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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324737/neuroscience-intelligence-in-the-honeybee-mushroom%C3%A2-body
#1
Sophie Caron, Larry F Abbott
Intelligence, in most people's conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323874/c-type-allatostatins-mimic-stress-related-effects-of-alarm-pheromone-on-honey-bee-learning-and-memory-recall
#2
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314998/multispectral-images-of-flowers-reveal-the-adaptive-significance-of-using-long-wavelength-sensitive-receptors-for-edge-detection-in-bees
#3
Vera Vasas, Daniel Hanley, Peter G Kevan, Lars Chittka
Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314750/octopamine-and-tyramine-modulate-the-thermoregulatory-fanning-response-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#4
Chelsea N Cook, Colin S Brent, Michael D Breed
Biogenic amines regulate the proximate mechanisms underlying most behavior, including those that contribute to the overall success of complex societies. For honey bees, one critical set of behaviors contributing to the welfare of a colony is involved with nest thermoregulation. Worker honeybees cool the colony by performing a fanning behavior, the expression of which is largely influenced by response thresholds modulated by the social environment. Here, we examined how changes in biogenic amines affect this group-performed thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298377/nectar-properties-and-the-role-of-sunbirds-as-pollinators-of-the-golden-flowered-tea-camellia-petelotii
#5
Shi-Guo Sun, Zhi-Huan Huang, Zhi-Bao Chen, Shuang-Quan Huang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Properties of floral nectar have been used to predict if a plant species is pollinated by birds. To see whether winter-flowering plants evolve nectar properties corresponding to bird pollinators, nectar properties of several Camellia species (including the golden-flowered tea), as well as the role of floral visitors as effective pollinators, were examined. METHODS: Potential pollinators of Camellia petelotii were identified at different times of day and under various weather conditions...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297945/multifractality-in-individual-honeybee-behavior-hints-at-colony-specific-social-cascades-reanalysis-of-radio-frequency-identification-data-from-five-different-colonies
#6
Nicole S Carver, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit complex coordination and interaction across multiple behaviors such as swarming. This coordination among honeybees in the same colony is remarkably similar to the concept of informational cascades. The multifractal geometry of cascades suggests that multifractal measures of individual honeybee activity might carry signatures of these colony-wide coordinations. The present work reanalyzes time stamps of entrances to and exits from the hive captured by radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors reading RFID tags on individual bees...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291793/antibiotic-exposure-perturbs-the-gut-microbiota-and-elevates-mortality-in-honeybees
#7
Kasie Raymann, Zack Shaffer, Nancy A Moran
Gut microbiomes play crucial roles in animal health, and shifts in the gut microbial community structure can have detrimental impacts on hosts. Studies with vertebrate models and human subjects suggest that antibiotic treatments greatly perturb the native gut community, thereby facilitating proliferation of pathogens. In fact, persistent infections following antibiotic treatment are a major medical issue. In apiculture, antibiotics are frequently used to prevent bacterial infections of larval bees, but the impact of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) on bee health and susceptibility to disease has not been fully elucidated...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289772/firewalls-in-bee-nests-survival-value-of-propolis-walls-of-wild-cape-honeybee-apis-mellifera-capensis
#8
Geoff Tribe, Jürgen Tautz, Karin Sternberg, Jenny Cullinan
The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285146/lifespan-differences-between-queens-and-workers-are-not-explained-by-rates-of-molecular-damage
#9
Eric R Lucas, Maria Augustyniak, Andrzej Kędziorski, Laurent Keller
The biological processes that underlie senescence are of universal biological importance, yet they remain poorly understood. A popular theory proposes that senescence is the result of limited investment into mechanisms involved in the prevention and repair of molecular damage, leading to an accumulation of molecular damage with age. In ants, queen and worker lifespans differ by an order of magnitude, and this remarkable difference in lifespan has been shown to be associated with differences in the expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280585/agrochemical-synergism-imposes-higher-risk-to-neotropical-bees-than-to%C3%A2-honeybees
#10
Hudson V V Tomé, Gabryele S Ramos, Micaele F Araújo, Weyder C Santana, Gil R Santos, Raul Narciso C Guedes, Carlos D Maciel, Philip L Newland, Eugênio E Oliveira
Bees are key pollinators whose population numbers are declining, in part, owing to the effects of different stressors such as insecticides and fungicides. We have analysed the susceptibility of the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee, Partamona helleri, to commercial formulations of the insecticides deltamethrin and imidacloprid. The toxicity of fungicides based on thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were investigated individually and in combination, and with the insecticides. Results showed that stingless bees were more susceptible to insecticides than honeybees...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278651/pollination-effects-on-antioxidant-content-of-perilla-frutescens-seeds-analysed-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Paola Ferrazzi, Monica Vercelli, Amina Chakir, Abderrahmane Romane, Monica Mattana, Roberto Consonni
The effects of Perilla frutescens pollination on the content of seed antioxidants were analysed by agronomical and pollination trials, comparing seeds produced from bagged plants in 2013 (A) to prevent access to pollinating insects, and seeds from open-pollinated plants in 2013 (B) and 2015 (C). The seeds of open-pollinated plants were significantly more numerous and heavier than those of self-pollinated plants. (1)H NMR seed analysis showed a higher presence of phenolic compounds in open-pollinated seeds, mainly rosmarinic acid and flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin...
February 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277176/accelerated-solvent-extraction-by-using-an-in-line-clean-up-approach-for-multiresidue-analysis-of-pesticides-in-organic-honey
#12
Luca Maria Chiesa, Giuseppe Federico Labella, Sara Panseri, Domenico Britti, Fabrizio Galbiati, Roberto Villa, Francesco Arioli
The worldwide loss of honeybee colonies may be due to their exposure to several contaminants (i.e., pesticides); such contamination may also have impacts on consumers' health. Therefore, it is essential to develop quick and new methods to detect several pesticide residues in honey samples. In this study, the effectiveness of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was compared with QuEChERS methods for the analysis of 53 pesticides in organic honey by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two simple and rapid ASE methods with 'in-line' clean-up were optimised and then compared with QuEChERS...
February 22, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271576/cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-of-immune-challenged-workers-elicit-immune-activation-in-honey-bee-queens
#13
Javier Hernández López, Ulrike Riessberger-Gallé, Karl Crailsheim, Wolfgang Schuehly
Recently, evidence has shown that variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) profile allow healthy honeybees to identify diseased nestmates, eliciting agonistic responses in the former. Here, we determined whether these 'immunologic cues' emitted by diseased nestmates were only detected by workers, who consequently took hygienic measures and excluded these individuals from the colony, or whether queens were also able to detect these cues and respond accordingly. Healthy honeybee queens were exposed to i) healthy, ii) Ringer-injected and iii) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected nestmates by allowing direct body contact...
March 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271210/feeding-preference-and-sub-chronic-effects-of-zno-nanomaterials-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-carnica
#14
Gordana Glavan, Tamara Milivojević, Janko Božič, Kristina Sepčić, Damjana Drobne
The extensive production of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials (NMs) may result in high environmental zinc burdens. Honeybees need to have special concern due to their crucial role in pollination. Our previous study indicated that low concentrations of ZnO NMs, corresponding to 0.8 mg Zn/mL, have a neurotoxic potential for honeybees after a 10-day oral exposure. Present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short, dietary exposure of honeybees to ZnO NMs at concentrations 0.8-8 mg Zn/mL on consumption rate, food preference, and two enzymatic biomarkers-a stress-related glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
March 7, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262194/protective-effect-of-propolis-in-proteinuria-crystaluria-nephrotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-ethylene-glycol-ingestion
#15
Nawal El Menyiy, Noori Al Waili, Meryem Bakour, Hamza Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Propolis is a natural honeybee product with wide biological activities and potential therapeutic properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate the protective effect of propolis extract on nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by ethylene glycol in rats. METHODS: Five groups of rats were used. Group 1 received drinking water, group 2 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water, group 3 received 0.75% ethylene-glycol in drinking water along with cystone 500 mg/kg/body weight (bw) daily, group 4 received 0...
October 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252287/characterizing-the-structure-and-oligomerization-of-major-royal-jelly-protein-1-mrjp1-by-mass-spectrometry-and-complementary-biophysical-tools
#16
Samuel C Mandacaru, Luis H F do Vale, Siavash Vahidi, Yiming Xiao, Owen S Skinner, Carlos A O Ricart, Neil L Kelleher, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Lars Konermann
Royal jelly (RJ) triggers the development of female honeybee larvae into queens. This effect has been attributed to the presence of major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) in RJ. MRJP1 isolated from royal jelly is tightly associated with apisimin, a 54-residue α-helical peptide that promotes the noncovalent assembly of MRJP1 into multimers. No high-resolution structural data are available for these complexes, and their binding stoichiometry remains uncertain. We examined MRJP1/apisimin using a range of biophysical techniques...
March 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250807/the-darwin-cure-for-apiculture-natural-selection-and-managed-honeybee-health
#17
Peter Neumann, Tjeerd Blacquière
Recent major losses of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies at a global scale have resulted in a multitude of research efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Numerous factors acting singly and/or in combination have been identified, ranging from pathogens, over nutrition to pesticides. However, the role of apiculture in limiting natural selection has largely been ignored. This is unfortunate, because honeybees are more exposed to environmental stressors compared to other livestock and management can severely compromise bee health...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249569/unity-in-defence-honeybee-workers-exhibit-conserved-molecular-responses-to-diverse-pathogens
#18
Vincent Doublet, Yvonne Poeschl, Andreas Gogol-Döring, Cédric Alaux, Desiderato Annoscia, Christian Aurori, Seth M Barribeau, Oscar C Bedoya-Reina, Mark J F Brown, James C Bull, Michelle L Flenniken, David A Galbraith, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Ivo Grosse, Holly L Holt, Dan Hultmark, H Michael G Lattorff, Yves Le Conte, Fabio Manfredini, Dino P McMahon, Robin F A Moritz, Francesco Nazzi, Elina L Niño, Katja Nowick, Ronald P van Rij, Robert J Paxton, Christina M Grozinger
BACKGROUND: Organisms typically face infection by diverse pathogens, and hosts are thought to have developed specific responses to each type of pathogen they encounter. The advent of transcriptomics now makes it possible to test this hypothesis and compare host gene expression responses to multiple pathogens at a genome-wide scale. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of multiple published and new transcriptomes using a newly developed bioinformatics approach that filters genes based on their expression profile across datasets...
March 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246414/kidney-injury-in-a-dog-following-bee-sting-associated-anaphylaxis
#19
Gareth James Buckley, Christopher Corrie, Carsten Bandt, Michael Schaer
This report describes a case of honeybee envenomation in a dog that developed anaphylaxis after being stung by approximately 10 bees. The dog subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The dog had a previous mild increase in blood urea nitrogen with normal creatinine, possibly indicating an insidious chronic renal degenerative process that went into acute decompensation at the time of bee envenomation.
March 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245886/floral-abundance-richness-and-spatial-distribution-drive-urban-garden-bee-communities
#20
M Plascencia, S M Philpott
In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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