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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333608/the-synergistic-effect-of-pdt-and-oxacillin-on-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Natanel Iluz, Yasmin Maor, Natan Keller, Zvi Malik
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in clinical microbiology. It is known to cause infections at various body sites and can be life-threatening. The development of resistance to many well-established antibiotic treatments and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRAS) among hospital patients and the general community pose challenges in treating the pathogen. The antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a subject of study for a long time and can offer new strategies for dealing with resistant strains...
January 15, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332319/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#2
REVIEW
Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
The role of the treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been underscored in the intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden countries like South Korea. LTBI treatment is recommended only for patients at risk for progression to active TB-those with frequent exposure to active TB cases, and those with clinical risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients). Recently revised National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommended that close contacts of individuals with active pulmonary or laryngeal TB, aged between 18 and 65 years, should undergo LTBI treatment...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#3
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301898/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-in-guiyang-china
#4
Zhenghong Chen, Weizheng Ou, Xiangyu Fan, Guzhen Cui, Qiong Wang, Qiang Li, Rong Sun, Xiaojuan Wu, Wan Qin, Yan Wang
We identified the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. They were resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as determined by the agar proportion method, but were susceptible to isoniazid, as determined by the DNA array method. The genome sequences showed that a katG deletion led to the false diagnosis of isoniazid resistance by DNA array.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299116/clinical-efficacy-of-short-course-chemotherapy-combined-with-topical-injection-therapy-in-treatment-of-superficial-lymph-node-tuberculosis
#5
Huiru An, Zhongyuan Wang, Hongbing Chen, Tao Wang, Xinjing Wang, Lin Liu, Xiao Liu, Jing Xu, Luxing He, Kai Zhang, Hongyan Zhang, Xinying Liu
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of short-course chemotherapy combined with regional injection therapy in the treatment of superficial lymph node tuberculosis. 201 patients diagnosed with superficial lymph node tuberculosis were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were randomly divided into the study (n = 100) and control groups (n = 101). In the study group, the patients received 6-month chemotherapy with isoniazid (H), rifampin (R) and ethambutol (E) (6HRE) in combination with regional injection of streptomycin, and their counterparts in the control group underwent systemic regime of 3HRZE/6HRE...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290186/evaluation-of-nitrate-reductase-assay-for-early-detection-of-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistance-tuberculosis-in-our-setup
#6
Aamer Ikram Ikram, Muhammad Luqman Satti, Farida Khurram Lalani, Gohar Zaman, Adeel Hussain Gardezi, Parvez Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of nitrate reductase assay on smear positive pulmonary specimens for detection of multi and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis simultaneously. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from June to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: Smear positive pulmonary samples were processed both by nitrate reductase method on Lowenstein Jenson medium and also inoculated on gold standard Bactec MGIT 960 TB system...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289797/survey-on-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-in-senegal-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-tb-and-assessment-of-their-antimycobacterial-activity
#7
ElHadji Assane Diop, Emerson Ferreira Queiroz, Sébastien Kicka, Serge Rudaz, Tahir Diop, Thierry Soldati, Jean-Luc Wolfender
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this study was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287710/rifampin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-molecular-characterization-and-fitness-cost-of-rpob-mutations
#8
Yu Mi Wi, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Cassandra L Brinkman, Jean Y H Lee, Benjamin P Howden, Robin Patel
Molecular mechanisms and characteristics of rifampin resistance in Staphylococcus epidermidis are poorly characterized, even though S. epidermidis is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens associated with indwelling medical device-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of rifampin resistance and to characterize the associated molecular mechanisms in S. epidermidis. Rifampin-resistant mutants from two rifampin-susceptible S. epidermidis strains, RP62A and IDRL-8883, were selected through in vitro and in vivo exposure to rifampin...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275298/association-of-antituberculosis-treatment-and-lower-risk-of-hyperlipidemia-in-taiwanese-patients-a-population-based-case-control-study
#9
Ying-Ray Lee, N I Tien, Cheng-Li Lin, Hsin-Yi Shen, DA-Tian Bau, Yun-Ping Lim
The association between anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatments and the risk of developing hyperlipidemia remains unclear. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000). The case group included patients newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia (n=16,054) between 2006 and 2011 selected from the LHID2000. A four-fold number of hyperlipidemia-free cases (n=64,216) were matched with case patients by age, sex, and index year to create the control group. Univariable and multivariable unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between hyperlipidemia and anti-TB medication use...
January 2018: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272983/sub-inhibitory-concentration-of-essential-oils-induces-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Barbara Turchi, Simone Mancini, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar, Filippo Fratini
Fourteen Staphylococcus aureus wild strains were stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of five essential oils: Leptospermum scoparium (manuka), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Satureja montana (winter savoury) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). Antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the strains were determined by agar disk diffusion method before and after EOs treatment. The following antibiotics were employed: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cephalexin, neomycin, piperacillin, rifampin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and tobramycin...
December 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248123/current-management-of-infected-aortic-grafts-in-patients-with-connective-tissue-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Natalia O Glebova, James H Black
Patients with connective tissue disorder present a particular clinical challenge in the treatment of aortic graft infections. Specific complexities arise in patients with connective tissue disorders when reoperation for aortic graft infection is required. Herein we describe current management of infected aortic grafts in patients with connective tissue disorders using homograft and rifampin-coated graft replacements using in situ replacement therapy, which is associated with improved outcome compared to graft excision and extra-anatomic bypass...
June 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247506/suboptimal-anti-tuberculosis-drug-concentrations-and-outcomes-in-small-and-hiv-coinfected-children-in-india-recommendations-for-dose-modifications
#12
Benjamin Guiastrennec, Geetha Ramachandran, Mats O Karlsson, A K Hemanth Kumar, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, N Poorana Gangadevi, Soumya Swaminathan, Amita Gupta, Kelly E Dooley, Radojka M Savic
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing thrice-weekly dosing as per previous Indian pediatric guidelines. The exposure-response relationships were established using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach. Rifampin exposure was identified as the unique predictor of treatment outcome...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242075/molecular-drug-resistance-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-sputum-specimens-using-ion-semiconductor-sequencing
#13
Joonhong Park, Woori Jang, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, So Youn Shin, Kuhn Park, Myung Sook Kim, Soyoung Shin
The increasing burden of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB, defined by resistance to rifampin (RFP) and isoniazid (INH), and extensively drug resistant-TB, defined by MDR-TB with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and more than one second-line injectable drug, is a serious impediment to global TB control. We evaluated the feasibility of full-length gene analysis including inhA, katG, rpoB, pncA, rpsL embB, eis, and gyrA using a semiconductor NGS with the Ion AmpliSeq TB panel to directly analyse 34 sputum specimens confirmed by phenotypic DST: INH, RFP, ethambutol (EMB), pyrazinamide (PZA), amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin (SM), FQs including ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238713/sodium-mercaptoethane-sulfonate-reduces-collagenolytic-degradation-and-synergistically-enhances-antimicrobial-durability-in-an-antibiotic-loaded-biopolymer-film-for-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#14
Joel Rosenblatt, Ruth A Reitzel, George M Viola, Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Jesse Selber, Issam Raad
Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R) was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA) on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#15
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233459/invasive-meningococcal-disease-due-to-ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-4821-the-first-case-in-japan
#16
Yu Kawasaki, Kousaku Matsubara, Hideyuki Takahashi, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Masayuki Hori, Kenichi Isome, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami, Mami Ikemachi, Go Yamamoto, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
We present a 4-year-old girl who developed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C sequence type (ST)-4821. She was hospitalized due to fever, vomiting, rash and altered consciousness. Serogroup C N. meningitidis was isolated from blood culture taken on admission and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemical test, and molecular microbiological analysis. The patient was successfully treated with 50 mg/kg ceftriaxone every 12 hours for 7 days without any complications...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227738/antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-iranian-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Hamid Vaez, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Amir Hossein Sahebkar, Mohsen Arzanlou, Farzad Khademi
Antibiotic therapy for children infected with Helicobacter pylori is important. However, resistance to antibiotics is one of the main causes of treatment failure. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence pattern of antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in Iranian children using a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature. A computerized search (until June 10, 2017) using related keywords in the national and international databases was performed. A total of 261 original articles on antibiotic resistance of H...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#18
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216262/direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampin-resistance-in-bio-safe-stained-sputum-smears
#19
Surabhi Lavania, Divya Anthwal, Manpreet Bhalla, Nagendra Singh, Sagarika Haldar, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi
Direct smear microscopy of sputum forms the mainstay of TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Stained sputum smear slides can serve as a ready-made resource to transport sputum for molecular drug susceptibility testing. However, bio-safety is a major concern during transport of sputum/stained slides and for laboratory workers engaged in processing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected sputum specimens. In this study, a bio-safe USP (Universal Sample Processing) concentration-based sputum processing method (Bio-safe method) was assessed on 87 M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203102/antimicrobial-resistance-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#20
Ebru Şebnem Yılmaz, Özkan Aslantaş
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 clinical Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against 14 antimicrobials and corresponding resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method and antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Mutations responsible for ciprofloxacin and rifampicin resistance were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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