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sodium disturbes

Belinda Spoto, Anna Pisano, Carmine Zoccali
Insulin resistance (IR) is an early metabolic alteration in CKD patients, being apparent when the glomerular filtration rate is still within the normal range and becoming almost universal in those who reach the ESKF. The skeletal muscle represents the primary site of IR in CKD and post-receptor alterations are recognized as the main defect underlying IR in this condition. Estimates of IR based on fasting insulin concentration are easier but may not be adequate in CKD patients because renal insufficiency reduces insulin catabolism...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
Peter Gross, Thomas Pusl
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder that arises from disturbances in water metabolism. In cases of acute advanced hyponatremia, serious symptoms are predominant, while chronic mild hyponatremia causes minor symptoms such as slowness, depression or unsteadiness of gait. Any therapy of hyponatremia depends on the severity of its symptoms and on its specific etiology and diagnosis. Concerning the differential diagnosis of the type of hyponatremia, it is initially helpful to distinguish between euvolemic, hypervolemic and hypovolemic forms of hyponatremia...
October 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Eun Young Choi, Youngouk Ro, Jong-Wook Choi, Chong Myung Kang, Gheun-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Cicletanine is an antihypertensive agent with vasorelaxant and diuretic properties. It has been widely used in European countries; however, cicletanine-associated electrolyte disturbances have yet to be defined. We investigated cicletanine-induced hyponatremia and hypokalemia in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Data from a total of 68 kidney transplant recipients who were treated for hypertension with cicletanine were retrospectively analyzed. Cicletanine-induced hyponatremia and hypokalemia were defined as serum sodium < 135 mmol/L and potassium < 3...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Armando Luis Negri, Juan Carlos Ayus
Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia...
September 24, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
C Gils, M-C Eckhardt, P E Nielsen, M Nybo
Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Su-Young Jung, Hyunwook Kim, Seohyun Park, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Hyoungnae Kim, Youn Kyung Kee, Chang-Yun Yoon, Hyung Jung Oh, Tae Ik Chang, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Hajeong Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Seung Hyeok Han
Electrolyte and mineral disturbances remain a major concern in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT); however, it is not clear whether those imbalances are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing CRRT. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 210 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (136 [64.8%] males) in 2 hospitals were enrolled. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate measured before (0 hour) and 24 hours after CRRT initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fredrick Ibinda, Hans-Christoph Zarnack, Charles R Newton
BACKGROUND: Perturbations of blood sodium are the most frequently encountered electrolyte disorder in sick children, and may influence fluid therapy. We examined the frequency of blood sodium perturbations, and factors and outcomes associated with hyponatremia in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital and investigated the risk factors associated with deaths in hyponatremic children. METHODS: Plasma sodium levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in children admitted to a rural Kenyan hospital...
2016: PloS One
Agnieszka Dominiak, Anna Wilkaniec, Piotr Wroczyński, Henryk Jęśko, Agata Adamczyk
Selol is an organic selenitetriglyceride formulation containing selenium at +4 oxidation level that can be effectively incorporated into catalytic sites of of Se-dependent antioxidants. In the present study, the potential antioxidative and cytoprotective effects of Selol against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-evoked oxidative/nitrosative stress were investigated in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms analyzed. Spectrophoto- and spectrofluorimetic methods as well as fluorescence microscopy were used in this study; mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR...
September 2, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Dominque F Leitner, Elizabeth Neely, James R Connor, James O Olopade
Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Astrid van der Heide, Esther Werth, Claire E H M Donjacour, Robert H A M Reijntjes, Gert Jan Lammers, Eus J W Van Someren, Christian R Baumann, Rolf Fronczek
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin temperatures, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed temperature profiles in normal daily life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin temperature. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. METHODS: 25 narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included...
August 19, 2016: Sleep
Lu Cheng, Huimin Jin, Yetao Qiang, Shuiyun Wu, Cheng Yan, Mutian Han, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Epidemiological studies have shown that fat rich western diet contributes to the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, accumulated data indicated that fat dietary factor might promote the change of the composition and metabolism in commensal flora. But, the exact mechanisms for fatty diet in gut inflammation are not well demonstrated. In this study, we found that high fat diet (HFD) promoted inflammation and exacerbated the disease severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice...
August 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Evelise Leis Carvalho, Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Ricardo Vaz Breda, Raquel Soares Oliveira, Thiago Carrazoni de Freitas, Simone Denise Salamoni, Michelle Flores Domingues, Angela Regina Piovesan, Juliano Tomazzoni Boldo, Dênis Reis de Assis, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Paulo Marcos Pinto
Animal venoms have been widely recognized as a major source of biologically active molecules. Bothriurus bonariensis, popularly known as black scorpion, is the arthropod responsible for the highest number of accidents involving scorpion sting in Southern Brazil. Here we reported the first attempt to investigate the neurobiology of B. bonariensis venom (BBV) in the insect and mammalian nervous system. BBV (32 μg/g) induced a slow neuromuscular blockade in the in vivo cockroach nerve-muscle preparations (70 ± 4%, n = 6, p < 0...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
C T Ng, L Y Fong, Y Y Low, J Ban, M N Hakim, Z Ahmad
The endothelial barrier function is tightly controlled by a broad range of signaling cascades including nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway. It has been proposed that disturbances in NO and cGMP production could interfere with proper endothelial barrier function. In this study, we assessed the effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on NO and cGMP levels and examined the mechanisms by which NO and cGMP regulate the IFN-gamma-mediated HUVECs hyperpermeability...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
José Jalife
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the most severe cardiac rhythm disturbance and one of the most important immediate causes of sudden cardiac death. In the structurally normal heart, a small number of stable reentrant sources, perhaps 1 or 2, underlie the mechanism of VF, and the stabilization of the sources, their frequency, and the complexity of the turbulent waves they generate depend on the expression, spatial distribution, and intermolecular interactions of the 2 most important ion channels that control cardiac excitability: the inward rectifier potassium channel, Kir2...
September 2016: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Hiromitsu Miyazaki, Philine Wangemann, Daniel C Marcus
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of acid-base balance in the inner ear is known to be associated with hearing loss in a number of conditions including genetic mutations and pharmacologic interventions. Several previous physiologic and immunohistochemical observations lead to proposals of the involvement of acid-base transporters in stria vascularis. RESULTS: We directly measured acid flux in vitro from the apical side of isolated stria vascularis from adult C57Bl/6 mice with a novel constant-perfusion pH-selective self-referencing probe...
2016: BMC Physiology
Dong Yang, Hans-Göran Tiselius, Chuangxin Lan, Dong Chen, Kang Chen, Lili Ou, Yang Liu, Shaohong Xu, Guohua Zeng, Ming Lei, Wenqi Wu
Urinary stones and urine composition are the first steps in the process of recurrence prevention, but data concerning the association between the two compositions are scarce in Chinese children with urolithiasis. We retrospectively analyzed the records of children (age range 0-18 years) with urolithiasis in our center between March 2004 and December 2013. Stone analysis was carried out in 382 children and 24-hour urine analysis in 80 children. Analysis of both stone and 24-hour urine composition was completed in 56 children...
August 10, 2016: Urolithiasis
Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Joyce Lin, James P Keener, Robert Gourdie, Steven Poelzing
It was recently demonstrated that cardiac sodium channels (Nav1.5) localized at the perinexus, an intercalated disc (ID) nanodomain associated with gap junctions (GJ), may contribute to electrical coupling between cardiac myocytes via an ephaptic mechanism. Impairment of ephaptic coupling by acute interstitial edema (AIE)-induced swelling of the perinexus was associated with arrhythmogenic, anisotropic conduction slowing. Given that Kir2.1 has also recently been reported to localize at intercalated discs, we hypothesized that Kir2...
October 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Rickul Varshney, Jivianne T Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects millions of patients worldwide. The disease is multifactorial with influences including anatomic factors, immunological disturbances, and altered sinonasal microbiome. Although oral medications are effective in controlling some symptoms, they are associated with side effects and long-term use is not ideal. Thus, topical therapies have emerged as an alternative delivery method for localized, high-concentration medication with less side effects...
August 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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