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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913732/a-hydantoin-isoform-of-cyclic-n6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine-ct6a-is-present-in-trnas
#1
Michal Matuszewski, Jakub Wojciechowski, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Zofia Gdaniec, Wojciech M Wolf, Tsutomu Suzuki, Elzbieta Sochacka
N(6)-Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A) and its derivatives are universally conserved modified nucleosides found at position 37, 3' adjacent to the anticodon in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications have pleiotropic functions of tRNAs in decoding and protein synthesis. In certain species of bacteria, fungi, plants and protists, t(6)A is further modified to the cyclic t(6)A (ct(6)A) via dehydration catalyzed by TcdA. This additional modification is involved in efficient decoding of tRNA(Lys) Previous work indicated that the chemical structure of ct(6)A is a cyclic active ester with an oxazolone ring...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904267/application-of-topical-acids-improves-atopic-dermatitis-in-murine-model-by-enhancement-of-skin-barrier-functions-regardless-of-the-origin-of-acids
#2
Noo Ri Lee, Hae-Jin Lee, Na Young Yoon, Donghye Kim, Minyoung Jung, Eung Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: The acidic pH of the stratum corneum (SC) is important for epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. Acidification of the skin surface has been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We performed an animal study to evaluate the usefulness of acidification of SC for inhibition of AD lesions and to find out if the therapeutic effect of vinegar is attributable to its herbal contents, rather than its acidity...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882883/electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometric-study-of-protonated-and-alkali-cationized-%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%B5-hybrid-peptides-differentiation-of-a-pair-of-dipeptide-positional-isomers
#3
A Ramesh Babu, G Raju, C Purna Chander, B Shoban Babu, R Srinivas, G V M Sharma
A new class of Boc-N-protected hybrid peptides derived from L- Ala and ε(6)-Caa (L-Ala = L-Alanine, Caa = C-linked carboamino acid derived from D-xylose) have been studied by positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated and alkali-cationized hybrid peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated and alkali-cationized peptides...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866317/spectrofluorimetric-and-potentiometric-determination-of-acidity-constants-of-4-4-acetyloxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-5-oxazolone-derivatives
#4
Derya Topkaya Taskiran, Gulsiye Ozturk Urut, Sevda Ayata, Serap Alp
4-(4'-acetyloxy-3'-methoxybenzylidene)-5-oxazolone fluorescent molecules bearing four different aryl groups attached to the 2-position of 5-oxazolone ring have been investigated by spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques in solution media. The acidity constants (pKa) of the fluorescent molecules were precisely determined in acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylformamide and in 1:1 mixture of toluene-isopropanol. The studied derivatives were titrated with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and non-aqueous perchloric acid by scanning the basic and acidic region of the pH scale...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807191/mast-cells-limit-the-exacerbation-of-chronic-allergic-contact-dermatitis-in-response-to-repeated-allergen-exposure
#5
Vladimir-Andrey Gimenez-Rivera, Frank Siebenhaar, Carolin Zimmermann, Hanna Siiskonen, Martin Metz, Marcus Maurer
Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795312/an-aminotransferase-is-responsible-for-the-deamination-of-the-n-terminal-leucine-and-required-for-formation-of-oxazolone-ring-a-in-methanobactin-of-methylosinus-trichosporium-ob3b
#6
Wenyu Gu, Bipin S Baral, Alan A DiSpirito, Jeremy D Semrau
: Gene expression in methanotrophs has been shown to be affected by the availability of a variety of metals, most notably copper regulating expression of alternative forms of methane monooxygenase. A copper-binding compound or chalkophore called methanobactin plays a key role in copper uptake in methanotrophs. Methanobactin is a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) with two heterocyclic rings with an associated thioamide for each ring, formed from X-Cys dipeptide sequences that bind copper...
October 21, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776738/bone-marrow-derived-innate-macrophages-attenuate-oxazolone-induced-colitis
#7
Zhao Cheng, Hong-Ling Peng, Rong Zhang, Xian-Ming Fu, Guang-Sen Zhang
Previous studies have shown that a subpopulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent F4/80(high) CD11b(high) innate macrophages could be derived from bone marrow cells by continuous in vitro culturing. These cells could be induced to differentiate into M1 or M2 macrophages in vitro. In the current study, we sought to determine whether bone marrow cell-derived innate macrophages (BMIMs) could be used to fulfill an anti-inflammatory purpose by intravenous transplantation in vivo after being stimulated to differentiate into M2 macrophages...
October 12, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702671/major-differences-between-human-atopic-dermatitis-and-murine-models-as-determined-by-global-transcriptomic-profiling
#8
David A Ewald, Shinji Noda, Margeaux Oliva, Thomas Litman, Saeko Nakajima, Xuan Li, Hui Xu, Peter Scheipers, Naila Svitacheva, Tord Labuda, James G Krueger, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Kenji Kabashima, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is caused by a complex interplay between immune and barrier abnormalities. Murine models of AD are essential for preclinical assessments of new treatments. While many models have been used to simulate AD, their transcriptomic profiles are not fully understood, and a comparison of these models with the human AD transcriptomic fingerprint is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the transcriptomic profiles of six common murine models and determine how they relate to human AD skin...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639807/rectal-delivery-of-a-dnazyme-that-specifically-blocks-the-transcription-factor-gata3-and-reduces-colitis-in-mice
#9
Vanessa Popp, Katharina Gerlach, Stefanie Mott, Agnieszka Turowska, Holger Garn, Raja Atreya, Hans-Anton Lehr, I-Cheng Ho, Harald Renz, Benno Weigmann, Markus F Neurath
BACKGROUND & AIMS: GATA3 is a transcription factor that regulates T-cell production of cytokines. We investigated the role of GATA3 in development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses of colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (n = 61) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 74) or from patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), to measure levels of GATA3. Colitis was induced by administration of oxazolone or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to control mice, mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3, and mice with deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 (TNFR double knockouts); some mice were given a GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) or a control DNAzyme via intrarectal administration, or systemic injections of an antibody to TNF before or during sensitization and challenge phase of colitis induction...
September 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620138/vitamin-d-treatment-attenuates-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulphonic-acid-tnbs-induced-colitis-but-not-oxazolone-induced-colitis
#10
Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Jie Du, Xin Ge, Xu Teng, Lu Liu, Enbo Wang, Qun Zhao
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614265/sema4d-is-required-in-both-the-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-of-contact-hypersensitivity
#11
Zhenlai Zhu, Yang Luo, Jinlei Yu, Jixin Gao, Yueqiang Zhang, Chunying Xiao, Chen Zhang, Gang Wang, Yufeng Liu, Meng Fu, Xu Yao, Wei Li
Originally recognized as a regulator of axon guidance in the nervous system, Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D, CD100) also participates in various immune responses and many immune-related diseases. However, whether Sema4D is involved in the pathogenesis of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) remains unclear. In this study, we explored the role of Sema4D in oxazolone-induced CHS using Sema4D knockout (KO) mice. We found that Sema4D KO mice developed attenuated CHS responses, as indicated by milder ear-swelling, lower expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL2 and CXCL5, and decreased recruitment of neutrophils, CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610159/potent-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-tetramethylpyrazine-is-mediated-through-suppression-of-nf-k
#12
Wei Chen, Weixiong Chen, Jinshui Zhu, Niwei Chen, Yunmin Lu
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of tetramethlpyrazine on oxazolone-induced colitis mice. Spleen mononuclear cells (SMC), lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from oxazolone-induced colitis and normal mice. The colitis cells treated by oxazolone were randomly divided into model, low dose, middle dose and high dose groups treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L tetramethlpyrazine, respectively. The apoptotic rate of SMC and LPMC in the oxazolone-induced group was lower than that in the normal group...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582430/excessive-reactive-oxygen-species-and-exotic-dna-lesions-as-an-exploitable-liability
#13
Safnas F AbdulSalam, Fathima Shazna Thowfeik, Edward J Merino
Although the terms "excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS)" and "oxidative stress" are widely used, the implications of oxidative stress are often misunderstood. ROS are not a single species but a variety of compounds, each with unique biochemical properties and abilities to react with biomolecules. ROS cause activation of growth signals through thiol oxidation and may lead to DNA damage at elevated levels. In this review, we first discuss a conceptual framework for the interplay of ROS and antioxidants. This review then describes ROS signaling using FLT3-mediated growth signaling as an example...
September 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578034/effects-of-vla-1-blockade-on-experimental-inflammation-in-mice
#14
Ryuichi Totsuka, Takaaki Kondo, Shigeki Matsubara, Midori Hirai, Yoichi Kurebayashi
VLA-1 (very late antigen-1) is implicated in recruitment, retention and activation of leukocytes and its blockade has been referred as a potential target of new drug discovery to address unmet medical needs in inflammatory disease area. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an anti-murine CD49a (integrin α subunit of VLA-1) monoclonal antibody (Ha31/8) on various experimental models of inflammatory diseases in mice. Pretreatment with Ha31/8 at an intraperitoneal dose of 250 µg significantly (P<0...
2016: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541798/experimental-and-theoretical-studies-of-the-influence-of-solvent-polarity-on-the-spectral-properties-of-two-push-pull-oxazol-5-4h-one-compounds
#15
Beata Jędrzejewska, Przemysław Krawczyk, Marek Józefowicz
Spectral and photophysical properties of two derivatives of the 2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones were studied in 17 solvents of different polarity. These compounds have either push-pull non-centrosymmetric or C3-symmetric structures with electron-withdrawing groups (2-phenyl-oxazolone) introduced onto the triphenylamine. It has been found that their spectral and photophysical properties depend on the structure of the compounds and on the solvent polarity. The non-radiative relaxation process is facilitated by an increase of the solvent polarity...
January 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534830/mixed-anhydride-intermediates-in-the-reaction-of-5-4h-oxazolones-with-phosphate-esters-and-nucleotides
#16
Ziwei Liu, Lukas Rigger, Jean-Christophe Rossi, John D Sutherland, Robert Pascal
5(4H)-Oxazolones can be formed through the activation of acylated α-amino acids or of peptide C termini. They constitute potentially activated intermediates in the abiotic chemistry of peptides that preceded the origin of life or early stages of biology and are capable of yielding mixed carboxylic-phosphoric anhydrides upon reaction with phosphate esters and nucleotides. Here, we present the results of a study aimed at investigating the chemistry that can be built through this interaction. As a matter of fact, the formation of mixed anhydrides with mononucleotides and nucleic acid models is shown to take place at positions involving a mono-substituted phosphate group at the 3'- or 5'-terminus but not at the internal phosphodiester linkages...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527650/gpr91-deficiency-exacerbates-allergic-contact-dermatitis-while-reducing-arthritic-disease-in-mice
#17
Tina Rubić-Schneider, Nicole Carballido-Perrig, Camille Regairaz, Layla Raad, Sandra Jost, Celine Rauld, Brigitte Christen, Grazyna Wieczorek, Robert Kreutzer, Janet Dawson, Günther Lametschwandner, Amanda Littlewood-Evans, José M Carballido
BACKGROUND: Succinate, in addition to its role as an intermediary of the citric acid cycle, acts as an alarmin, initiating and propagating danger signals resulting from tissue injury or inflammatory stimuli. The contribution of this immune sensing pathway to the development of allergic and inflammatory responses is unknown. METHODS: Ear thickness of wild type (wt) and Sucnr1 deficient (Sucnr1 (-/-) ) mice, sensitized and challenged with oxazolone, was used as a criterion to assess the relevance of SUCNR1/GPR91 expression mediating allergic contact dermatitis (ACD)...
August 16, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491073/a-mouse-model-for-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-nod-scid-il2r-%C3%AE-null-mice-reconstituted-with-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-affected-individuals
#18
Pia Palamides, Henrika Jodeleit, Michael Föhlinger, Florian Beigel, Nadja Herbach, Thomas Mueller, Eckhard Wolf, Matthias Siebeck, Roswitha Gropp
Animal models reflective of ulcerative colitis (UC) remain a major challenge, and yet are crucial to understand mechanisms underlying the onset of disease and inflammatory characteristics of relapses and remission. Mouse models in which colitis-like symptoms are induced through challenge with toxins such as oxazolone, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) have been instrumental in understanding the inflammatory processes of UC. However, these neither reflect the heterogeneous symptoms observed in the UC-affected population nor can they be used to test the efficacy of inhibitors developed against human targets where high sequence and structural similarity of the respective ligands is lacking...
September 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484807/therapeutic-effects-of-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-murine-contact-hypersensitivity-via-prostaglandin-e2-ep3-signaling
#19
Pei Li, Yuming Zhao, Lihong Ge
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (GMSCs) have been demonstrated in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models; however, their therapeutic effect during the late phase of CHS has been poor. METHODS: The murine CHS model was induced by applying oxazolone to the ears of mice. Mesenchymal stromal cells were applied via two methods (intravenous or local injection) at three time points: 1 day before sensitization, 1 day before challenge, or 1 h after challenge...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450019/a-newly-synthesized-macakurzin-c-derivative-attenuates-acute-and-chronic-skin-inflammation-the-nrf2-heme-oxygenase-signaling-as-a-potential-target
#20
Muhammad Akram, Iljin Shin, Kyeong-A Kim, Dabi Noh, Seung-Hoon Baek, Sun-Young Chang, Hyoungsu Kim, Ok-Nam Bae
Impaired immune responses in skin play a pivotal role in the development and progression of chemical-associated inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we synthesized new flavonoid derivatives from macakurzin C, and identified in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent anti-inflammatory flavonoid, Compound 14 (CPD 14), with its underlying mechanisms. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages and IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated human keratinocytes, CPD 14 significantly inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and cytokines (IC50 for NO inhibition in macrophages: 4...
September 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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