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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145262/management-of-radiation-induced-rectovesical-fistula-in-a-woman-using-ileum-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Qiqi Mao, Jindan Luo, Jiajie Fang, Hai Jiang
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced rectovesical fistulas (RVFs) require the most demanding treatment. We presented a rare case of postradiation RVF in a woman repaired with ileum. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old women was referred to our department for fecaluria and dysuria after radiation for cervical cancer. The voiding cystourethrography demonstrated a large RVF. A segment of ileum was separated into 2 parts for the simultaneous reconstruction of bladder and rectum, which led to a permanently closed fistula...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125513/effect-of-bladder-augmentation-on-vp-shunt-failure-rates-in-spina-bifida
#2
Dani O Gonzalez, Jennifer N Cooper, Daryl J McLeod
PURPOSE: Most patients with spina bifida require ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. Some also require bladder augmentation, which may increase the risk of VP shunt malfunction and/or failure. The aim of this study was to assess whether bladder augmentation affects the rate of VP shunt failure in this population. METHODS: Using the Pediatric Health Information System, we studied patients with spina bifida born between 1992 and 2014 who underwent VP shunt placement...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123257/prostaglandin-receptors-induce-urothelial-tumourigenesis-as-well-as-bladder-cancer-progression-and-cisplatin-resistance-presumably-via-modulating-pten-expression
#3
Eiji Kashiwagi, Satoshi Inoue, Taichi Mizushima, Jinbo Chen, Hiroki Ide, Takashi Kawahara, Leonardo O Reis, Alexander S Baras, George J Netto, Hiroshi Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of prostaglandin receptors (e.g. prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2), EP4) and the efficacy of celecoxib in urothelial tumourigenesis and cancer progression. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry in bladder cancer (BC) tissue microarrays, in vitro transformation assay in a normal urothelial SVHUC line, and western blot/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/cell growth assays in BC lines. RESULTS: EP2/EP4 expression was elevated in BCs compared with non-neoplastic urothelial tissues and in BCs from those who were resistant to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118540/total-endoscopic-and-anal-irrigation-management-approach-to-noncompliant-neuropathic-bladder-and-bowel-in-children-a-long-term-follow-up
#4
Naif Alqarni, Hamdan Alhazmi, Ossamah Alsowayan, Tamer Eweda, Khalid Fouda Neel
Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and durability of combined intradetrusor botulinum-A toxin (BTX-A), endoscopic treatment of vesicouerteral reflux and anal irrigation for stool incontinence (SI) via a total endoscopic and anal irrigation management (TEAM(®)) approach in patients with myelomeningocele and neuropathic bladder and bowel who did not respond to conservative measures. Materials and Methods: Fourteen myelomeningocele patients with at least 3 years follow-up were included in the study...
October 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096218/feasibility-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-controlling-the-lower-urinary-tract-functions-an-animal-study
#5
Shih-Ching Chen, Pei-Yi Chu, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Yu-Ting Li, Chih-Wei Peng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and compare the potential of four DBS targets in rats for regulating bladder activity: the periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus (LC), rostral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). METHODS: A bipolar stimulating electrode was implanted. The effects of DBS on the inhibition and activation of micturition reflexes were investigated by using isovolumetric intravesical pressure recordings...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089975/autonomic-dysreflexia-a-cardiovascular-disorder-following-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Hisham Sharif, Shaoping Hou
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary underlying cause of AD is loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) caudal to the injury, which renders the SPNs hyper-responsive to stimulation. Central maladaptive plasticity, including C-fiber sprouting and propriospinal fiber proliferation exaggerates noxious afferent transmission to the SPNs, causing them to release massive sympathetic discharges that result in severe hypertensive episodes...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082641/risk-factors-for-urological-complications-following-living-donor-renal-transplantation-in-children
#7
Mohammed S ElSheemy, Waleed Ghoneima, Waseem Aboulela, Kareem Daw, Ahmed M Shouman, Ahmed I Shoukry, Sherif Soaida, Doaa M Salah, Hafez Bazaraa, Fatina I Fadel, Ahmed A Hussein, Enmar Habib, Ismail R Saad, Mohamed El Ghoneimy, Hany A Morsi, Mohammed A Lotfi, Hesham Badawy
The aim of this study was to detect possible risk factors for UC and UTI following pediatric renal Tx and effect of these complications on outcome. One hundred and eight children who underwent living donor Tx between 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively included. Extraperitoneal approach was used with stented tunneled extravesical procedure. Mean recipient age was 9.89 ± 3.46 years while mean weight was 25.22 ± 10.43 kg. Seventy-three (67.6%) recipients were boys while 92 (85.2%) were related to donors...
October 29, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043374/-overactive-bladder-which-treatment-when
#8
REVIEW
J Pannek
The term OAB (overactive bladder) describes a symptom complex. Therefore, initial treatment should be based on clinical symptoms and the results of basic diagnostics. Patient preference is essential for the choice of the initial treatment. Behavioural therapy, electrostimulation and medical treatment are available treatment options. If these are not effective, extended diagnostic examinations should be performed prior to minimally invasive treatments, like onabotulinumtoxin injections in the detrusor or sacral neuromodulation...
October 17, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039896/transition-to-adulthood-with-a-bladder-augmentation-histopathologic-concerns
#9
Emil Mammadov, Sergulen Dervisoglu, Mehmet Elicevik, Haluk Emir, Yunus Soylet, S N Cenk Buyukunal
AIM: To investigate the histopathologic changes in native bladder and gastrointestinal segment, the relation between histopathologic changes, type of operation and the period passed over operation in patients with bladder augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Histopathologic evaluation of the cystoscopic mucosal biopsies from native bladder and enteric augment was performed in all patients. RESULTS: Active or chronic non-specific inflammation of various degrees was found in all specimens except two...
October 17, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022693/trilayer-three-dimensional-hydrogel-composite-scaffold-containing-encapsulated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-promotes-bladder-reconstruction-via-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#10
Dongdong Xiao, Hao Yan, Qiong Wang, Xiangguo Lv, Ming Zhang, Yang Zhao, Zhe Zhou, Jiping Xu, Qian Sun, Kang Sun, Wei Li, Mujun Lu
Bladder acellular matrix graft-alginate dialdehyde-gelatin hydrogel-silk mesh (BAMG-HS) encapsulated with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) was evaluated in a rat model of augmentation cystoplasty, including BAMG-HS-ASCs (n = 18, subgroup n = 6 for 2, 4, and 12 weeks), acellular BAMG-HS (n = 6 for 12 weeks) and cystotomy control (n = 6 for 12 weeks) groups. Equipped with good cytocompatibility and superior mechanical properties (elastic modulus: 5.33 ± 0.96 MPa, maximum load: 28.90 ± 0.69 N), BAMG-HS acted a trilayer "sandwich" scaffold with minimal interference in systemic homeostasis...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021649/follow-up-urodynamics-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder
#11
REVIEW
Sanjay Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic bladder patients are at long-term risk of secondary upper urinary tract damage. Symptoms are unreliable and follow-up urodynamics is the only method of ascertaining safety of bladder pressures. This review examines the recommendations, shortcomings and utilization of existing guidelines. The evidence with regard to follow-up urodynamics in different settings relevant to neurogenic bladder is evaluated and an algorithm is proposed. METHODS: A pubmed search was conducted for studies on follow-up urodynamics in patients with neurogenic bladder...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982136/augmentation-of-vamp-catalytic-activity-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-b-does-not-result-in-increased-potency-in-physiological-systems
#12
Mark Elliott, Jacquie Maignel, Sai Man Liu, Christine Favre-Guilmard, Imran Mir, Paul Farrow, Fraser Hornby, Sandra Marlin, Shilpa Palan, Matthew Beard, Johannes Krupp
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are used extensively as therapeutic agents. Serotypes A and B are available as marketed products. Higher doses of BoNT/B are required to reach an efficacy similar to that of products containing BoNT/A. Advances in our understanding of BoNT/B mechanism of action have afforded the opportunity to make rational modifications to the toxin aimed at increasing its activity. Recently, a mutation in the light chain of BoNT/B (S201P) was described that increases the catalytic activity of the isolated BoNT/B light chain in biochemical assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974870/preperitoneal-bladder-augmentation-feasibility-and-results
#13
Dhruva Nath Ghosh, Sampath Karl, Sudipta Sen
INTRODUCTION: Bladder augmentation is an important part of pediatric reconstructive urology. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility and results of our technique of preperitoneal bladder augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children underwent preperitoneal bladder augmentation for small inelastic bladders who had failed medical management or needed undiversion. The underlying diagnosis included neurogenic bladder, valve bladder, bladder exstrophy, non-neurogenic neurogenic, ectopic ureters, and urogenital sinus...
October 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952922/renal-transplant-in-abnormal-bladder-treatment-options-and-their-effects-on-graft-outcome
#14
Baher Salman, Ahmed Hassan, Mohamed Selim, Tarek Abdelbaky, Sultan Sultan, Ahmed Halawa
OBJECTIVES: Correction of structural urologic disorders and optimization of emptying and storage function of the bladder should be achieved before renal transplant in patients with abnormal urinary bladders to protect the new transplanted kidney. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of renal transplant among the differently treated abnormal bladder patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 30 renal transplant recipients with abnormal bladders who were divided into 2 groups based on abnormal bladder management...
September 26, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901710/reduced-urothelial-regeneration-in-rat-bladders-augmented-with-permeable-porcine-small-intestinal-submucosa-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Qing Yang, Ding Xia, Rheal A Towner, Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Kar-Ming Fung, Christopher E Aston, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Robert E Hurst, Sundararajan V Madihally, Bradley P Kropp, Hsueh-Kung Lin
Augmentation enterocystoplasty remains the gold standard surgical bladder reconstruction procedure to increase the capacity and compliance of dysfunctional bladders. Since the use of the patient's intestine has severe risks of complications, alternative biodegradable matrices have been explored. Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has gained immense interests in bladder reconstruction due to its favorable properties. However, trials have shown inconsistent regeneration with SIS, attributed to the heterogeneity in microstructures and mechanical properties...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893918/enterococcus-faecalis-promotes-innate-immune-suppression-and-polymicrobial-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#16
Brenda Yin Qi Tien, Hwee Mian Sharon Goh, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Soumili Bhaduri-Tagore, Sarah Holec, Regine Dress, Florent Ginhoux, Molly A Ingersoll, Rohan B H Williams, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis, a member of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, is an opportunistic pathogen associated with hospital-acquired wound, bloodstream, and urinary tract infections. E. faecalis can subvert or evade immune-mediated clearance, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we examined E. faecalis-mediated subversion of macrophage activation. We observed that E. faecalis actively prevents NF-κB signaling in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence of Toll-like receptor agonists and during polymicrobial infection with Escherichia coliE...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888815/neurogenic-bladder-in-a-girl-after-surgery-for-cloacal-malformation-the-importance-of-informing-patients-and-parents-of-all-various-options
#17
Candace F Granberg, Patricio C Gargollo
Management of neurogenic bladder in pediatric patients is complex. Treatment options must be individualized to not only address the clinical parameters but also take into account the social factors that directly impact the ability to achieve a successful outcome.
April 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888708/ureteric-urethral-engraftment-as-a-new-surgical-technique-for-management-of-incontinence-in-bladder-exstrophy-complex-a-retrospective-cohort
#18
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Shabnam Sabetkish, Nastaran Sabetkish
OBJECTIVES: To report the results of a novel surgical technique for achieving urinary continence in patients with bladder exstrophy complex (BEC) by ureteric-urethral engraftment (UUE) technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen female patients with BEC and a mean ± SD age of 3.48 ± 1.75 years were referred for primary exstrophy repair from 2009 to 2012. From these, 9 patients were operated by single-stage bladder closure (group I); while 7 patients underwent the novel technique of UUE to compare the continence achievement (group II)...
October 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883282/development-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#19
Shigehisa Kitano
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are the most striking innovation in the clinical development of immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) restore and augment the antitumor immune activities of cytotoxic T cells by mainly blocking immune checkpoint molecules on T cells or their ligands on antigen-presenting and tumor cells. Based on preclinical data, many clinical trials have demonstrated the acceptable safety profiles and efficacies of mAb in various cancers. The A first-in-class approved immune checkpoint inhibitor is ipilimumab, which is a fully humanized mAb that blocks the immunosuppressive signal by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882559/enhancement-of-s1p-induced-contractile-response-in-detrusor-smooth-muscle-of-rats-having-cystitis
#20
Irfan Anjum, Merve Denizalti, Hilmi Burak Kandilci, Nezahat Tugba Durlu-Kandilci, Inci Sahin-Erdemli
Interstitial cystitis is a chronic disease characterized by lower abdominal pain and some nonspecific symptoms including an increase in urinary frequency and urgency. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that controls smooth muscle tone via G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1-3 receptors). S1P production is known to take place both in physiological states and some pathological situations, such as in overactive bladder syndrome. The intracellular mechanism of S1P-induced contractile response was investigated in β-escin permeabilized detrusor smooth muscle of rats having cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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