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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736142/respiration-adaptation-of-activated-sludge-under-dissolved-oxygen-and-hypochlorite-stressed-conditions
#1
Zhi-Hua Li, Zhi-Bo Ma, Han-Qing Yu
In this work, the relationship between environmental disturbance and the recovery of activated sludge at a low dissolved oxygen of 0.5mg/l or in the presence of sodium hypochlorite of 1-15mg Cl2/gSS/d was examined. When microorganisms entered their physiological adaptation period, a sharp increase in endogenous respiration rate was observed. The activity recovery potential of sludge depended on the ratio of the endogenous respiration rate to the maximum respiration rate. A subsequent decrease in this ratio after a sharp increase indicates that the disturbance was recoverable...
July 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731153/altered-profile-of-mrna-expression-in-atrioventricular-node-of-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-rats
#2
Frank Christopher Howarth, Khatija Parekh, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Edward Samuel Inbaraj, Murat Oz, Halina Dobrzynski, Thomas Edward Adrian
Prolonged action potential duration, reduced action potential firing rate, upstroke velocity and rate of diastolic depolarization have been demonstrated in atrioventricular node (AVN) cells from streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats. To further clarify the molecular basis of these electrical disturbances, the mRNA profiles encoding a variety of proteins associated with the generation and conduction of electrical activity in the AVN, were evaluated in the STZ‑induced diabetic rat heart. Expression of mRNA was measured in AVN biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720209/the-influence-of-oxazaphosphorine-agents-on-kidney-function-in-rats
#3
Łukasz Dobrek, Beata Skowron, Agnieszka Baranowska, Klaudia Płoszaj, Dorota Bądziul, Piotr Thor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The application of cytostatic oxazaphosphorines such as cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) is associated with the risk of kidney damage that, depending on the type of drug, dose and route of administration, adopts a different clinical entity and severity. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of CP and IF on the kidney histology and function in rats intraperitoneally treated with four doses of either CP or IF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 rats were divided into three groups (10 in each group): group 1 (control), sham treated with saline solution, group 2 (treated with 75mg/kg b...
July 2, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714510/radical-reactions-of-diamine-bis-phenolate-vanadium-iii-complexes-solid-state-binding-of-o2-to-form-a-vanadium-v-peroxo-complex
#4
Sónia Barroso, Ana M Coelho, Pedro Adão, Maria José Calhorda, Ana M Martins
[VCl3(THF)3] reacted with the sodium salt of a tripodal diamine bisphenolate ligand precursor Na2L2 to give a paramagnetic d(2) complex [V(L2)Cl] (2). The reaction of 2 with oxygen is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, affording [VO(L2)Cl] (6) or [V(η(2)-O2)(L2)Cl] (7). The formation of 7 involves the direct addition of O2 to V(iii) in the solid state with oxidation to V(v) without significantly disturbing the structure of 2. DFT calculations showed that compound 7 is an intermediate in the formation of 6 from 2...
July 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703223/unmasking-the-molecular-link-between-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-brugada-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Javier Moncayo-Arlandi, Ramon Brugada
The intercalated discs that connect cardiomyocytes control cell-to-cell adhesion and communication. Several macromolecular structures (desmosomes, fascia adherens junctions, gap junctions, and sodium-channel complexes) coexist in, and confer their mechanical and electrical properties to, the intercalated disc. Traditionally, each structure was assumed to have a unique function in the intercalated disc. However, growing evidence suggests that these complexes act together in intercellular communication and adhesion, forming a single structural and functional entity - the connexome...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699827/evaluation-of-a-passive-method-for-determining-particle-penetration-through-protective-clothing-materials
#6
Peter A Jaques, Lee Portnoff
The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667899/sensitivity-to-antitubulin-chemotherapeutics-is-potentiated-by-a-photoactivable-nanoliposome
#7
Xiaobing Wang, Xiufang Liu, Yixiang Li, Pan Wang, Xiaolan Feng, Quanhong Liu, Fei Yan, Hairong Zheng
Anti-microtubule therapy represents one of the most strategic cancer therapeutics. Tublin inhibitor such as paclitaxel (PTX) is well known to disturb the dynamic nature of microtubules, being considered as the first-line drug for various malignancies. However, PTX does not show favorable clinical outcomes due to serious systemic toxicities and low selectivity. The development of PTX delivery systems and combinational therapies has been conducted to enhance PTX efficacy with poorly defined mechanisms. Herein, we introduced a reactive oxygen species producible composite liposome based on a new photosensitizer sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) to enhance the therapeutic effect of PTX through photochemical stimulation, and more importantly, the pivotal molecular regulation mechanisms were specifically explored...
June 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661008/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#8
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
June 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659029/the-mixture-of-anemarrhena-asphodeloides-and-coptis-chinensis-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-colitis-in-mice
#9
Su-Min Lim, Hyun-Sik Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim
Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648999/in%C3%A2-vitro-protein-synthesis-of-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-and-maize-zea-mays-is-differentially-inhibited-when-potassium-is-substituted-by-sodium
#10
Franziska Faust, Sven Schubert
The substitution of potassium ions (K(+)) by sodium ions (Na(+)) in the nutrition of plants is restricted. It was shown earlier that net protein synthesis is the process which is most sensitive to the substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in young sugar beet. We hypothesized that the activity of ribosomes is inhibited by the substitution. This hypothesis was tested in an in vitro approach. Cytosolic polysomes were isolated from growing leaves of sugar beet and maize by means of differential centrifugation. In vitro systems of both plant species were tested for functionality and comparability...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644464/a-synthetic-ion-transporter-that-disrupts-autophagy-and-induces-apoptosis-by-perturbing-cellular-chloride-concentrations
#11
Nathalie Busschaert, Seong-Hyun Park, Kyung-Hwa Baek, Yoon Pyo Choi, Jinhong Park, Ethan N W Howe, Jennifer R Hiscock, Louise E Karagiannidis, Igor Marques, Vítor Félix, Wan Namkung, Jonathan L Sessler, Philip A Gale, Injae Shin
Perturbations in cellular chloride concentrations can affect cellular pH and autophagy and lead to the onset of apoptosis. With this in mind, synthetic ion transporters have been used to disturb cellular ion homeostasis and thereby induce cell death; however, it is not clear whether synthetic ion transporters can also be used to disrupt autophagy. Here, we show that squaramide-based ion transporters enhance the transport of chloride anions in liposomal models and promote sodium chloride influx into the cytosol...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637591/salicylate-induced-frequency-map-reorganization-in-four-subfields-of-the-mouse-auditory-cortex
#12
Yasutaka Yanagawa, Kengo Takasu, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
Salicylate is the active ingredient in aspirin, and in high-doses it is used as an experimental tool to induce transient hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. These salicylate-induced perceptual disturbances are associated with tonotopic-map reorganization and neural activity modulation, and such neural correlates have been examined in the central auditory pathway, including the auditory cortex (AC). Although previous studies have reported that salicylate induces increases in noise-burst-evoked neural responses and reorganization of tonotopic maps in the primary AC, little is known about the effects of salicylate on other frequency-organized AC subfields such as the anterior auditory, secondary auditory, and dorsomedial fields...
August 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605645/novel-in-vivo-experimental-viability-assays-with-high-sensitivity-and-throughput-capacity-using-a-bdelloid-rotifer
#13
Zita Olah, Ashley I Bush, David Aleksza, Bence Galik, Eszter Ivitz, Lilla Macsai, Zoltan Janka, Zoltan Karman, Janos Kalman, Zsolt Datki
Rotifers have been used in biological research as well-characterized models of aging. Their multi-organ characters and their sensitivity for chemicals and environmental changes make them useful as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Our aim was to create a bdelloid rotifer model to use in high-throughput viability and non-invasive assays. In order to identify our species Philodina acuticornis odiosa (PA), 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out and their species-specific morphological markers identified...
June 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602596/brain-sodium-mri-in-human-epilepsy-disturbances-of-ionic-homeostasis-reflect-the-organization-of-pathological-regions
#14
Ben Ridley, Angela Marchi, Jonathan Wirsich, Elisabeth Soulier, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Lothar Schad, Fabrice Bartolomei, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Maxime Guye, Wafaa Zaaraoui
In light of technical advancements supporting exploration of MR signals other than (1)H, sodium ((23)Na) has received attention as a marker of ionic homeostasis and cell viability. Here, we evaluate for the first time the possibility that (23)Na-MRI is sensitive to pathological processes occurring in human epilepsy. A normative sample of 27 controls was used to normalize regions of interest (ROIs) from 1424 unique brain locales on quantitative (23)Na-MRI and high-resolution (1)H-MPRAGE images. ROIs were based on intracerebral electrodes in ten patients undergoing epileptic network mapping...
June 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601023/%C3%AE-mangostin-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways
#15
Byoung Hoon You, Hee-Sung Chae, Jieun Song, Hyuk Wan Ko, Young-Won Chin, Young Hee Choi
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the colon as a target site. Previous reports regarding the efficacy of α-mangostin (αMG) to inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as relatively high distribution to the colon suggested the therapeutic potential of this compound in UC model. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice (DSS mice), the disease activity index scores involving diarrhea, bloody stool, body weight reduction, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities of the esophagus and colon increased with the reduced colon length...
June 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593499/in-utero-exposure-to-nicotine-alters-the-development-of-the-rabbit-cardiac-conduction-system-and-provides-a-potential-mechanism-for-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#16
Anh Tuan Ton, Michael Biet, Jean-Francois Delabre, Nathalie Morin, Robert Dumaine
In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To alleviate the risks, nicotine replacement therapies are often prescribed to women who wish to quit smoking during their pregnancy. Cardiac arrhythmias is considered the final outcome leading to sudden death. Our goal in this study was to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine altered the cardiac conduction system of newborn kittens in a manner susceptible to cause SIDS. Using neuronal markers and a series of immunohistological and electrophysiological techniques we found that nicotine delayed the development of the cardiac pacemaker center (sinoatrial node) and decreased its innervation...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584071/scn5a-genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-increased-defibrillator-shocks-in-brugada-syndrome
#17
Pattarapong Makarawate, Narumol Chaosuwannakit, Suda Vannaprasaht, Dujdao Sahasthas, Seok Hwee Koo, Edmund Jon Deoon Lee, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul, Hector Barajas-Martinez, Dan Hu, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited primary arrhythmia disorder leading to sudden cardiac arrest. SCN5A, encoding the α-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5), is the most common pathogenic gene of BrS. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the standard treatment for secondary prevention. This study aimed to evaluate association of the SCN5A variant with this cardiac conduction disturbance and appropriate ICD shock therapy in Thai symptomatic BrS patients with ICD implants...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573142/advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-cirrhosis-patients
#18
REVIEW
Lei Lei, Liangping Li, Hu Zhang
Liver cirrhosis is a common progressive and chronic clinical liver disease. Due to the strong compensation ability of the liver, no obvious symptoms develop in the early stage. However, multiple systems are involved in decompensation of the liver. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications, characterized by a sharp drop in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); a rapid increase in Scr and BUN, as well as sodium and water storage; and a disturbance of acid-base balance. The mortality rate is high, and the prognosis is very poor...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564584/hydroalcoholic-extract-from-nerium-oleander-l-apocynaceae-elicits-arrhythmogenic-activity
#19
Ana Flávia Machado Botelho, Artur Santos-Miranda, Humberto Cavalcante Joca, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo Mattoso, Maira Souza de Oliveira, Felipe Pierezan, Jader Santos Cruz, Benito Soto-Blanco, Marília Martins Melo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nerium oleander L. (OLE) has been used medicinally and is reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. OLE effects are caused by different cardiac glycosides (CG), primarily oleandrin, found within the plant. CG can potentially impair sodium-potassium ATPase (NKA) pump activity and cause positive inotropic effects on the heart. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential arrhythmogenic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from N...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551998/self-propulsion-and-shape-restoration-of-aqueous-drops-on-sulfobetaine-silane-surfaces
#20
Vickramjeet Singh, Cyuan-Jhang Wu, Yu-Jane Sheng, Heng-Kwong Tsao
The motion of droplets on typical surfaces is generally halted by contact line pinning associated with contact angle hysteresis. In this study, it was shown that, on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine silane (SBSi)-coated surface, aqueous drops with appropriate solutes can demonstrate hysteresis-free behavior, whereas a pure water drop shows spontaneous spreading. By adding solutes such as polyethylene glycol, 2(2-butoxy ethoxy) ethanol, or sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, an aqueous drop with a small contact angle (disappearance of spontaneous spreading) was formed on SBSi surfaces...
June 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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