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Genetic engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650980/changes-in-transcript-levels-of-starch-hydrolysis-genes-and-raising-citric-acid-production-via-carbon-ion-irradiation-mutagenesis-of-aspergillus-niger
#1
Wei Hu, Wenjian Li, Hao Chen, Jing Liu, Shuyang Wang, Jihong Chen
The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is well known for its ability to accumulate citric acid for the hydrolysis of starchy materials. To improve citric acid productivity, heavy ion beam mutagenesis was utilized to produce mutant A.niger strains with enhanced production of citric acid in this work. It was demonstrated that a mutant HW2 with high concentration of citric acid was isolated after carbon ion irradiation with the energy of 80Mev/μ, which was obvious increase higher than the original strain from liquefied corn starch as a feedstock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650878/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-bridging-the-translational-gap
#2
Neringa Jurkute, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic disorder in the population. We address the clinical evolution of the disease, the secondary etiological factors that could contribute to visual loss, and the challenging task of developing effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: LHON is characterized by a preclinical phase that reflects retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction before rapid visual deterioration ensues...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#3
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650092/photoactivatable-mussel-based-underwater-adhesive-proteins-by-an-expanded-genetic-code
#4
Mathias Hauf, Florian Richter, Tobias Schneider, Thomas Faidt, Berta M Martins, Tobias Baumann, Patrick Durkin, Holger Dobbek, Karin Jacobs, Andreas Möglich, Nediljko Budisa
Marine mussels exhibit potent underwater adhesion abilities under hostile conditions employing 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich mussel-adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, their recombinant production is a major biotechnological challenge. Here, we have developed a novel strategy based on genetic code expansion by engineering efficient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) for the photocaged non-canonical amino acid (ncAA) ortho-nitrobenzyl Dopa (ONB-Dopa). The engineered ONB-DopaRS enables in vivo production of MAP type 5 site-specifically equipped with multiple instances of ONB-Dopa yielding spatiotemporally controlled underwater adhesives...
June 26, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649464/light-in-diagnosis-therapy-and-surgery
#5
Seok Hyun Yun, Sheldon J J Kwok
Light and optical techniques have made profound impacts on modern medicine, with numerous lasers and optical devices being currently used in clinical practice to assess health and treat disease. Recent advances in biomedical optics have enabled increasingly sophisticated technologies - in particular those that integrate photonics with nanotechnology, biomaterials and genetic engineering. In this Review, we revisit the fundamentals of light-matter interactions, describe the applications of light in imaging, diagnosis, therapy and surgery, overview their clinical use, and discuss the promise of emerging light-based technologies...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649442/next-generation-mammalian-genetics-toward-organism-level-systems-biology
#6
REVIEW
Etsuo A Susaki, Hideki Ukai, Hiroki R Ueda
Organism-level systems biology in mammals aims to identify, analyze, control, and design molecular and cellular networks executing various biological functions in mammals. In particular, system-level identification and analysis of molecular and cellular networks can be accelerated by next-generation mammalian genetics. Mammalian genetics without crossing, where all production and phenotyping studies of genome-edited animals are completed within a single generation drastically reduce the time, space, and effort of conducting the systems research...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649363/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-gene-expression-by-crispr-cas-systems
#7
REVIEW
Albert Lo, Lei Qi
The discovery and adaption of bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems has revolutionized the way researchers edit genomes. Engineering of catalytically inactivated Cas variants (nuclease-deficient or nuclease-deactivated [dCas]) combined with transcriptional repressors, activators, or epigenetic modifiers enable sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin state. These CRISPR-Cas-based technologies have contributed to the rapid development of disease models and functional genomics screening approaches, which can facilitate genetic target identification and drug discovery...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649246/redirected-primary-human-chimeric-antigen-receptor-natural-killer-cells-as-an-off-the-shelf-immunotherapy-for-improvement-in-cancer-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Olaf Oberschmidt, Stephan Kloess, Ulrike Koehl
Primary human natural killer (NK) cells recognize and subsequently eliminate virus infected cells, tumor cells, or other aberrant cells. However, cancer cells are able to develop tumor immune escape mechanisms to undermine this immune control. To overcome this obstacle, NK cells can be genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) in order to improve specific recognition of cancer surface markers (e.g., CD19, CD20, and ErbB2). After target recognition, intracellular CAR domain signaling (CD3ζ, CD28, 4-1BB, and 2B4) leads to activation of PI3K or DNAX proteins (DAP10, DAP12) and finally to enhanced cytotoxicity, proliferation, and/or interferon γ release...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649239/insights-into-the-classical-genetics-of-clitopilus-passeckerianus-the-pleuromutilin-producing-mushroom
#9
Kate M J de Mattos-Shipley, Gary D Foster, Andy M Bailey
Clitopilus passeckerianus is the fungal species responsible for the production of pleuromutilin, a diterpene antibiotic that is gaining in commercial interest. Production of the antibiotic is constrained by the low titers typically obtained from isolates. We therefore set out to investigate the possibility of using classical breeding techniques coupled with genetic manipulation as a means to develop such fungi. We show that the original production strain of C. passeckerianus is able to fruit under laboratory conditions, giving viable haploid meiotic basidiospores...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648403/genetic-determinant-of-bacillus-pumilus-lipase-lethality-and-its-application-as-positive-selection-cloning-vector-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Nobalanda Betty Mabizela-Mokoena, Shonisani Wendy Limani, Ignatious Ncube, Lizelle Piater, Derek Litthauer, Mulalo Bethuel Nthangeni
Positive selection vectors carry genes that upon expression produce proteins that cause host cell deaths. Insertion of foreign DNA fragments within the ORF of the gene disrupts the lethal effect of the expressed protein. This study described the cloning of Family I.4 Bacillus pumilus lipase gene whose expressed protein is toxic and lethal to Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) cells. The determinant of toxicity was identified through Error-prone PCR to be the nature of amino acid residue resident at position 28 of the mature lipase protein...
June 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648139/mutagenic-analysis-of-an-adeno-associated-virus-variant-capable-of-simultaneously-promoting-immune-resistance-and-robust-gene-delivery
#11
Yoojin Kim, Eunmi Kim, Seokmin Oh, Ye-Eun Yoon, Jae-Hyung Jang
In addition to the ability to boost gene delivery efficiency in many therapeutically relevant cells, the capability of circumventing neutralizing antibody (NAb) inactivation is a key prerequisite that gene carriers must fulfill for their extensive applications as therapeutic agents in many gene therapy trials, especially for cancer treatments. This study revealed that a genetically engineered adeno-associated viral (AAV) variant, AAVr3.45, inherently possesses dual beneficial properties as a gene carrier: i) efficiently delivering therapeutic genes to many clinically valuable cells (e...
June 24, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647812/genetically-engineered-orange-petunias-on-the-market
#12
Hany Bashandy, Teemu H Teeri
Unauthorized genetically engineered orange petunias were found on the market. Genetic engineering of petunia was shown to lead to novel flower color some 20 years ago. Here we show that petunia lines with orange flowers, generated for scientific purposes, apparently found their way to petunia breeding programmes, intentionally or unintentionally. Today they are widely available, but have not been registered for commerce.
June 24, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647733/role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-bone-regenerative-medicine-what-is-the-evidence
#13
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Healing and regeneration of bone injuries, particularly those that are associated with large bone defects, are a complicated process. There is growing interest in the application of osteoinductive and osteogenic growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to significantly improve bone repair and regeneration. MSCs are multipotent stromal stem cells that can be harvested from many different sources and differentiated into a variety of cell types, such as preosteogenic chondroblasts and osteoblasts...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647539/chemical-addressability-of-potato-virus-x-for-its-applications-in-bio-nanotechnology
#14
Duc H T Le, He Hu, Ulrich Commandeur, Nicole F Steinmetz
Potato virus X (PVX), a type member of the plant virus potexvirus group, offers a unique nanotechnology platform based on its high aspect ratio, flexible filamentous shape. The PVX platform has already been engineered and studied for its uses in imaging, drug delivery, and immunotherapies. While genetic engineering procedures are well established for PVX, there is limited information about chemical conjugation strategies for functionalizing PVX, partly due to the lack of structural information of PVX at high resolution...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647529/-linking-secondary-metabolites-to-biosynthesis-genes-in-the-fungal-endophyte-cyanodermella-asteris-the-anti-cancer-bisanthraquinone-skyrin
#15
Linda Jahn, Thomas Schafhauser, Daniel Wibberg, Christian Rückert, Anika Winkler, Andreas Kulik, Tilmann Weber, Liane Flor, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Jörn Kalinowski, Jutta Ludwig-Müllera, Wolfgang Wohlleben
Fungal aromatic polyketides display a very diverse and widespread group of natural products. Due to their excellent light absorption properties and widely studied biological activities, they offer numerous application for food, textile and pharmaceutical industry. The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthases iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646693/antibacterial-effect-of-genetically-engineered-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-ef11-%C3%AF-fl1c-%C3%AE-36-p-nisa-on-dentin-infected-with-antibiotic-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis
#16
Justine Monnerat Tinoco, Nadia Liss, Hongming Zhang, Roni Nissan, Wanda Gordon, Eduardo Tinoco, Luciana Sassone, Roy Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, which is present in 30-89% of teeth with postendodontic treatment failures. E. faecalis is capable of penetrating dentinal tubules and surviving as a monoculture after conventional endodontic therapy, indicating that it is resistant to commonly used endodontic disinfection protocols. Different E. faecalis strains have shown resistance to several antibiotics, and have been associated with both dental pathology and systemic infections...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644379/physical-forces-may-cause-the-hoxd-gene-cluster-elongation
#17
Spyros Papageorgiou
Hox gene collinearity was discovered be Edward B. Lewis in 1978. It consists of the Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 ordering of the Hox genes in the chromosome from the telomeric to the centromeric side of the chromosome. Surprisingly, the spatial activation of the Hox genes in the ontogenetic units of the embryo follows the same ordering along the anterior-posterior embryonic axis. The chromosome microscale differs from the embryo macroscale by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The traditional biomolecular mechanisms are not adequate to comprise phenomena at so divergent spatial domains...
June 23, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643253/genome-editing-of-rat
#18
Takehito Kaneko
Many genetically engineered rat strains have been produced for biomedical research. The simple and quick production of knock-out and knock-in rats is currently possible using genome editing techniques incorporating zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Genome-edited animals have been produced by the introduction of endonucleases into embryos using conventional microinjection and a new electroporation method named Technique for Animal Knockout system by Electroporation (TAKE)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643181/promoting-acid-resistance-and-nisin-yield-of-lactococcus-lactis-f44-by-genetically-increasing-d-asp-amidation-level-inside-cell-wall
#19
Panlong Hao, Dongmei Liang, Lijie Cao, Bin Qiao, Hao Wu, Qinggele Caiyin, Hongji Zhu, Jianjun Qiao
Nisin fermentation by Lactococcus lactis requires a low pH to maintain a relatively higher nisin activity. However, the acidic environment will result in cell arrest, and eventually decrease the relative nisin production. Hence, constructing an acid-resistant L. lactis is crucial for nisin harvest in acidic nisin fermentation. In this paper, the first discovery of the relationship between D-Asp amidation-associated gene (asnH) and acid resistance was reported. Overexpression of asnH in L. lactis F44 (F44A) resulted in a sevenfold increase in survival capacity during acid shift (pH 3) and enhanced nisin desorption capacity compared to F44 (wild type), which subsequently contributed to higher nisin production, reaching 5346 IU/mL, 57...
June 22, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642611/engineered-newcastle-disease-virus-expressing-the-f-and-g-proteins-of-ampv-c-confers-protection-against-challenges-in-turkeys
#20
Haixia Hu, Jason P Roth, Laszlo Zsak, Qingzhong Yu
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infects the respiratory and reproductive tracts of domestic poultry, resulting in substantial economic losses for producers. Live attenuated vaccines appear to be the most effective in countries where the disease is prevalent. However, reversion to virulence has been demonstrated in several studies. Therefore, the development of a stable and safe next generation vaccine against the AMPV disease is needed. In the present study, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectoring the fusion (F) protein and glycoprotein (G) genes of AMPV subtype-C (AMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine candidate using reverse genetics technology...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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