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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813437/a-systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-internet-use-self-harm-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-young-people-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#1
Amanda Marchant, Keith Hawton, Ann Stewart, Paul Montgomery, Vinod Singaravelu, Keith Lloyd, Nicola Purdy, Kate Daine, Ann John
BACKGROUND: Research exploring internet use and self-harm is rapidly expanding amidst concerns regarding influences of on-line activities on self-harm and suicide, especially in young people. We aimed to systematically review evidence regarding the potential influence of the internet on self-harm/suicidal behaviour in young people. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review based on an electronic search for articles published between 01/01/2011 and 26/01/2015 across databases including Medline, Cochrane and PsychInfo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813410/identification-of-cmtm6-and-cmtm4-as-pd-l1-protein-regulators
#2
Riccardo Mezzadra, Chong Sun, Lucas T Jae, Raquel Gomez-Eerland, Evert de Vries, Wei Wu, Meike E W Logtenberg, Maarten Slagter, Elisa A Rozeman, Ingrid Hofland, Annegien Broeks, Hugo M Horlings, Lodewyk F A Wessels, Christian U Blank, Yanling Xiao, Albert J R Heck, Jannie Borst, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Ton N M Schumacher
The clinical benefit for patients with diverse types of metastatic cancers that has been observed upon blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 has highlighted the importance of this inhibitory axis in the suppression of tumour-specific T-cell responses. Notwithstanding the key role of PD-L1 expression by cells within the tumour micro-environment, our understanding of the regulation of the PD-L1 protein is limited. Here we identify, using a haploid genetic screen, CMTM6, a type-3 transmembrane protein of previously unknown function, as a regulator of the PD-L1 protein...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812578/throw-caution-to-the-wind-is-refeeding-syndrome-really-a-cause-of-death-in-acute-care
#3
K L Matthews, S M Capra, M A Palmer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Refeeding syndrome (RFS), a life-threatening medical condition, is commonly associated with acute or chronic starvation. While the prevalence of patients at risk of RFS in hospital reportedly ranges from 0 to 80%, the prevalence and types of patients who die as a result of RFS is unknown. We aimed to measure the prevalence rate and examine the case histories of patients who passed away with RFS listed as a cause of death. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients were eligible for inclusion provided their death occurred within a Queensland hospital...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#4
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811334/argonaute-8-ago8-mediates-the-elicitation-of-primary-defense-against-herbivory
#5
Maitree Pradhan, Priyanka Pandey, Klaus Gase, Murali Shraff, Ravi K Singh, Avinash Sethi, Ian T Baldwin, Shree P Pandey
In Nicotiana attenuata, specific RNA directed RNA polymerase (RdR1) and the Dicer-like proteins (DCL3 and 4) are recruited during herbivore attack to mediate the regulation of defense responses. However, the identity and role(s) of Argonautes (AGOs) involved in herbivory remains unknown. Of the 11 AGOs in the N. attenuata genome, we silenced the expression of 10. Plants silenced in NaAGO8 expression grew normally but were highly susceptible to herbivore attack. Larvae of the Manduca sexta grew faster when consuming irAGO8 plants, but did not differ from WT when consuming plants silenced in AGO1 (a, b and c), AGO2, AGO4 (a and b), AGO7, or AGO10 expression...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810622/oral-n-acetylcysteine-for-prophylaxis-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-patients-following-coronary-angioplasty-a-meta-analysis
#6
Jing-Xiu Li, En-Ze Jin, Long-Hao Yu, Yang Li, Nan-Nan Liu, Yu-Mei Dong, Xin Li, Xue-Qi Li
It is acknowledged that contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common cause of acute renal insufficiency after cardiac catheterization and affects mortality and morbidity. To date, it is unknown whether oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is able to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to assess the effects of NAC in the prevention of CIN in patients following coronary angioplasty. A total of 19 studies published prior to January 2015 that investigated the efficacy of oral NAC for the prevention of CIN were collected from Medline, Cochrane and Embase databases and conference proceedings from cardiology and nephrology meetings...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807819/carrier-characteristics-influence-the-kinetics-of-passive-drug-loading-into-lipid-nanoemulsions
#7
Katrin Göke, Heike Bunjes
Passive loading as a novel screening approach is a material-saving tool for the efficient selection of a suitable colloidal lipid carrier system for poorly water soluble drug candidates. This method comprises incubation of preformed carrier systems with drug powder and subsequent determination of the resulting drug load of the carrier particles after removal of excess drug. For reliable routine use and to obtain meaningful loading results, information on the kinetics of the process is required. Passive loading proceeds via a dissolution-diffusion based mechanism, where drug surface area and drug water solubility are key parameters for fast passive loading...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807713/opioid-drug-use-and-acute-cardiac-events-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#8
Hamisu M Salihu, Jason L Salemi, Anjali Aggarwal, Beverly F Steele, Ross C Pepper, Mulubrhan F Mogos, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of pregnancy-associated deaths in the United States (US). The extent to which increasing opioid use among pregnant women contributes to fatal cardiovascular events is unknown. We examine trends in opioid use among pregnant women over the previous decade, and the association between changes in temporal trends in opioid drug use and the incidence of acute cardiac events among mothers. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of the Healthcare and Cost Utilization Project (HCUP), we utilized a two-stage stratified cluster sampling of all inpatient hospital discharges from non-federal hospitals between 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2014...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807569/il-10-engineered-human-cd4-tr1-cells-eliminate-myeloid-leukemia-in-an-hla-class-i-dependent-mechanism
#9
Grazia Locafaro, Grazia Andolfi, Fabio Russo, Luca Cesana, Antonello Spinelli, Barbara Camisa, Fabio Ciceri, Angelo Lombardo, Attilio Bondanza, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Silvia Gregori
T regulatory cells (Tregs) play a key role in modulating T cell responses. Clinical trials showed that Tregs modulate graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, their ability to mediate anti-leukemic activity (graft-versus-leukemia [GvL]) is largely unknown. Enforced interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression converts human CD4(+) T cells into T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-like (CD4(IL-10)) cells that suppress effector T cells in vitro and xenoGvHD in humanized mouse models...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807285/sarcoptes-scabiei-alters-follicular-dynamics-in-female-iberian-ibex-through-a-reduction-in-body-weight
#10
José Espinosa, José E Granados, Francisco J Cano-Manuel, Jorge R López-Olvera, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Diego Romero, Ramón C Soriguer, Jesús M Pérez, Paulino Fandos
Normal development of the ovarian cycle is a key factor in ensuring female reproductive success. Sarcoptes scabiei has been shown to induce changes in host physiology, although the effects of this mite on the female reproductive cycle are still unknown. In an attempt to clarify this issue, the number of ovarian structures (primary follicles, secondary follicles, Graaf follicles, corpus luteum and corpus albicans) in female Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange was explored by histological analysis of samples taken from 102 females selectively harvested in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806791/effect-of-access-to-an-electronic-medical-resource-on-performance-characteristics-of-a-certification-examination-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Rebecca S Lipner, Bradley G Brossman, Kelli M Samonte, Steven J Durning
Background: Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Medical certification program...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806642/circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-presented-distinctively-different-responses-toward-bacterial-antigens-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
Zun-Qiang Zhou, Da-Nian Tong, Jiao Guan, Mei-Fang Li, Qi-Ming Feng, Min-Jie Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zhang
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease with unknown causes. The initiation of PBC is associated with bacterial infections and abnormal immune correlates, such as the presence of self-reactive anti-mitochondrial antibodies and shifted balance of T cell subsets. In particular, the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are highly activated in PBC patients and are significantly associated with PBC severity, but the underlying reasons are unknown. In this study, we found that the circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells were enriched with the interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting Th1-subtype and the interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th17-subtype, but not the IL-4-secreting Th2 subtype...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806347/pediatric-pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome
#13
Paul H Phillips, Claire A Sheldon
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, otherwise known as primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), most frequently occurs in obese women of childbearing age. However, children may be affected as well. This review will address recent findings regarding demographics, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric PTCS. Prepubertal children with primary PTCS have an equal sex distribution and less frequent obesity compared with adult patients. However, female gender and obesity are risk factors for primary PTCS in postpubertal children...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805344/high-potential-for-temperate-viruses-to-drive-carbon-cycling-in-chemoautotrophy-dominated-shallow-water-hydrothermal-vents
#14
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Michael Tangherlini, Eleonora Martorelli, Michela Ingrassia, Francesco Latino Chiocci, Marco Lo Martire, Roberto Danovaro
Viruses are the most abundant life forms in the world's oceans and they are key drivers of biogeochemical cycles, but their impact on the microbial assemblages inhabiting hydrothermal vent ecosystems is still largely unknown. Here, we analysed the viral life strategies and virus-host interactions in the sediments of a newly discovered shallow-water hydrothermal field of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study reveals that temperate viruses, once experimentally induced to replicate, can cause large mortality of vent microbes, significantly reducing the chemoautotrophic carbon production, while enhancing the metabolism of microbial heterotrophs and the re-cycling of the organic matter...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804758/brain-calcifications-and-pcdh12-variants
#15
Gaël Nicolas, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Roberta R Lemos, Joana Ferreira, Denis Moura, Maria J Sobrido, Anne-Claire Richard, Alma Rosa Lopez, Andrea Legati, Jean-François Deleuze, Anne Boland, Olivier Quenez, Pierre Krystkowiak, Pascal Favrole, Daniel H Geschwind, Adi Aran, Reeval Segel, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Dennis W Dickson, Giovanni Coppola, Rosa Rademakers, João R M de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential connection between PCDH12 and brain calcifications in a patient carrying a homozygous nonsense variant in PCDH12 and in adult patients with brain calcifications. METHODS: We performed a CT scan in 1 child with a homozygous PCDH12 nonsense variant. We screened DNA samples from 53 patients with primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) and 26 patients with brain calcification of unknown cause (BCUC). RESULTS: We identified brain calcifications in subcortical and perithalamic regions in the patient with a homozygous PCDH12 nonsense variant...
August 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804514/is-eus-guided-drainage-a-suitable-alternative-technique-in-case-of-proximal-biliary-obstruction
#16
Frédérick Moryoussef, Adrien Sportes, Sarah Leblanc, Jean Baptiste Bachet, Stanislas Chaussade, Frédéric Prat
BACKGROUND: Results of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUBD) are unknown in case of proximal stricture. The aim is to assess clinical outcomes of EUBD in patients with malignant hilar obstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing EUBD with hilar strictures were prospectively included. Primary outcome was clinical success at 7 and 30 days (defined by 50% bilirubin decrease). Secondary outcomes were technical success, procedure-related complications, length of hospital stay, reintervention rate, survival and chemotherapy administration...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803955/valproic-acid-exposure-decreases-the-mrna-stability-of-bcl-2-via-up-regulating-mir-34a-in-the-cerebellum-of-rat
#17
Xufang Dai, Yunhou Yin, Liyan Qin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, limited verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Previous studies have shown that the level of Bcl-2 in the brain tissues of ASD patients is significantly decreased. However, the mechanisms underlie the down-regulation of Bcl-2 in ASD is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the alteration of Bcl-2 level and associated mechanisms in valproic acid (VPA) exposed ASD rats. VPA exposure resulted in ASD-like behaviors in rats, such as repetitive behavior and social interaction impairment...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803503/hiv-testing-and-awareness-of-hiv-status-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greater-kuala-lumpur-malaysia
#18
Alexander R Bazazi, Aishwarya Vijay, Forrest W Crawford, Robert Heimer, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
HIV testing services are the gateway into HIV treatment and are critical for monitoring the epidemic. HIV testing is recommended at least annually in high-risk populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID). In Malaysia, the HIV epidemic is concentrated among PWID, but their adherence to testing recommendations and the proportion of HIV-positive PWID who are aware of their status remain unknown. We recruited 460 PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur using respondent-driven sampling and conducted HIV testing. We examined past testing behaviors, estimating testing frequency, correlates of testing in the past 12 months, and the proportion of those living with HIV who were aware of their status...
August 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803258/the-impact-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-morbidity-and-infections-during-azacitidine-treatment
#19
Natalia Lorenzana, Laura Francisca Avila, Sara Alonso, Enrique Colado, Teresa Bernal
The clinical consequences of the infectious events in patients receiving azacitidine are poorly documented. Likewise, the role of primary antimicrobial prophylaxis is unknown. In this retrospective, single-center study, we compare the impact of prophylaxis on the incidence of infection and morbidity in all consecutive higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, during the first 4 azacitidine cycles. Seventy-six patients, corresponding to 283 azacitidine cycles, were studied...
August 13, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803158/balasubramide-derivative-3c-modulates-microglia-activation-via-camkk%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-in-neuroinflammatory-conditions
#20
Yunjie Wang, Wenchen Ruan, Junru Mi, Jingzi Xu, Haojie Wang, Zhengyu Cao, Juan M Saavedra, Luyong Zhang, Hansen Lin, Tao Pang
Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the pathological process of cerebral ischemic stroke, but currently there is no effective treatment. After ischemia, microglia-produced proinflammatory mediator expression contributes to the aggravation of neuroinflammation, while anti-inflammatory activation of microglia develops an anti-neuroinflammatory effect via secretion of anti-inflammatory factor. Promoting the anti-inflammatory activation of microglia might be an effective treatment of stroke. Previously, we discovered one derivative of the natural product (+)-balasubramide, compound 3C, that exhibits a remarkably anti-neuroinflammatory effect in vitro with unknown mechanisms...
August 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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