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dense cataract

Maria J S Guerreiro, Lisa Putzar, Brigitte Röder
Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a brief period of congenital blindness induces long-lasting reorganization within the visual cortex of sight-recovery humans [1, 2]. However, the behavioral consequences of this cross-modal reorganization are not yet known. Here we investigated this question by examining the transfer of motion aftereffects across the visual and auditory modalities within six individuals who had been born blind due to dense bilateral cataracts and regained sight when they were treated at 5-24 months of age...
October 1, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Babulal Kumawat, Yog Raj Sharma
The authors describe a technique to qualitatively analyze the posterior segment during cataract surgery using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). Macular iOCT can be done before and after intraocular lens implantation after the media is rendered clear following phacoemulsification. A handheld irrigating planoconcave contact lens is placed over the cornea with the operating microscope in retroillumination mode. After focusing the microscope and upon getting a clear view of the posterior segment, iOCT is switched on, centered at the macula, and focused...
September 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Bruna Vieira Ventura, Kyle Douglas MacLean, Wagner Lira, Daniele Mendes de Oliveira, Camila Vieira Ventura, Liliana Werner
A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Anirbaan Mukherjee, Richard A Bone
BACKGROUND: Cataract, a leading cause of vision impairment, is due to the lens becoming excessively optically dense. Change in the lens optical density (LOD) could be a useful indicator of incipient nuclear cataract and would necessitate the development of accurate measurement techniques. Mapcat sf™ is a heterochromatic flicker photometer for measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) under photopic conditions. In the process, it also measures LOD that is needed in the calculation of MPOD...
2016: Eye and Vision (London, England)
Soma Saha, Shiva Prasad Gantyala, Sameer Aggarwal, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Radhika Tandon, Ravinder Goswami
Cataract is a cardinal manifestation of hypoparathyroidism. Although patients with hypoparathyroidism require cataract surgery at a younger age than individuals without hypoparathyroidism, there is limited information on the outcome of this surgery. We assessed long-term complications of cataract surgery in patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) and its relationship with their clinical and biochemical parameters. Twenty-seven patients with IH and 25 nonhypoparathyroid controls with a minimum follow-up of 2 years after cataract surgery were assessed for visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens centricity, Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, and the severity of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and anterior capsular opacification...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Michael J Taravella, Beeran Meghpara, Garrett Frank, William Gensheimer, Richard Davidson
PURPOSE: To describe the use of the femtosecond laser in complex cataract cases. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective review of consecutive complex cataract surgery cases in which the Lensx femtosecond laser was used between October 2012 and February 2015. Complex cases were defined as white cataracts, dense brunescent cataracts, or cataracts in which zonulopathy was identified preoperatively...
June 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Eitan Edrei, Giuliano Scarcelli
Several phenomena have been recently exploited to circumvent scattering and have succeeded in imaging or focusing light through turbid layers. However, the requirement for the turbid medium to be steady during the imaging process remains a fundamental limitation of these methods. Here we introduce an optical imaging modality that overcomes this challenge by taking advantage of the so-called shower-curtain effect, adapted to the spatial-frequency domain via speckle correlography. We present high resolution imaging of objects hidden behind millimeter-thick tissue or dense lens cataracts...
January 20, 2016: Optica
Mahalingam Sundararajan, Philip A Thomas, P Archana Teresa, Muniyandi Anbukkarasi, Pitchairaj Geraldine
PURPOSE: Selenite-induced cataract is associated with oxidative stress, loss of calcium homeostasis, activation of calpain enzymes, and apoptotic cell death in the lens. An evaluation of naturally occurring antioxidants that also restrict calcium influx into the lens and calpain activation and thus prevent lenticular cell death may lead to the development of safe and effective anticataractogenic drugs. This study focuses on a naturally occurring flavone, chrysin, and its efficacy in preventing cataractogenic changes in in vitro cultured Wistar rat lenses...
2016: Molecular Vision
Janelle M Fassbender, Denis Jusufbegovic, Shlomit Schaal
PURPOSE: To discuss the use of minimally invasive, small gauge vitrectomy for acute postcataract endophthalmitis in patients with better than light-perception vision. PATIENT: 71-year-old man presented with redness, pain, and decreased vision of his left eye 11 days after cataract extraction. His visual acuity was counting fingers at 1 foot and slit-lamp examination revealed severe conjunctival injection, corneal edema, and hypopyon. The clinical impression was of acute postcataract endophthalmitis...
October 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Lydia B Zablotska
It has been 30 years since the worst accident in the history of the nuclear era occurred at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine close to densely populated urban areas. To date, epidemiological studies reported increased long-term risks of leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and cataracts among cleanup workers and of thyroid cancer and non-malignant diseases in those exposed as children and adolescents. Mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident in the three most contaminated countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation...
June 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Mathew Kurian, Nikhil Negalur, Sudeep Das, Narendra K Puttaiah, Dhawal Haria, Tejal S J, Maithil M Thakkar
PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of a new swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) biometer (IOLMaster 700) and evaluate the agreement with an optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) biometer (Lenstar 900) in cataractous eyes. SETTING: Tertiary eyecare facility. DESIGN: Prospective evaluation of a diagnostic test. METHODS: Eyes of patients had 3 consecutive scans acquired by the same operator. The repeatability of measurements was assessed using the within-subject standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CoV)...
April 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Kuo-Ying Huang, Carolyn N Kingsley, Ryan Sheil, Chi-Yuan Cheng, Jan C Bierma, Kyle W Roskamp, Domarin Khago, Rachel W Martin, Songi Han
We demonstrate that the effect of protein crowding is critically dependent on the stability of the protein's hydration shell, which can dramatically vary between different proteins. In the human eye lens, γS-crystallin (γS-WT) forms a densely packed transparent hydrogel with a high refractive index, making it an ideal system for studying the effects of protein crowding. A single point mutation generates the cataract-related variant γS-G18V, dramatically altering the optical properties of the eye lens. This system offers an opportunity to explore fundamental questions regarding the effect of protein crowding, using γS-WT and γS-G18V: (i) how do the diffusion dynamics of hydration water change as a function of protein crowding?; and (ii) upon hydrogel formation of γS-WT, has a dynamic transition occurred generating a single population of hydration water, or do populations of bulk and hydration water coexist? Using localized spin probes, we separately probe the local translational diffusivity of both surface hydration and interstitial water of γS-WT and γS-G18V in solution...
April 27, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Harsimran Kaur Bhatia, Rakesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Descemet membrane detachment (DMD) is a significant complication noted during or early after cataract surgery. Review of literature revealed a few cases of delayed-onset DMD with presentation ranging from weeks to months after cataract surgery but most of them were treated with pneumatic descemetopexy and a few ended in penetrating keratoplasty. We report this case, to highlight the usefulness of corneal venting incision with air tamponade in late-onset DMD cases not responding to pneumatic descemetopexy...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Jie Chen, En-De Wu, Xin Chen, Lu-He Zhu, Xiaoman Li, Frank Thorn, Yuri Ostrovsky, Jia Qu
How we learn to interact with and understand our environment for the first time is an age-old philosophical question. Scientists have long sought to understand what is the origin of egocentric spatial localization and the perceptual integration of touch and visual information. It is difficult to study the beginnings of intermodal visual-motor and visual-tactile linkages in early infancy since infants' muscular strength and control cannot accurately guide visual-motor behavior and they do not concentrate well [1-6]...
April 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Chung-Hwan Kim, Ungsoo Samuel Kim
A 67-year-old woman complained of horizontal diplopia shortly following bilateral cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation performed under retrobulbar anesthesia. Retrobulbar anesthesia was administered at an inferotemporal injection site using 1 cc lidocaine hydrochloride 2% mixed with bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.5%. The initial ophthalmologic evaluation showed a 12-prism diopter (PD) exotropia, and ocular motility evaluation revealed marked limitation of adduction without vertical limitation. One year after cataract surgery, the exodeviation increased up to 60 PD...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Manuele Michelessi, Kristina Lindsley
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sondip Biswas, Alexander Son, Qili Yu, Renping Zhou, Woo-Kuen Lo
Ephrin-A5, a ligand of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, plays a key role in lens fiber cell packing and cell-cell adhesion, with approximately 87% of ephrin-A5(-/-) mice develop nuclear cataracts. Here, we investigated the extensive formation of light-scattering globules associated with breakdown of interlocking protrusions during lens opacification in ephrin-A5(-/-) mice. Lenses from wild-type (WT) and ephrin-A5(-/-) mice between 2 and 21 weeks old were studied with light and electron microscopy, immunofluorescence labeling, freeze-fracture TEM and filipin cytochemistry for membrane cholesterol detection...
April 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Katharina B Hagen, Dorothea Besselmann, Ulrike Cyrus-Eulenberger, Catharina Vendl, Sylvia Ortmann, Robert Zingg, Ellen Kienzle, Michael Kreuzer, Jean-Michel Hatt, Marcus Clauss
Plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) are large South American, fossorial rodents susceptible to diabetic cataracts. Various aspects of their digestive physiology were studied in three different experiments with nine male and seven female adult animals and six different diets (total n of feeding trials = 35). Viscachas achieved mean retention times of 23–31 hr, which is of a magnitude also recorded in horses; these did not differ for solute or small particle (<2 mm) markers. Secondary marker excretion peaks indicated coprophagy, and were rarer on high-protein as compared to grass hay-only diets...
July 2015: Zoo Biology
Brian C Stagg, Isha Gupta, Judd Cahoon, Cecinio Ronquillo, Dallas Shi, Brian Zaugg, Gareth Gardiner, William R Barlow, Jeff H Pettey, M Aabid Farukhi, Jason Jensen, Randall J Olson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate bent and straight phacoemulsification tips to determine which tip is more efficient in removal of lens fragments, using micropulsed longitudinal ultrasound in phacoemulsification. DESIGN: In vitro laboratory study. METHODS: The John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, was the study setting. Pig lenses hardened in a manner comparable with dense human cataracts were cut into 2-mm cubes and removed with micropulsed longitudinal ultrasound using settings previously shown to be optimally efficient (6 milliseconds on and 6 milliseconds off for a bent tip)...
October 2015: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Maria J S Guerreiro, Maria V Erfort, Jonathan Henssler, Lisa Putzar, Brigitte Röder
Individuals who are born blind due to dense bilateral cataracts and who later regain vision due to cataract surgery provide a unique model to evaluate the effect of early sensory experience in humans. In recent years, several studies have started to assess the functional consequences of early visual deprivation in these individuals, revealing a number of behavioral impairments in visual and multisensory functions. In contrast, the extent to which a transient period of congenital visual deprivation impacts brain structure has not yet been investigated...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
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