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Kyle Shackleton, Nicholas J Balfour, Hasan Al Toufailia, Roberto Gaioski, Marcela de Matos Barbosa, Carina A de S Silva, José M S Bento, Denise A Alves, Francis L W Ratnieks
Foraging animals must often decide among resources which vary in quality and quantity. Nectar is a resource that exists along a continuum of quality in terms of sugar concentration and is the primary energy source for bees. Alternative sugar sources exist, including fruit juice, which generally has lower energetic value than nectar. We observed many honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) foraging on juice from fallen guava (Psidium guajava) fruit near others foraging on nectar. To investigate whether fruit and nectar offered contrasting benefits of quality and quantity, we compared honeybee foraging performance on P...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Peshala Gunasekara, S M Handunnetti, Sunil Premawansa, E W R A Witharana, W M D K Dasanayake, Indra P Ratnayake, Suranjith L Seneviratne, R K S Dias, G A S Premakumara, Rajiva de Silva
Diagnostic and therapeutic reagents are unavailable for anaphylaxis arising from stings by Apis dorsata. Venom profiles and cross-reactivity of A. dorsata and Apis mellifera were compared, to ascertain whether venom of A. mellifera can be used for diagnosis in A. dorsata allergy. Both venom profiles were similar by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and SDS-PAGE. Sera of 29 of 30 (96.7%) patients with anaphylaxis to A. dorsata stings had IgE to the phospholipase-2 (PLA2) doublet (15 and 16 kDa) of A...
July 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Pin Gong, Xiangna Chang, Xuefeng Chen, Xiaohuan Bai, He Wen, Sihui Pi, Wenjuan Yang, Lan Wang, Fuxin Chen
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most severe complication of diabetes and multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Among them, cadmium (Cd) acts as a risk factor inducing the occurrence of DN. The present study focused on investigating the protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, against Cd-induced DN in mice based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)and pattern recognition...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Michael Ramsey, Martin Bencsik, Michael I Newton
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171162.].
2017: PloS One
Laura Cornara, Marco Biagi, Jianbo Xiao, Bruno Burlando
Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Myrsini E Natsopoulou, Dino P McMahon, Vincent Doublet, Eva Frey, Peter Rosenkranz, Robert J Paxton
Bees are considered to be threatened globally, with severe overwinter losses of the most important commercial pollinator, the Western honeybee, a major concern in the Northern Hemisphere. Emerging infectious diseases have risen to prominence due to their temporal correlation with colony losses. Among these is Deformed wing virus (DWV), which has been frequently linked to colony mortality. We now provide evidence of a strong statistical association between overwintering colony decline in the field and the presence of DWV genotype-B (DWV-B), a genetic variant of DWV that has recently been shown to be more virulent than the original DWV genotype-A...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tomas Erban, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Marta Nesvorna, Bronislava Hortova, Jan Tyl, Dalibor Titera, Martin Markovic, Jan Hubert
Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) workers act as passive vectors of Paenibacillus larvae spores, which cause the quarantine disease American foulbrood (AFB). We assessed the relative proportions of P. larvae within the honeybee microbiome using metabarcoding analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene. The microbiome was analyzed in workers outside of the AFB zone (control - AFB0), in workers from asymptomatic colonies in an AFB apiary (AFB1), and in workers from colonies exhibiting clinical AFB symptoms (AFB2). The microbiome was processed for the entire community and for a cut-off microbiome comprising pathogenic/environmental bacteria following the removal of core bacterial sequences; varroosis levels were considered in the statistical analysis...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lijun Gao, Hongfang Wang, Zhenguo Liu, Shuchang Liu, Guangdong Zhao, Baohua Xu, Xingqi Guo
Serine proteinases play important roles in innate immunity and insect development. We isolated a serine proteinase gene, designated AccSp10, from the Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana). RT-qPCR and a Western blot analysis at different pupal development stages indicated that AccSp10 might be involved in melanin formation in pupae and promote pupal development. In adult workers, the expression of AccSp10 was upregulated by treatments mimicking harmful environments such as the presence of Bacillus bombysepticus, different temperatures (4, 24 and 42 °C), HgCl2, H2O2 and paraquat; the exception was treatment with VC (vitamin C), which did not upregulate AccSp10 expression...
July 11, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Barbara Locke, Emilia Semberg, Eva Forsgren, Joachim R de Miranda
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a lethal virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera) implicated in elevated colony mortality rates worldwide and facilitated through vector transmission by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Clinical, symptomatic DWV infections are almost exclusively associated with high virus titres during pupal development, usually acquired through feeding by Varroa mites when reproducing on bee pupae. Control of the mite population, generally through acaricide treatment, is essential for breaking the DWV epidemic and minimizing colony losses...
2017: PloS One
Ling-Na Chen, Yong-Zhong Cui, Khoon-Meng Wong, De-Zhu Li, Han-Qi Yang
An understanding of the breeding systems and pollination of agriculturally important plants is critical to germplasm improvement. Breeding system characteristics greatly influence the amount and spatial distribution of genetic variation within and amongst populations and influence the rarity and extinction vulnerability of plant species. Many woody bamboos have a long vegetative period (20-150 years) followed by gregarious monocarpy. Relatively, little is known about their pollination and breeding systems...
May 2017: AoB Plants
Annely Brandt, Katharina Grikscheit, Reinhold Siede, Robert Grosse, Marina Doris Meixner, Ralph Büchler
Queen health is crucial to colony survival of honeybees, since reproduction and colony growth rely solely on the queen. Queen failure is considered a relevant cause of colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides can severely affect the immunocompetence of queens of western honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). In young queens exposed to thiacloprid (200 µg/l or 2000 µg/l) or clothianidin (10 µg/l or 50 µg/l), the total hemocyte number and the proportion of active, differentiated hemocytes was significantly reduced...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michelina Pusceddu, Ignazio Floris, Franco Buffa, Emanuele Salaris, Alberto Satta
Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h) and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h)...
2017: PloS One
Anna Vlašánková, Eliška Padyšáková, Michael Bartoš, Ximo Mengual, Petra Janečková, Štěpán Janeček
Since the time of Darwin, biologists have considered the floral nectar spur to be an adaptation representing a high degree of plant specialization. Nevertheless, some researchers suggest that nature is more complex and that even morphologically specialized plants attract a wide spectrum of visitors. We observed visitors on Impatiens burtonii (Balsaminaceae) and measured the depth of the proboscis insertion into the spur, the distance of the nectar surface from the spur entrance and the visitor's effectiveness...
July 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Brock A Harpur
The Anthropocene is an epoch hallmarked by intensified human intrusion across ecosystems. One such intrusion is the movement and re-introduction of long-separated populations. By facilitating introgression - intraspecific genetic admixture - secondary contact can facilitate range expansion and the establishment of invasive species. The proximate mechanisms through which introgression facilitates expansion are rarely known (Bock et al., ; Rius & Darling, ), but managed species provide a useful avenue for exploration...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
Ahmad A Al-Ghamdi, Nowfal I M Bayaqoob, Ahmed I Rushdi, Yehya Alattal, Bernd R T Simoneit, Aarif H El-Mubarak, Khalid F Al-Mutlaq
Propolis is a gummy material made by honeybees for protecting their hives from bacteria and fungi. The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical compositions and concentrations of organic compounds in the extractable organic matter (EOM) of propolis samples collected from four different regions in Yemen. The propolis samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the total extract yields ranged from 34% to 67% (mean = 55...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ahmad A Al-Ghamdi, Nuru Adgaba, Yilma Tadesse, Awraris Getachew, Anwer A Al-Maktary
The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Giovanni Benelli, Stefano Benvenuti, Pier Luigi Scaramozzino, Angelo Canale
Abundance and diversity of insect pollinators are declining in many ecosystems worldwide. The abundance and diversity of wild and managed bees are related to the availability of continuous floral resources. In particular, in Mediterranean basin countries, the presence of wildflower spots enhances the establishment of social Apoidea, since coastal regions are usually characterized by pollen and nectar shortage in early spring and late summer. Anthyllis barba-jovis produces both nectar and pollen as important food source for bees helping them to overcome early spring period food shortage...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Saad Naser Al-Kahtani, El-Kazafy Abdou Taha, Mohammed Al-Abdulsalam
This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P2O5/ha/year) of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P2O5/ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Paolo Zoccali, Antonino Malacrinò, Orlando Campolo, Francesca Laudani, Giuseppe M Algeri, Giulia Giunti, Cinzia P Strano, Giovanni Benelli, Vincenzo Palmeri
Honeybees are critically important for the environment and to the economy. However, there are in substantial decline worldwide, leading to serious threat to the stability and yield of food crops. Beekeeping is of pivotal importance, combining the wide economical aspect of honey production and the important ecological services provided by honeybees. In this scenario, the prompt identification of beekeeping areas is strategic, since it maximised productivity and lowered the risks of colony losses. Fuzzy logic is an ideal approach for problem-solving tasks, as it is specifically designed to manage problems with a high degree of uncertainty...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ardo Sabir, Andi Sumidarti
Background: Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is used as a remedy in folk medicine since ancient times because of its several biological and pharmacological properties. Recently, propolis has been used by dentist to treat various oral diseases. It was always mentioned as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cytokines are proteins that provide communication between cells and play a critical role in a wide variety of processes. It released from cells in an inflammatory process that active, mediate or potential actions of other cells or tissues...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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