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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#1
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálkové, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#2
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053589/nectar-secretion-dynamics-and-honey-production-potentials-of-some-major-honey-plants-in-saudi-arabia
#3
Nuru Adgaba, Ahmed Al-Ghamdi, Yilma Tadesse, Awraris Getachew, Awad M Awad, Mohammad J Ansari, Ayman A Owayss, Seif Eldin A Mohammed, Abdulaziz S Alqarni
The contribution of a bee plant species to honey production depends on the plant's nectar secretion quality and quantity, which is mainly governed by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the current study, was to investigate the nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potential of 14 major bee plant species of the target area. We examined the quantity and dynamics of nectar sugar per flower five times a day using a nectar sugar washing technique and direct measuring of nectar with calibrated capillary tubes...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053231/cryo-em-study-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-at-low-ph-reveals-iflavirus-genome-release-mechanism
#4
Sergei Kalynych, Tibor Füzik, Antonín Přidal, Joachim de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
Viruses from the family Iflaviridae are insect pathogens. Many of them, including slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV), cause lethal diseases in honeybees and bumblebees, resulting in agricultural losses. Iflaviruses have nonenveloped icosahedral virions containing single-stranded RNA genomes. However, their genome release mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that low pH promotes SBPV genome release, indicating that the virus may use endosomes to enter host cells. We used cryo-EM to study a heterogeneous population of SBPV virions at pH 5...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043325/exploring-poisonous-mechanism-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-ligustica-spinola-caused-by-pyrethroids
#5
Qiang Wang, Qingyun Diao, Pingli Dai, Yanna Chu, Yanyan Wu, Ting Zhou, Qingnian Cai
As the important intracellular secondary messengers, calcium channel is the target of many neurotoxic pesticides as calcium homeostasis in the neuroplasm play important role in neuronal functions and behavior in insects. This study investigated the effect of deltamethrin (DM) on calcium channel in the brain nerve cells of adult workers of Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola that were cultured in vitro. The results showed that the intracellular calcium concentration was significantly elevated even with a very low concentration of the DM (3...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042861/comparison-of-hydrogels-based-on-commercial-chitosan-and-beetosan-%C3%A2-containing-nanosilver
#6
Bożena Tyliszczak, Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudłacik
Two series of hydrogels on the basis of commercial chitosan and chitosan derived from naturally expired honeybees are presented in this article. Sorption capacity and behavior of both kind of materials in simulated body fluids such as Ringer's liquid or artificial saliva have been determined and compared. Presence of functional groups in synthesized materials have been determined by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. Structure and homogeneity of their surface have been defined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that both chitosan and Beetosan(®) hydrogels have very similar characteristics...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032102/evaluation-of-oxalic-acid-treatments-against-the-mite-varroa-destructor-and-secondary-effects-on-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#7
Noureddine Adjlane, El-Ounass Tarek, Nizar Haddad
BACKGROUND: The Varroa destructor varroasis is a very serious parasite of honeybee Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Varroa treatment using organic acid (oxalic acid) in Algeria identifying its side effects on bee colonies. METHODS: Treatment was conducted in one apiary consisting 30 colonies kept in Langstroth hives kind. Oxalic acid dripped directly on bees 5ml of this solution of oxalic acid per lane occupied by a syringe...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028522/preparation-and-evaluation-of-a-hair-wax-containing-propolis-and-eruca-sativa-seed-oil-for-hair-growth
#8
Mohammad-Ali Shatalebi, Leila Safaeian, Azar Baradaran, Mozhde Alamdarian
BACKGROUND: Hair growth as a key consumer objective has important role in the hair care products researches. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a hair wax containing propolis, a resinous mixture produced by honeybees in Eruca sativa seed oil base on hair growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hair wax was designed and formulated compared with marketed brand hair wax and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters including pH, homogeneity, consistency, spread ability, in vitro drug release, and stability...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026884/making-a-queen-an-epigenetic-analysis-of-the-robustness-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-queen-developmental-pathway
#9
Xu Jiang He, Lin Bin Zhou, Qi Zhong Pan, Andrew B Barron, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
Specialised castes are considered a key reason for the evolutionary and ecological success of the social insect lifestyle. The most essential caste distinction is between the fertile queen and the sterile workers. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens are not genetically distinct, rather these different phenotypes are the result of epigenetically regulated divergent developmental pathways. This is an important phenomenon in understanding the evolution of social insect societies. Here we studied the genomic regulation of the worker and queen developmental pathways, and the robustness of the pathways by transplanting eggs or young larvae to queen cells...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018627/age-structure-is-critical-to-the-population-dynamics-and-survival-of-honeybee-colonies
#10
M I Betti, L M Wahl, M Zamir
Age structure is an important feature of the division of labour within honeybee colonies, but its effects on colony dynamics have rarely been explored. We present a model of a honeybee colony that incorporates this key feature, and use this model to explore the effects of both winter and disease on the fate of the colony. The model offers a novel explanation for the frequently observed phenomenon of 'spring dwindle', which emerges as a natural consequence of the age-structured dynamics. Furthermore, the results indicate that a model taking age structure into account markedly affects the predicted timing and severity of disease within a bee colony...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017607/a-simple-computational-model-of-the-bee-mushroom-body-can-explain-seemingly-complex-forms-of-olfactory-learning-and-memory
#11
Fei Peng, Lars Chittka
Honeybees are models for studying how animals with relatively small brains accomplish complex cognition, displaying seemingly advanced (or "non-elemental") learning phenomena involving multiple conditioned stimuli. These include "peak shift" [1-4]-where animals not only respond to entrained stimuli, but respond even more strongly to similar ones that are farther away from non-rewarding stimuli. Bees also display negative and positive patterning discrimination [5], responding in opposite ways to mixtures of two odors than to individual odors...
December 18, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013383/long-term-effect-of-temperature-on-honey-yield-and-honeybee-phenology
#12
Aleksandra Langowska, Michał Zawilak, Tim H Sparks, Adam Glazaczow, Peter W Tomkins, Piotr Tryjanowski
There is growing concern about declines in pollinator species, and more recently reservations have been expressed about mismatch in plant-pollinator synchrony as a consequence of phenological change caused by rising temperatures. Long-term changes in honeybee Apis mellifera phenology may have major consequences for agriculture, especially the pollinator market, as well as for honey production. To date, these aspects have received only modest attention. In the current study, we examine honeybee and beekeeping activity in southern Poland for the period 1965-2010, supplemented by hive yields from a beekeeper in southern UK in the same period...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012387/optimal-location-selection-for-the-installation-of-urban-green-roofs-considering-honeybee-habitats-along-with-socio-economic-and-environmental-effects
#13
Jae Ha Gwak, Bo Kyeong Lee, Won Kyung Lee, So Young Sohn
This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007973/direct-determination-of-the-mutation-rate-in-the-bumblebee-reveals-evidence-for-weak-recombination-associated-mutation-and-an-approximate-rate-constancy-in-insects
#14
Haoxuan Liu, Yanxiao Jia, Xiaoguang Sun, Dacheng Tian, Laurence D Hurst, Sihai Yang
Accurate knowledge of the mutation rate provides a base line for inferring expected rates of evolution, for testing evolutionary hypotheses and for estimation of key parameters. Advances in sequencing technology now permit direct estimates of the mutation rate from sequencing of close relatives. Within insects there have been three prior such estimates, two in nonsocial insects (Drosophila: 2.8 × 10(-9) per bp per haploid genome per generation; Heliconius: 2.9 × 10(-9)) and one in a social species, the honeybee (3...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995934/extending-standard-testing-period-in-honeybees-to-predict-lifespan-impacts-of-pesticides-and-heavy-metals-using-dynamic-energy-budget-modelling
#15
H Hesketh, E Lahive, A A Horton, A G Robinson, C Svendsen, A Rortais, J-L Dorne, J Baas, D J Spurgeon, M S Heard
Concern over reported honeybee (Apis mellifera spp.) losses has highlighted chemical exposure as a risk. Current laboratory oral toxicity tests in A. mellifera spp. use short-term, maximum 96 hour, exposures which may not necessarily account for chronic and cumulative toxicity. Here, we use extended 240 hour (10 day) exposures to examine seven agrochemicals and trace environmental pollutant toxicities for adult honeybees. Data were used to parameterise a dynamic energy budget model (DEBtox) to further examine potential survival effects up to 30 day and 90 day summer and winter worker lifespans...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974514/neural-correlates-of-side-specific-odour-memory-in-mushroom-body-output-neurons
#16
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Martin P Nawrot, Randolf Menzel
Humans and other mammals as well as honeybees learn a unilateral association between an olfactory stimulus presented to one side and a reward. In all of them, the learned association can be behaviourally retrieved via contralateral stimulation, suggesting inter-hemispheric communication. However, the underlying neuronal circuits are largely unknown and neural correlates of across-brain-side plasticity have yet not been demonstrated. We report neural plasticity that reflects lateral integration after side-specific odour reward conditioning...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956789/honeybee-product-therapeutic-as-stem-cells-homing-for-ovary-failure
#17
Erma Safitri, Thomas V Widiyatno, R Heru Prasetyo
AIM: Complexity of the method of isolation, cultivation in vitro and the expensive cost of transplantation process of stem cells, it would require an innovation to homing and differentiation of stem cells and increase folliculogenesis. The stem cells homing was achieved through the provision of food or beverages derived from natural materials like honeybee product. Through honeybee product, there will be homing of stem cells and accompany with the sources from the body itself will take place in regeneration of the ovary...
November 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939988/amtar2-functional-characterization-of-a-honeybee-tyramine-receptor-stimulating-adenylyl-cyclase-activity
#18
Tina Reim, Sabine Balfanz, Arnd Baumann, Wolfgang Blenau, Markus Thamm, Ricarda Scheiner
The biogenic monoamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. Insects such as honeybees do not synthesize these neuroactive substances. Instead, they employ octopamine and tyramine for comparable physiological functions. These biogenic amines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on pharmacological data obtained on heterologously expressed receptors, α- and β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are better activated by octopamine than by tyramine...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933553/spontaneous-honeybee-behaviour-is-altered-by-persistent-organic-pollutants
#19
Jade Drummond, Sally M Williamson, Ann E Fitchett, Geraldine A Wright, Sarah J Judge
The effect of environmental pollutants on honeybee behaviour has focused mainly on currently used pesticides. However, honeybees are also exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of this laboratory based study was to determine if exposure to sublethal field-relevant concentrations of POPs altered the spontaneous behaviour of foraging-age worker honeybees. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) were orally exposed to either a sublethal concentration of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (100 ng/ml), the organochlorine insecticide lindane (2...
December 8, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930719/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-allergic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ebv-a-newly-developed-derivative-of-bee-venom-through-modulation-of-irf3-signaling-pathway-in-a-carrageenan-induced-edema-model
#20
Hwa-Jin Chung, Jinho Lee, Joon-Shik Shin, Me-Riong Kim, Wonil Koh, Min-Jeong Kim, Jae-Woong Lee, Eun Jee Kim, In-Hee Lee, Won Kyung Kim, Yoon Jae Lee, Sang Kook Lee, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Bee venom (BV), a type of toxin extracted from honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been empirically and widely used to treat inflammatory diseases throughout Asia. Essential BV (eBV) was developed by removing phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and histamine to lower occurrence of allergic reaction. This study investigated the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of eBV in vitro and in vivo and its underlying mechanism of action. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory potential of eBV was assessed in vivo using a carrageenan-induced paw edema model...
2016: PloS One
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