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Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher tier studies on the effects of clothianidin (CTD) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg CTD/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse effect-dose (NOAED) of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses measured. Based on a NOAEC of 19.7 µg/kg pollen, the NOAED for honeybee larvae was 2...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Garry Codling, Yahya Al Naggar, John P Giesy, Albert J Robertson
Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Arian Avalos, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Jenny P Acevedo-Gonzalez, Gloria Rendon, Christopher J Fields, Patrick J Brown, Tugrul Giray, Gene E Robinson, Matthew E Hudson, Guojie Zhang
Highly aggressive Africanized honeybees (AHB) invaded Puerto Rico (PR) in 1994, displacing gentle European honeybees (EHB) in many locations. Gentle AHB (gAHB), unknown anywhere else in the world, subsequently evolved on the island within a few generations. Here we sequence whole genomes from gAHB and EHB populations, as well as a North American AHB population, a likely source of the founder AHB on PR. We show that gAHB retains high levels of genetic diversity after evolution of gentle behaviour, despite selection on standing variation...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Mara Andrione, Benjamin F Timberlake, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), is not changed by repeated presentations, its relative representation with respect to unfamiliar stimuli is modified. In particular, the representation of a stimulus composed of a 50:50 mixture of a familiar and a novel odorant becomes more similar to that of the novel stimulus after repeated stimulus preexposure...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
Joakim Ågren, Marc Oliver Schäfer, Eva Forsgren
American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks...
2017: PloS One
Gladys L Stephenson, Keith R Solomon
A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher-tier studies on the effects of imidacloprid (IMI) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg IMI/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse-effect-dose of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses, was measured. The overall weight of evidence indicates that there is minimal risk to honeybees from exposure to IMI from its use as a seed treatment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Asma Akter, Paolo Biella, Jan Klecka
Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers...
2017: PloS One
Ieva Saulite, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Emmanuella Guenova, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Martin Glatz
BACKGROUND: Skin test reactivity to hymenoptera venom and venom-specific IgE are important for diagnosing venom allergy and deciding on the appropriate allergen for venom immunotherapy (VIT). Longitudinal data on skin test reactivity during VIT and their correlation with venom-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG are scarce. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed shifts in skin test reactivity and serum levels of venom-specific IgE and IgG in patients allergic to hymenoptera venom before the initiation of VIT with ultrarush therapy and after ≥3 years of VIT...
November 9, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Jeffery S Pettis, Robyn Rose, Veeranan Chaimanee
At least two parasitic mites have moved from Asian species of honeybees to infest Apis mellifera. Of these two, Varroa destructor is more widespread globally while Tropilaelaps mercedesae has remained largely in Asia. Tropilaelaps mites are most problematic when A. mellifera is managed outside its native range in contact with Asian species of Apis. In areas where this occurs, beekeepers of A. mellifera treat aggressively for Tropilaelaps and Varroa is either outcompeted or is controlled as a result of the aggressive treatment regime used against Tropilaelaps...
2017: PloS One
P Berríos, J A Fuentes, D Salas, A Carreño, P Aldea, F Fernández, A N Trombert
Biofilms correspond to complex communities of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilm lifestyle predominates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic Gram negative pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of infections in humans, plants and animals. In this context, anti-biofilm can be considered a key strategy to control P. aeruginosa infections, thereby more research in the field is required. On the other hand, Lactobacillus species have been described as beneficial due to their anti-biofilm properties and their consequent effect against a wide spectrum of pathogens...
November 10, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Rodrigo Zaluski, Luis Antonio Justulin, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi
Global decreases in bee populations emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors affect colony maintenance, especially considering the extreme task specialization observed in honeybee societies. Royal jelly, a protein secretion essential to colony nutrition, is produced by nurse honeybees, and development of bee mandibular glands, which comprise a reservoir surrounded by secretory cells and hypopharyngeal glands that are shaped by acini, is directly associated with production of this secretion...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Ha Thi Thu, Mi Sun Yoo, Mummadireddy Ramya, Bheemireddy Anjana Reddy, Nguyen Thi Kim Lien, Nguyen Thi Phuong Trang, Bui Thi Thuy Duong, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Seung-Won Kang, Dong Van Quyen
Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most common viral infections of honeybees. The entire genome sequence for nine SBV infecting honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, in Vietnam, namely AcSBV-Viet1, AcSBV-Viet2, AcSBV-Viet3, AmSBV-Viet4, AcSBV-Viet5, AmSBV-Viet6, AcSBV-Viet7, AcSBV-Viet8, and AcSBV-Viet9, was determined. These sequences were aligned with seven previously reported complete genome sequences of SBV from other countries, and various genomic regions were compared. The Vietnamese SBVs (VN-SBVs) shared 91-99% identity with each other, and shared 89-94% identity with strains from other countries...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Xu-Jiang He, Wu-Jun Jiang, Mi Zhou, Andrew B Barron, Zhi-Jiang Zeng
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have haplodiploid sex determination: males develop from unfertilized eggs and females develop from fertilized ones. The differences in larval food also determine the development of females. Here we compared the total somatic gene expression profiles of 2-day and 4-day-old drone, queen and worker larvae by RNA-Seq. The results from a co-expression network analysis on all expressed genes showed that 2-day-old drone and worker larvae were closer in gene expression profiles than 2-day-old queen larvae...
November 6, 2017: Insect Science
Ximing Chen, Juan Li, Haili Sun, Shiweng Li, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Paul Dyson
Drug resistance is a major problem in antibacterial chemotherapy. Apidaecins, which refer to a series of small, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, are predominantly active against many drug-resistant bacteria. The apidaecins have special antibacterial mechanisms, and are non-toxic for human cells, a prerequisite for using them as novel antibiotic drugs. However, no efficient non-tagged apidaecin expression system has been reported, which is the limiting factor for their application. Here we successfully generated a Pichia pastoris transformant expressing and secreting apidaecin...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
M R Ibbotson, Y-S Hung, H Meffin, N Boeddeker, M V Srinivasan
The impressive repertoire of honeybee visually guided behaviors, and their ability to learn has made them an important tool for elucidating the visual basis of behavior. Like other insects, bees perform optomotor course correction to optic flow, a response that is dependent on the spatial structure of the visual environment. However, bees can also distinguish the speed of image motion during forward flight and landing, as well as estimate flight distances (odometry), irrespective of the visual scene. The neural pathways underlying these abilities are unknown...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sebastian L Hausmann, Britta Tietjen, Matthias C Rillig
Flower nectar is a sugar-rich ephemeral habitat for microorganisms. Nectar-borne yeasts are part of the microbial community and can affect pollination by changing nectar chemistry, attractiveness to pollinators or flower temperature if yeast population densities are high. Pollinators act as dispersal agents in this system, however, pollination events lead potentially to shrinking nectar yeast populations.We here examine how sufficiently high cell densities of nectar yeast can develop in a flower. In laboratory experiments, we determined the remaining fraction of nectar yeast cells after nectar removal, and used honeybees to determine the number of transmitted yeast cells from one flower to the next...
November 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Chiara Giorio, Anton Safer, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Andrea Tapparo, Andrea Lentola, Vincenzo Girolami, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
With the exponential number of published data on neonicotinoids and fipronil during the last decade, an updated review of literature has been conducted in three parts. The present part focuses on gaps of knowledge that have been addressed after publication of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides in 2015. More specifically, new data on the mode of action and metabolism of neonicotinoids and fipronil, and their toxicity to invertebrates and vertebrates, were obtained. We included the newly detected synergistic effects and/or interactions of these systemic insecticides with other insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, adjuvants, honeybee viruses, and parasites of honeybees...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A Ugajin, H Uchiyama, T Miyata, T Sasaki, S Yajima, M Ono
Despite possessing a limited number of neurones compared to vertebrates, honeybees show remarkable learning and memory performance, an example being 'dance communication'. In this phenomenon, foraging honeybees learn the location of a newly discovered food source and transmit the information to nestmates by symbolic abdomen vibrating behaviour, leading to navigation of nestmates to the new food source. As an initial step toward understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the sophisticated learning and memory performance of the honeybee, we focused on the neural immediate early genes (IEGs), which are specific genes quickly transcribed after neural activity without de novo protein synthesis...
November 2, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Marielle Ong, Michael Bulmer, Julia Groening, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Flying insects constantly face the challenge of choosing efficient, safe and collision-free routes while navigating through dense foliage. We examined the route-choice behavior of foraging honeybees when they encountered a barrier which could be traversed by flying through one of two apertures, positioned side by side. When the bees' choice behavior was averaged over the entire tested population, the two apertures were chosen with equal frequency when they were equally wide. When the apertures were of different width, the bees, on average, showed a preference for the wider aperture, which increased sharply with the difference between the aperture widths...
2017: PloS One
Jessy Praet, Anneleen Parmentier, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Ivan Meeus, Guy Smagghe, Peter Vandamme
A total of 1940 isolates from gut samples of 60 bumblebees representing Bombus pascuorum, Bombus terrestris, Bombus lucorum and Bombus lapidarius was collected and identified through state-of the-art taxonomic methods. The bacterial species diversity in these Bombus species exceeded that suggested by phylotype analysis through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and revealed that B. pascuorum and B. terrestris had a unique microbiota composition, each. Representatives of most phylotypes reported earlier and detected in the present study were effectively isolated, and included several novel bacterial taxa and species reported for the first time in the bumblebee gut...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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