pneumonia nosocomial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943270/investigation-of-nosocomial-pneumocystis-infections-usefulness-of-longitudinal-screening-of-epidemic-and-post-epidemic-pneumocystis-genotypes
#1
Gilles Nevez, Solène Le Gal, Natacha Noel, Alain Wynckel, Antoine Huguenin, Yohann Le Govic, Laurence Pougnet, Michèle Virmaux, Dominique Toubas, Odile Bajolet
BACKGROUND: Twenty-five patients, of whom 22 were renal transplant recipients, developed Pneumocystis jirovecii (P.jirovecii) infections at the nephrology department of Reims University Hospital (France) from September 2008 through October 2009, whereas only four sporadic cases had been diagnosed in this department over the 14 previous years. AIM: This outbreak was investigated by analyzing patient encounters and P.jirovecii types. METHODS: A transmission map was drawn up...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941825/expression-and-purification-of-functionally-active-ferrous-iron-transporter-feob-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#2
Aaron T Smith, Alexandrea E Sestok
The acquisition of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is an important virulence factor utilized by several hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae to establish infection within human hosts. Virtually all bacteria use the ferrous iron transport system (Feo) to acquire ferrous iron from their environments, which are often biological niches that stabilize Fe(2+) relative to Fe(3+). However, the details of this process remain poorly understood, likely owing to the few expression and purification systems capable of supplying sufficient quantities of the chief component of the Feo system, the integral membrane GTPase FeoB...
September 20, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939441/caspase-11-deficiency-impairs-neutrophil-recruitment-and-bacterial-clearance-in-the-early-stage-of-pulmonary-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection
#3
Jian Wang, Yue Shao, Wei Wang, Shengjun Li, Na Xin, Fang Xie, Chenghai Zhao
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a gram-negative pathogen, and Klebsiella pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Canonical NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome was found involved in innate immune response against K. pneumoniae, but the role of caspase-11 in K. pneumoniae infection remains undefined. It was shown that Caspase-11 knockout blocked K. pneumoniae-induced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Furthermore, caspase-11(-/-) mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in the early stage of K...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933178/-nosocomial-pneumonia
#4
Jana Skřičková
Nosocomial pneumonia (hospital-acquired pneumonia - HAP) is the form of pneumonia the symptoms of which present after more than 2 days (> 48 hours) of admission to hospital or as late as 14 days of discharge from hospital. The HAP pneumonias represent 13-18 % of all nosocomial infections. Incidence of HAP is the most frequent in mechanically ventilated patients. The type and representation of HAP agents primarily depends on the length of a patients stay in hospital and on their condition and character of treatment...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915364/nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-mexico-city-produce-robust-biofilms-on-abiotic-surfaces-but-not-on-human-lung-cells
#5
Martha Lorena Ostria-Hernandez, Karla Cecilia Juárez-de la Rosa, Patricia Arzate-Barbosa, Antonino Lara-Hernández, Fuminori Sakai, J Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Jorge E Vidal
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) strains are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation, and the production of certain fimbriae play an important role in the pathogenesis. AIM: We investigated the genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and ability to form biofilms of Kpn strains isolated from hospital-acquired infections (n = 76). Strains were isolated at three major hospitals serving the largest metropolitan urban area in Mexico City, Mexico...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900356/humidifiers-for-oxygen-therapy-what-risk-for-reusable-and-disposable-devices
#6
REVIEW
V La Fauci, G B Costa, A Facciolà, A Conti, R Riso, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899399/a-comparison-of-blood-stream-infections-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-and-non-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Eda Karadag Oncel, Asiye Bıcakcigil, Banu Sancak, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Rapid development and global spread of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumoniae) as a major cause of nosocomial infections is really remarkable. The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for health care associated blood stream infections (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in children and analyze clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years-old with blood stream infection caused by K...
September 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894700/targeting-the-type-ii-secretion-system-development-optimization-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-screen-for-the-identification-of-small-molecule-inhibitors
#8
Ursula Waack, Tanya L Johnson, Khalil Chedid, Chuanwu Xi, Lyle A Simmons, Harry L T Mobley, Maria Sandkvist
Nosocomial pathogens that develop multidrug resistance present an increasing problem for healthcare facilities. Due to its rapid rise in antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most concerning gram-negative species. A. baumannii typically infects immune compromised individuals resulting in a variety of outcomes, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Using a murine model for bacteremia, we have previously shown that the type II secretion system (T2SS) contributes to in vivo fitness of A. baumannii...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893646/whole-genome-sequence-of-a-carbapenem-resistant-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate-swu01-with-capsular-serotype-k47-that-belongs-to-st11-from-a-patient-in-china
#9
Luhua Zhang, Ying Li, Wei Shen, Guangxi Wang, Yingshun Zhou
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, Klebsiella pneumoniae is emerging as a leading cause of nosocomial infection due to the rapid prevalence of multidrug resistant strains, particularly the carbapenem resistant isolates. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae SWU01. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and hypermucoviscous phenotype were determined by the disk diffusion method and a positive string test, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892891/distribution-of-class-d-carbapenemase-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-wound-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-infections
#10
Maryam Mohammadi, Setareh Soroush, Somayeh Delfani, Iraj Pakzad, Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud Bahmani, Lidija Bogdanovic, Morovat Taherikalani
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii is dramatically on the rise in Iran. Therefore, it is important to study resistance pattern among Acinetobacter isolates which is a common cause of nosocomial infections. AIM: To investigate antibiotic resistance patterns and the role of resistant genes and biofilm formation in the induction of resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn wound and ventilator associated pneumonia infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 103 isolates such as 33 burn samples from Rasool Akram Hospital and 70 isolates from ventilated patients in Shahid Motahhari Hospital were identified with A...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892887/active-surveillance-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-neurosurgical-patients
#11
Reshu Agarwal, Sarita Mohapatra, Girija Prasad Rath, Arti Kapil
INTRODUCTION: Health Care Associated Infections (HCAI) are frequent complications in neurosurgery. There is limited data available on the incidence and burden of HCAI in neurosurgical patients of Southeast Asian region. AIM: To identify various HCAIs, associated aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among the patients admitted in the neurosurgery unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective study was carried out for three months duration on all neurosurgical patients admitted to a tertiary-care center...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891372/controversies-and-advances-in-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#12
Katherine L Roberts, Marin H Kollef, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang
Although national surveillance data suggests that the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is down-trending, it remains one of the most commonly encountered hospital acquired infections in the United States and worldwide. Its association with increased healthcare costs and worsened patient outcomes warrants continued effort to improve the care of patients with VAP. Areas covered: The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria further drives the need to explore advances in diagnostic and treatment options...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887643/clinical-predictors-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nosocomial-and-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-a-multicenter-matched-case-control-study
#13
J Torre-Cisneros, C Natera, F Mesa, M Trikic, J Rodríguez-Baño
The situations in which coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or severe healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is needed are poorly defined, particularly outside intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to characterize if the risk of MRSA NP/HCAP can be defined by clinical variables. We designed an observational, retrospective, multicenter, case-control study to analyze the association between defined clinical variables and risk of MRSA NP/HCAP in non-ICU patients using conditional multivariable logistic regression...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882012/empirical-treatment-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-lights-and-shadows-of-the-2016-clinical-practice-ats-idsa-guidelines
#14
REVIEW
M Vacas-Córdoba, C Cardozo-Espinola, P Puerta-Alcalde, C Cilloniz, A Torres, C García-Vidal
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common cause of nosocomial infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New clinical practice guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia have been published in 2016 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). This review focuses on the recent recommendations and their limitations. We also focus on new therapeutic options that might improve the treatment and outcomes of these patients...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882006/update-in-infectious-diseases-2017
#15
REVIEW
F J Candel, M Peñuelas, C Lejárraga, T Emilov, C Rico, I Díaz, C Lázaro, J M Viñuela-Prieto, M Matesanz
Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#16
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877171/preventable-proportion-of-intubation-associated-pneumonia-role-of-adherence-to-a-care-bundle
#17
Antonella Agodi, Martina Barchitta, Annalisa Quattrocchi, Emiliano Spera, Giovanni Gallo, Francesco Auxilia, Silvio Brusaferro, Marcello Mario D'Errico, Maria Teresa Montagna, Cesira Pasquarella, Stefano Tardivo, Ida Mura
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the preventable proportion of Intubation-Associated Pneumonia (IAP) in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) participating in the Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in ICUs (SPIN-UTI) network, taking into account differences in intrinsic patients' risk factors, and additionally considering the compliance with the European bundle for IAP prevention. METHODS: A prospective patient-based survey was conducted and all patients staying in ICU for more than 2 days were enrolled in the surveillance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861076/case-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-caused-by-an-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-strain-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#18
Khalit S Khaertynov, Vladimir A Anokhin, Yuri N Davidyuk, Irina V Nicolaeva, Svetlana V Khalioullina, Dina R Semyenova, Evgeny Y Alatyrev, Natalia N Skvortsova, Levon G Abrahamyan
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents among neonates. This pathogen has a potential to develop an increased antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The classic non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), is associated with nosocomial infection mainly in preterm neonates. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infection among previously healthy ambulatory patients, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857848/nebulized-versus-iv-amikacin-as-adjunctive-antibiotic-for-hospital-and-ventilator-acquired-pneumonia-postcardiac-surgeries-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Nehal A Hassan, Faten Farid Awdallah, Maggie M Abbassi, Nirmeen A Sabry
OBJECTIVE: Nebulized antibiotics offer high efficacy due to significant local concentrations and safety with minimal blood levels. This study evaluates the efficacy and nephrotoxicity of nebulized versus IV amikacin in postcardiothoracic surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram--negative bacilli. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study on surgical patients divided into two groups. SETTING: Postcardiac surgery ICU...
August 28, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855004/the-function-of-probiotics-on-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-vap-facts-and-gaps
#20
REVIEW
Feride Karacaer, Imen Hamed, Fatih Özogul, Robert H Glew, Dilek Özcengiz
Probiotics have been used for centuries in making fermented dairy products. The health benefits related to probiotics consumption are well recognized and they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Their therapeutic effects are due to the production of a variety of antimicrobial compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids, organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, formic, propionic and butyric acids), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection associated with high mortality in intensive care units...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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