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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211333/multiple-pesticide-residues-in-live-and-poisoned-honeybees-%C3%A2-preliminary-exposure-assessment
#1
Tomasz Kiljanek, Alicja Niewiadowska, Marta Gaweł, Stanisław Semeniuk, Milena Borzęcka, Andrzej Posyniak, Krystyna Pohorecka
Study combines data about the exposure of honeybees to pesticides from plant protection products and veterinary medicinal products. Residues of 200 pesticide and pesticide metabolites in 343 live and 74 poisoned honeybee samples, obtained during the years of 2014-2015, were determined by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. In 44% of live honeybee 48 different pesticide residues were found, mainly amitraz metabolites (DMF, DMPF) and chlorpyrifos. In 98% of poisoned honeybee 57 pesticides and metabolites were detected, mainly chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and clothianidin...
February 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192487/volatile-organic-compounds-of-thai-honeys-produced-from-several-floral-sources-by-different-honey-bee-species
#2
Praetinee Pattamayutanon, Sergio Angeli, Prodpran Thakeow, John Abraham, Terd Disayathanoowat, Panuwan Chantawannakul
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187378/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-detecting-nitrofurans-in-bee-pollen-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Mi Sun Park, Kyung Tae Kim, Jong Seong Kang
Bee pollen collected by honeybees, which is in powdered form, is a good nutritional supplement. Nitrofuran antibiotics are assumed not to be present in bee pollen, which is important as the level of antibiotics in bee pollen is strongly regulated in many countries. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect nitrofurans in honey has been developed, but this method is not suitable for bee pollen because of it being in powdered form. During preparation of bee pollen samples, the dispersal of powder particles in an aqueous solution often makes them susceptible to forming an emulsion with solvent components such as hexane and ethyl acetate...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179522/landscape-context-alters-cost-of-living-in-honeybee-metabolism-and-feeding
#4
Sean Tomlinson, Kingsley W Dixon, Raphael K Didham, S Donald Bradshaw
Field metabolic rate (FMR) links the energy budget of an animal with the constraints of its ecosystem, but is particularly difficult to measure for small organisms. Landscape degradation exacerbates environmental adversity and reduces resource availability, imposing higher costs of living for many organisms. Here, we report a significant effect of landscape degradation on the FMR of free-flying Apis mellifera, estimated using (86)Rb radio-isotopic turnover. We validated the relationship between (86)Rb kb and metabolic rate for worker bees in the laboratory using flow-through respirometry...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178291/long-term-trends-in-the-honeybee-whooping-signal-revealed-by-automated-detection
#5
Michael Ramsey, Martin Bencsik, Michael I Newton
It is known that honeybees use vibrational communication pathways to transfer information. One honeybee signal that has been previously investigated is the short vibrational pulse named the 'stop signal', because its inhibitory effect is generally the most accepted interpretation. The present study demonstrates long term (over 9 months) automated in-situ non-invasive monitoring of a honeybee vibrational pulse with the same characteristics of what has previously been described as a stop signal using ultra-sensitive accelerometers embedded in the honeycomb located at the heart of honeybee colonies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178181/inside-honeybee-hives-impact-of-natural-propolis-on-the-ectoparasitic-mite-varroa-destructor-and-viruses
#6
Nora Drescher, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Peter Neumann, Orlando Yañez, Sara D Leonhardt
Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally...
February 6, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171813/effect-of-honeybee-stinger-and-its-microstructured-barbs-on-insertion-and-pull-force
#7
Jintian Ling, Zhenhua Song, Jiarui Wang, Keyun Chen, Jiyu Li, Shujia Xu, Lei Ren, Zhipeng Chen, Dianwen Jin, Lelun Jiang
Worker honeybee is well-known for its stinger with microscopic backward-facing barbs for self-defense. The natural geometry of the stinger enables painless penetration and adhesion in the human skin to deliver poison. In this study, Apis cerana worker honeybee stinger and acupuncture microneedle (as a barbless stinger) were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The insertion and pull process of honeybee stinger into rabbit skin was performed by a self-developed mechanical loading equipment in comparison with acupuncture needle...
January 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167800/learning-gustatory-responsiveness-and-tyramine-differences-across-nurse-and-forager-honeybees
#8
Ricarda Scheiner, Tina Reim, Eirik Søvik, Brian V Entler, Andrew B Barron, Markus Thamm
Honeybees are well known for their complex division of labor. Each bee sequentially performs a series of social tasks during its life. The changes in social task performance are linked to gross differences in behavior and physiology. We here tested whether honeybees performing different social tasks (nursing vs. foraging) would differ in their gustatory responsiveness and associative learning behavior in addition to their daily tasks in the colony. Further, we investigated the role of the biogenic amine tyramine and its receptors in the behavior of nurse bees and foragers...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163992/an-experiment-on-the-impact-of-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-honeybees-the-value-of-a-formal-analysis-of-the-data
#9
Robert S Schick, Jeremy J D Greenwood, Stephen T Buckland
BACKGROUND: We assess the analysis of the data resulting from a field experiment conducted by Pilling et al. (PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077193, 5) on the potential effects of thiamethoxam on honeybees. The experiment had low levels of replication, so Pilling et al. concluded that formal statistical analysis would be misleading. This would be true if such an analysis merely comprised tests of statistical significance and if the investigators concluded that lack of significance meant little or no effect...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163990/authors-response-on-schick-et-al-2017-an-experiment-of-the-impact-of-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-honey-bees-the-value-of-a-formal-analysis-of-the-data-environ-sci-eur-2017
#10
EDITORIAL
Peter Campbell, Mike Coulson, Keith Ward
Whilst a formal statistical analysis of any experimental data is always preferable in principle, in the case of Pilling et al. (PLoS ONE 8:e77193, 2013), it is hard to see how the results of any formal analysis-including those provided by Schick et al.-could be considered reliable. Regardless of the issue of statistical analysis, there was a wealth of valuable and novel biological and chemical residue data generated under field conditions of use in Pilling et al., which when taken into consideration alongside other relevant available published data and information (i...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158189/insect-bio-inspired-neural-network-provides-new-evidence-on-how-simple-feature-detectors-can-enable-complex-visual-generalization-and-stimulus-location-invariance-in-the-miniature-brain-of-honeybees
#11
Mark Roper, Chrisantha Fernando, Lars Chittka
The ability to generalize over naturally occurring variation in cues indicating food or predation risk is highly useful for efficient decision-making in many animals. Honeybees have remarkable visual cognitive abilities, allowing them to classify visual patterns by common features despite having a relatively miniature brain. Here we ask the question whether generalization requires complex visual recognition or whether it can also be achieved with relatively simple neuronal mechanisms. We produced several simple models inspired by the known anatomical structures and neuronal responses within the bee brain and subsequently compared their ability to generalize achromatic patterns to the observed behavioural performance of honeybees on these cues...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148747/covert-deformed-wing-virus-infections-have-long-term-deleterious-effects-on-honeybee-foraging-and-survival
#12
Kristof Benaets, Anneleen Van Geystelen, Dries Cardoen, Lina De Smet, Dirk C de Graaf, Liliane Schoofs, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Laura E Brettell, Stephen J Martin, Tom Wenseleers
Several studies have suggested that covert stressors can contribute to bee colony declines. Here we provide a novel case study and show using radiofrequency identification tracking technology that covert deformed wing virus (DWV) infections in adult honeybee workers seriously impact long-term foraging and survival under natural foraging conditions. In particular, our experiments show that adult workers injected with low doses of DWV experienced increased mortality rates, that DWV caused workers to start foraging at a premature age, and that the virus reduced the workers' total activity span as foragers...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145504/honeybee-locomotion-is-impaired-by-am-cav3-low-voltage-activated-ca-2-channel-antagonist
#13
M Rousset, C Collet, T Cens, F Bastin, V Raymond, I Massou, C Menard, J-B Thibaud, M Charreton, M Vignes, M Chahine, J C Sandoz, P Charnet
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are key transducers of cellular excitability and participate in several crucial physiological responses. In vertebrates, 10 Ca(2+) channel genes, grouped in 3 families (CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3), have been described and characterized. Insects possess only one member of each family. These genes have been isolated in a limited number of species and very few have been characterized although, in addition to their crucial role, they may represent a collateral target for neurotoxic insecticides...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145462/sublethal-pesticide-doses-negatively-affect-survival-and-the-cellular-responses-in-american-foulbrood-infected-honeybee-larvae
#14
Javier Hernández López, Sophie Krainer, Antonia Engert, Wolfgang Schuehly, Ulrike Riessberger-Gallé, Karl Crailsheim
Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138299/bees-of-the-azores-an-annotated-checklist-apidae-hymenoptera
#15
Julie A Weissmann, Ana Picanço, Paulo A V Borges, Hanno Schaefer
We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae, seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native (Colletes eous, Halictus villosulus, and Hylaeus pictipes). All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15(th) century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126629/evolution-of-novel-sorbents-for-effective-clean-up-of-honeybee-matrix-in-highly-toxic-insecticide-lc-ms-ms-analysis
#16
Piotr Kaczynski, Izabela Hrynko, Bozena Lozowicka
Highly toxic insecticides (HTIs) belonging to different chemical groups are dangerous to pollinating organisms, even in sublethal doses. An important objective of this study was to develop a method to determine over fifty HTIs at very low concentrations in the bee matrix. The novelty of this research involved obtaining extract completely free from beewaxes, lipids and proteins using EMR-lipid (enhanced matrix removal-lipid), chitin and Z-Sep+ (zirconium oxide and C18 dual-bonded to silica) as clean-up sorbents...
January 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125049/mblk-1-transcription-factor-family-its-roles-in-various-animals-and-regulation-by-nol4-splice-variants-in-mammals
#17
REVIEW
Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Taketoshi Kiya, Takekazu Kunieda, Takeo Kubo
Transcription factors play critical roles in regulation of neural development and functions. A transcription factor Mblk-1 was previously reported from a screen for factors possibly important for the higher brain functions of the honeybee. This review first summarizes how Mblk-1 was identified, and then provides an overview of the studies of Mblk-1 and their homologs. Mblk-1 family proteins are found broadly in animals and are shown to affect transcription activities. Studies have revealed that the mammalian homologs can interact with several cofactors and together regulate transcription...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123097/a-l%C3%A3-vy-flight-diffusion-model-to-predict-transgenic-pollen-dispersal
#18
Valentin Vallaeys, Rebecca C Tyson, W David Lane, Eric Deleersnijder, Emmanuel Hanert
The containment of genetically modified (GM) pollen is an issue of significant concern for many countries. For crops that are bee-pollinated, model predictions of outcrossing rates depend on the movement hypothesis used for the pollinators. Previous work studying pollen spread by honeybees, the most important pollinator worldwide, was based on the assumption that honeybee movement can be well approximated by Brownian motion. A number of recent studies, however, suggest that pollinating insects such as bees perform Lévy flights in their search for food...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112264/regulation-of-genes-related-to-immune-signaling-and-detoxification-in-apis-mellifera-by-an-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylation
#19
Yee-Tung Hu, Tsai-Chin Wu, En-Cheng Yang, Pei-Chi Wu, Po-Tse Lin, Yueh-Lung Wu
The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is essential for the global economy due to its important role in ecosystems and agriculture as a pollinator of numerous flowering plants and crops. Pesticide abuse has greatly impacted honeybees and caused tremendous loss of honeybee colonies worldwide. The reasons for colony loss remain unclear, but involvement of pesticides and pathogen-pesticide interactions has been hypothesized. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) inhibit the activity of histone acetylase, which causes the hyperacetylation of histone cores and influences gene expression...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100820/support-for-the-reproductive-ground-plan-hypothesis-in-a-solitary-bee-links-between-sucrose-response-and-reproductive-status
#20
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
In social bees, foraging behaviour is correlated with reproductive status and sucrose sensitivity via endocrine pathways. This association led to the hypothesis that division of labour in social insect societies is derived from an ancestral ground plan that functions to synchronize dietary preferences with reproductive needs in solitary insects. However, the relationship between these traits is unknown for solitary bees, which represent the ancestral state of social bees. We used the proboscis extension response assay to measure sucrose response among reproductive females of the solitary alkali bee (Nomia melanderi) as a function of acute juvenile hormone (JH) treatments and reproductive physiology...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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