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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927259/generation-diversity-determination-and-application-to-antibody-selection-of-a-human-na%C3%A3-ve-fab-library
#1
Sangkyu Kim, Insoo Park, Seung Gu Park, Seulki Cho, Jin Hong Kim, Nagesh S Ipper, Sun Shim Choi, Eung Suk Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
We constructed a large naïve human Fab library (3 x 1010 colonies) from the lymphocytes of 809 human donors, assessed available diversities of the heavy-chain variable (VH) and κ light-chain variable (VK) domain repertoires, and validated the library by selecting Fabs against 10 therapeutically relevant antigens by phage display. We obtained a database of unique 7,373 VH and 41,804 VK sequences by 454 pyrosequencing, and analyzed the repertoires. The distribution of VH and VK subfamilies and germline genes in our antibody repertoires slightly differed from those in earlier published natural antibody libraries...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927251/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#2
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Gut microbiota is known to play a main role in regulating both health and disease in humans. Strategies for the therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota are therefore expected to give a relevant contribution in the management of disorders associated with its impairment. Among these options, one of the most renowned is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). A growing body of evidence showed clearly that FMT is an effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, it was shown to be a promising therapy for the management of several noncommunicable disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic disorders...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927240/temporal-dynamics-of-hippocampal-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interactions-during-the-delay-period-of-a-working-memory-guided-foraging-task
#3
Maxym Myroshnychenko, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Christopher C Lapish
Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. To explore these possibilities, simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from mPFC and HC of rats performing the delayed spatial win-shift on a radial maze...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927238/factor-v-leiden-is-associated-with-increased-sperm-count
#4
T E van Mens, U N Joensen, Z Bochdanovits, A Takizawa, J Peter, N Jørgensen, P B Szecsi, J C M Meijers, H Weiler, E Rajpert-De Meyts, S Repping, S Middeldorp
STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927231/leadership-succession-future-proofing-pipelines
#5
Saul Taylor, Howard Youngs
The challenges in deaf education illustrate the requirement and importance of leadership in this specialized field. The significant and impending talent depletion unfolding as baby-boomers retire, positions leadership succession planning as a strategic issue. This mixed methods study is the first of its kind in New Zealand. The aim is to understand leadership demographics and assumptions to determine the need for strategic succession planning to identify and address leaky pipelines. The findings from 82% of the deaf education workforce through a questionnaire and interviews with seven senior leaders reveal that senior leaders do not appear aware of four key areas that dissuade and shrink the pool of potential leadership aspirants...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927188/measuring-the-quality-of-perioperative-care-in-cardiac-surgery
#6
Tim G Coulson, Daniel V Mullany, Christopher M Reid, Michael Bailey, David Pilcher
Quality of care is of increasing importance in health and surgical care. In order to maintain and improve quality, we must be able to measure it and identify variation. In this narrative review, we aim to identify measures used in the assessment of quality of care in cardiac surgery and to evaluate their utility. The electronic databases Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched for original published studies using the terms 'cardiac surgery' and 'quality or outcome or process or structure' as either keywords in the title or text or MeSH terms...
January 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927171/evolving-quality-standards-for-large-scale-registries-the-garfield-af-experience
#7
Keith A A Fox, Bernard J Gersh, Sory Traore, A John Camm, Gloria Kayani, Anders Krogh, Shweta Shweta, Ajay K Kakkar
Aims: Registries have the potential to capture treatment practices and outcomes in populations beyond the constraints of clinical trial settings. The value of data obtained depend critically upon robust quality standards (including source data verification [SDV] and training); features that are commonly absent from registries. This article outlines the quality standards developed for Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF). Methods and Results: GARFIELD-AF comprises ∼57 000 patients prospectively recruited over 6...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927165/air-and-surface-sampling-method-for-assessing-exposures-to-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Ryan F LeBouf, Mohammed Abbas Virji, Anand Ranpara, Aleksandr B Stefaniak
This method was designed for sampling select quaternary ammonium (quat) compounds in air or on surfaces followed by analysis using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Target quats were benzethonium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. For air sampling, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters are recommended for 15-min to 24-hour sampling. For surface sampling, Pro-wipe® 880 (PW) media was chosen...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927157/selected-mirna-levels-are-associated-with-ikzf1-microdeletions-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
J Krzanowski, J Madzio, A Pastorczak, A Tracz, M Braun, J Tabarkiewicz, A Pluta, W Młynarski, I Zawlik
The clinical outcome of children with high-risk relapsed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is poor. The present study assessed the utility and prognostic value of selected microRNA (miRNA/miR) in BCP-ALL. The changes in the expression levels of these miRNAs regarding known gene lesions affecting lymphoid development [early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), ETS variant 6 (ETV6), IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), paired box 5 (PAX5), cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 2A/CDKN2B, retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1), B-cell translocation gene 1 protein (BTG1)] were analyzed...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927099/interleukin-6-identified-as-an-important-factor-in-hypoxia-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-based-gefitinib-adaptive-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#10
Shi-Min An, Hui-Min Lei, Xu-Ping Ding, Fan Sun, Chun Zhang, Ya-Bin Tang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Ying Shen, Liang Zhu
Gefitinib resistance and relapse of the disease were the greatest challenges facing clinical therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Of note, regarding the hypoxia condition in solid tumor tissues in vivo, roles of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the role of hypoxia in gefitinib adaptive resistance and its association with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-based LCSC gefitinib resistance were comparatively studied using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927074/mirna-346-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-liver-cancer
#11
Qiang Yu, Xia Yang, Weidong Duan, Chonghui Li, Ying Luo, Shichun Lu
Liver cancer primarily accounts for the majority of malignancies of the liver. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs, which are important in tumorigenesis. Abnormal expression of microRNA-346 (miR-346) has been demonstrated in various types of human cancer, however, its expression and potential molecular mechanism in liver cancer remains to be elucidated. Expression levels of miR-346 in liver cancer cell lines were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effect of miR-346 on proliferation was evaluated by an MTT assay; cell migration and invasion were evaluated by Transwell migration and invasion assays and target protein expression was determined by western blotting...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927072/arsenic-trioxide-potentiates-sensitivity-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-lenalidomide-by-upregulating-cereblon-expression-levels
#12
Yuan Jian, Wen Gao, Chuanying Geng, Huixing Zhou, Yun Leng, Yanchen Li, Wenming Chen
The mechanism of the anti-myeloma effect of the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide relies upon the binding of lenalidomide or an analogue to cereblon (CRBN) ubiquitin ligase, which inhibits it and results in the degradation of Ikaros-family zinc finger proteins 1 and 3 (IKZF1 and IKZF3). To determine whether the traditional Chinese medicine arsenic trioxide, could potentiate sensitivity of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to lenalidomide and identify the mechanism by which this happens, the present study investigated how arsenic trioxide affected CRBN on MM cell lines and examined the anti-myeloma effect and mechanism in the combination of arsenic trioxide and lenalidomide...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927002/predicting-variation-of-dna-shape-preferences-in-protein-dna-interaction-in-cancer-cells-with-a-new-biophysical-model
#13
Kirill Batmanov, Junbai Wang
DNA shape readout is an important mechanism of transcription factor target site recognition, in addition to the sequence readout. Several machine learning-based models of transcription factor-DNA interactions, considering DNA shape features, have been developed in recent years. Here, we present a new biophysical model of protein-DNA interactions by integrating the DNA shape properties. It is based on the neighbor dinucleotide dependency model BayesPI2, where new parameters are restricted to a subspace spanned by the dinucleotide form of DNA shape features...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926964/poverty-dynamics-and-academic-trajectories-of-children-of-immigrants
#14
Liwei Zhang, Wen-Jui Han
Using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we investigated the relationship between poverty and academic trajectories for children in immigrant families in the United States. We used family socioeconomic status (SES) which considers parental education, parental occupation, and family income to define poverty in correspondence with the U.S. federal poverty threshold. Three dimensions of poverty were examined including depth (i.e., not-poor, near-poor, poor or extreme poor), stability (i...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926963/broad-and-inconsistent-muscle-food-classification-is-problematic-for-dietary-guidance-in-the-u-s
#15
REVIEW
Cody L Gifford, Lauren E O'Connor, Wayne W Campbell, Dale R Woerner, Keith E Belk
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via methods that include: (1) food frequency questionnaires; (2) food disappearance data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; and (3) dietary recall information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926954/evidence-for-complex-formation-of-the-bacillus-cereus-haemolysin-bl-components-in-solution
#16
Franziska Tausch, Richard Dietrich, Kristina Schauer, Robert Janowski, Dierk Niessing, Erwin Märtlbauer, Nadja Jessberger
Haemolysin BL is an important virulence factor regarding the diarrheal type of food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. However, the pathogenic importance of this three-component enterotoxin is difficult to access, as nearly all natural B. cereus culture supernatants additionally contain the highly cytotoxic Nhe, the second three-component toxin involved in the aetiology of B. cereus-induced food-borne diseases. To better address the toxic properties of the Hbl complex, a system for overexpression and purification of functional, cytotoxic, recombinant (r)Hbl components L₂, L₁ and B from E...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926952/medium-access-control-protocols-for-cognitive-radio-ad-hoc-networks-a-survey
#17
REVIEW
Mahdi Zareei, A K M Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Cesar Vargas-Rosales, Leyre Azpilicueta, Nafees Mansoor
New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users...
September 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926951/insights-into-the-hexose-liver-metabolism-glucose-versus-fructose
#18
REVIEW
Bettina Geidl-Flueck, Philipp A Gerber
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926937/food-shopping-and-acquisition-behaviors-in-relation-to-bmi-among-residents-of-low-income-communities-in-south-carolina
#19
Angela D Liese, Xiaonan Ma, Brent Hutto, Patricia A Sharpe, Bethany A Bell, Sara Wilcox
Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926924/il-1%C3%AE-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-down-regulates-mir-506-expression-to-promotes-osteosarcoma-cell-growth-through-jag1
#20
Minghua Hu, Xianyu Yuan, Yangming Liu, Shunsheng Tang, Jinglei Miao, Qiliang Zhou, Shijie Chen
Nowadays, the role of miRNA in tumorigenesis has been largely reported. It was found that miR-506 might be associated with tumorigenesis of various cancers. The present study was aimed to investigate the character of miR-506 and some related factors in human osteosarcoma (OS) carcinogenesis. The expression level of miR-506 was downregulated in OS compared with the normal control group by RT-PCR, both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, IL-1β stimulation decreased the expression of miR-506. MiR-506 interfered with JAG1 gene transcription throughmiR-506 binding to the 3'-UTR region of JAG1 gene...
September 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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