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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087944/laboratory-diagnosis-and-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Gary W Procop
The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081173/effect-of-rifampin-on-thyroid-function-test-in-patients-on-levothyroxine-medication
#2
Hye In Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Hosu Kim, Young Nam Kim, Hye Won Jang, Jae Hoon Chung, Seong Mi Moon, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Sun Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine (LT4) and rifampin (RIF) are sometimes used together; however, no clinical studies have assessed the effects of these drugs on thyroid function or the need to adjust LT4 dose. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 71 Korean patients who started RIF during LT4 treatment. Clinically relevant cases that required dose adjustment according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA)/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) guidelines were identified, and risk factors of increased LT4 dose were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081169/assessment-of-a-96-well-plate-assay-of-quantitative-drug-susceptibility-testing-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-china
#3
Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Bing Zhao, Susan van den Hof, Frank Cobelens, YanLin Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. METHODS: A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077325/role-of-14-3-3-sigma-in-over-expression-of-p-gp-by-rifampin-and-paclitaxel-stimulation-through-interaction-with-pxr
#4
So Won Kim, Md Hasanuzzaman, Munju Cho, Nam Hyun Kim, Hye-Young Choi, Jung Woo Han, Hyun June Park, Ji Won Oh, Jae-Gook Shin
In this study, we presented the role of 14-3-3σ to activate CK2-Hsp90β-PXR-MDR1 pathway on rifampin and paclitaxel treated LS174T cells and in vivo LS174T cell-xenografted nude mouse model. Following several in vitro and in vivo experiments, rifampin and paclitaxel were found to be stimulated the CK2-Hsp90β-PXR-MDR1 pathway. Of the proteins in this pathway, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a representative transcription factor of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). We constructed FLAG-PXR-LS174T stable cell lines and discovered 22 proteins that interacted with PXR on rifampin treatment...
January 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074051/anti-folates-potentiate-bactericidal-effects-of-other-antimicrobial-agents
#5
Kun Li, Xu-de Wang, Shan-Shan Yang, Jing Gu, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang
Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071153/novel-chemical-scaffolds-for-inhibition-of-rifamycin-resistant-rna-polymerase-discovered-from-high-throughput-screening
#6
Nathan T Scharf, Vadim Molodtsov, Arrin Kontos, Katsuhiko S Murakami, George A Garcia
Rifampin has been a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) treatment since its introduction. The rise of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB makes the development of novel therapeutics effective against these strains an urgent need. Site-specific mutations in the target enzyme of rifampin, RNA polymerase (RNAP) comprises the majority (~97%) of rifamycin-resistant (Rif(R)) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To identify novel inhibitors of bacterial RNAP, an in vitro plasmid-based transcription assay that uses malachite green (MG) to detect transcribed RNA containing MG aptamers was developed...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060046/serious-adverse-reactions-from-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-among-599-children-hospitalized-for-tuberculosis
#7
Yiyuan Li, Yu Zhu, Qin Zhong, Xiaojun Zhang, Min Shu, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUNDS: The purpose of the study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of serious adverse reactions (ARs) related to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in children hospitalized for TB. A comprehensive understanding of these drug-related ARs may serve to improve patient prognosis. METHOD: Inpatients diagnosed with TB from 2008 to 2013 were enrolled retrospectively. The patients' demographics, diagnosis and ARs were recorded and analyzed for comprehensive evaluation...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054732/liver-transplantation-is-associated-with-good-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-and-acute-liver-failure-due-to-anti-tubercular-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Michele Bartoletti, Giulia Martelli, Sara Tedeschi, Mariacristina Morelli, Valentine Bertuzzo, Marina Tadolini, Paolo Pianta, Francesco Cristini, Maddalena Giannella, Russell E Lewis, Antonio D Pinna, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) is commonly considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT). However, in patients with TB who develop acute liver failure (ALF) due to toxicity induced by anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), LT could be the only opportunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of LT in this scenario. METHODS: We described 2 cases and comprehensively reviewed the literature finding 26 cases of LT performed in patients having a concomitant active TB and liver failure secondary to ATT toxicity...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052338/quantitative-prediction-of-the-effect-of-cyp3a-inhibitors-and-inducers-on-venetoclax-pharmacokinetics-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#9
Kevin J Freise, Mohamad Shebley, Ahmed Hamed Salem
The objectives of the analysis were to develop and verify a venetoclax physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the effects of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitors and inducers on the PK of venetoclax and inform dosing recommendations. A minimal PBPK model was developed based on prior in vitro and in vivo clinical data using a "middle-out" approach. The PBPK model was independently verified against clinical studies of the strong CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole, the strong CYP3A inducer, multiple-dose rifampin, and the steady-state venetoclax PK in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subjects by comparing predicted to observed ratios of the venetoclax maximum concentration (Cmax R) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC∞ R) from these studies...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043640/alternate-efflux-pump-mechanism-may-contribute-to-drug-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Akbar Kanji, Rumina Hasan, Ambreen Zaver, Asho Ali, Kehkashan Imtiaz, Mussarat Ashraf, Taane G Clark, Ruth McNerney, Samreen Shafiq, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the biggest threats to public health and TB control programs worldwide. XDR-TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, as well as to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one injectable aminoglycoside. Drug resistance in MTB has primarily been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in particular genes. However, it has also been shown that efflux pumps may play a role in resistance of MTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043638/activity-of-drugs-against-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
A Iacobino, G Piccaro, F Giannoni, A Mustazzolu, L Fattorini
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous mixtures of cellular and caseous granulomas coexist in the lungs of tuberculosis (TB) patients, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) existing from actively replicating (AR) to dormant, nonreplicating (NR) stages. Within cellular granulomas, the pH is estimated to be less than 6, whereas in the necrotic centres of hypoxic, cholesterol/triacylglycerol-rich, caseous granulomas, the pH varies between 7.2 and 7.4. To combat TB, we should kill both AR and NR stages of Mtb...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#12
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043565/drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-avium-isolates-from-naturally-infected-domestic-pigeons-to-avian-tuberculosis
#13
Kaveh Parvandar, Mansour Mayahi, Nader Mosavari, Reza Aref Pajoohi
OBJECTIVE: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043563/molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing-against-the-first-line-rifampin-and-isoniazid-and-second-line-ciprofloxacin-amikacin-and-kanamycin-treatment-in-different-subtypes-of-mycobacterium-simiae
#14
Parissa Farnia, Donya Malekshahian, Payam Tabarsi, Shima Seif, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium simiae has been identified as the most prevalent slow growing mycobacteria that has been isolated among Iranian patients. Due to an importance of molecular approaches in the treatment of nontuberculosis mycobacteria, this study aimed to evaluate molecular drug susceptibility testing against the first-line (rifampin and isoniazid) and second-line (ciprofloxacin-amikacin and kanamycin) treatment in different subtypes of M. simiae. METHODS: The study involved all patients presenting to our referral tuberculosis center from March 2014 to August 2016, with confirmation of M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043525/molecular-genetics-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistant-to-aminoglycosides-and-cyclic-peptide-testing-by-mtbdrsl-in-armenia
#15
Hasmik Margaryan, Parissa Farnia, Armen Hayrapetyan, Alvard Mirzoyan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The GenoType MTBDRsl test rapidly detects resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones, second-line aminoglycosides (amikacin [AMK] and kanamycin [KAN]), and cyclic peptides (capreomycin [CAP]) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to data from Global Drug Resistance Surveillance Report (2007), Armenia is counted as a high-burden country for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043490/antimycobacterial-activity-of-medicinal-plants-against-the-causative-agent-of-buruli-ulcer-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#16
R Keumoe, M S Nguembou, F P V Tsouh, D V F Donkeng, D Dize, Y L R Tchokouaha, M C D Jiatsa, F R D Youmsi, B Ngameni, B F Fekam
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer, known as necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, has emerged as the most prevalent mycobacteriosis after leprosy and tuberculosis. Accordingly, it has been classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected disease with high significance in tropical areas, including Cameroon. So far, the control of the disease relies mainly on the rifampin-streptomycin combination. Despite its efficiency, it has shown considerable issues, including availability and side effects...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040477/design-of-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-dimer-analogues-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-intermolecular-triazole-bridge-strategy
#17
Beijun Liu, Haifeng Huang, Zhibin Yang, Beiyin Liu, Sanhu Gou, Chao Zhong, Xiufeng Han, Yun Zhang, Jingman Ni, Rui Wang
Currently, antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-sprectum activity and low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance. In our study, for the first time, a series of side-chain hybrid dimer peptides J-AA (Anoplin-Anoplin), J-RR (RW-RW), and J-AR (Anoplin-RW) based on the wasp peptide Anoplin and the arginine- and tryptophan-rich hexapeptide RW were designed and synthesized by click chemistry, with the intent to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of peptides against bacterial pathogens...
December 28, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035639/mycobacterium-infection-from-a-cardiopulmonary-bypass-heater-cooler-unit-in-a-patient-with-steroid-induced-immunosuppression
#18
Yi Cai, Kevin Landolfo, Johnathan R Renew
PURPOSE: To present a case of mycobacterium infection transmitted through a heater-cooler unit during cardiac bypass surgery. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 63-yr-old woman with a past medical history of aortic coarctation repair in 1963 and a mechanical aortic valve replacement in 2010 was prescribed antibiotics and steroids at an outpatient care facility in September 2015 for symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection. Four months later, she developed malaise and intermittent fever with anemia and acute kidney dysfunction...
December 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033700/brucellosis-with-multi-organ-involvement-in-a-patient-with-history-of-composite-aortic-graft-and-hepatitis-b
#19
Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Omid Rezahosseini, Zahra Abdi Liaei
The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant...
November 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027449/novel-chemical-scaffolds-for-inhibition-of-rifamycin-resistant-rna-polymerase-discovered-from-high-throughput-screening
#20
Nathan T Scharf, Vadim Molodtsov, Arrin Kontos, Katsuhiko S Murakami, George A Garcia
Rifampin has been a cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) treatment since its introduction. The rise of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB makes the development of novel therapeutics effective against these strains an urgent need. Site-specific mutations in the target enzyme of rifampin, RNA polymerase (RNAP) comprises the majority (~97%) of rifamycin-resistant (Rif(R)) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To identify novel inhibitors of bacterial RNAP, an in vitro plasmid-based transcription assay that uses malachite green (MG) to detect transcribed RNA containing MG aptamers was developed...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
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