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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#1
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421633/efficacy-of-tulathromycin-for-the-treatment-of-foals-with-mild-to-moderate-bronchopneumonia
#2
D Rutenberg, M Venner, S Giguère
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting data regarding the efficacy of tulathromycin for the treatment of foals with bronchopneumonia. HYPOTHESES: Tulathromycin is effective for the treatment of bronchopneumonia in foals and noninferior to the combination of azithromycin and rifampin. ANIMALS: A total of 240 foals on a farm endemic for infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. METHODS: In a controlled, randomized, and double-blinded clinical trial, foals with ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions (abscess score 10-15 cm) were allocated to 3 groups: 1-tulathromycin IM q 7 days (n = 80); 2-azithromycin-rifampin, orally q24h (n = 80); or 3-untreated controls (n = 80)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419033/oral-only-linezolid-rifampin-is-highly-effective-compared-with-other-antibiotics-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-study-of-a-mouse-model
#3
John M Thompson, Vikram Saini, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Robert J Miller, Alvaro A Ordonez, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Robert S Sterling, Sanjay K Jain, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. METHODS: Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#4
REVIEW
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409551/musculoskeletal-tuberculosis
#5
REVIEW
Michael K Leonard, Henry M Blumberg
Musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for approximately 10% of all extrapulmonary TB cases in the United States and is the third most common site of extrapulmonary TB after pleural and lymphatic disease. Vertebral involvement (tuberculous spondylitis, or Pott's disease) is the most common type of skeletal TB, accounting for about half of all cases of musculoskeletal TB. The presentation of musculoskeletal TB may be insidious over a long period and the diagnosis may be elusive and delayed, as TB may not be the initial consideration in the differential diagnosis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408803/drug-drug-interaction-of-microdose-and-regular-dose-omeprazole-with-a-cyp2c19-inhibitor-and-inducer
#6
Gab-Jin Park, Soo Hyeon Bae, Wan-Su Park, Seunghoon Han, Min-Ho Park, Seok-Ho Shin, Young G Shin, Dong-Seok Yim
PURPOSE: A microdose drug-drug interaction (DDI) study may be a valuable tool for anticipating drug interaction at therapeutic doses. This study aimed to compare the magnitude of DDIs at microdoses and regular doses to explore the applicability of a microdose DDI study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six healthy male volunteer subjects were enrolled into each DDI study of omeprazole (victim) and known perpetrators: fluconazole (inhibitor) and rifampin (inducer). For both studies, the microdose (100 μg, cold compound) and the regular dose (20 mg) of omeprazole were given at days 0 and 1, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408657/negative-regulation-of-human-pregnane-x-receptor-by-microrna-18a-5p-evidence-for-suppression-of-microrna-18a-5p-expression-by-rifampin-and-rilpivirine
#7
Devinder Sharma, Abdullah A Turkistani, Wenjun Chang, Catherine Hu, Zhaoming Xu, Thomas K H Chang
Small non-coding microRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression involved in diverse biological functions. Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), which is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, is a transcription factor governing the transport and biotransformation of various endobiotics and xenobiotics. In the present study, we identified a specific microRNA involved in regulating the expression and functionality of human PXR (hPXR). According to bioinformatics analysis employing three commonly used algorithms (TargetScan, miRanda, and DIANA-microT-CDS), miR-18a-5p was predicted to be the top candidate microRNA regulator of hPXR...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407421/central-venous-catheters-and-biofilms-where-do-we-stand-in-2017
#8
REVIEW
Marie Gominet, Fabrice Compain, Christophe Beloin, David Lebeaux
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is associated with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent potentially severe infection. Microbial contamination of the catheter leads to the development of a microbial consortia associated with the CVC surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix, named biofilm. This biofilm provides bacterial cells the ability to survive antimicrobial agents and the host immune system and to disseminate to other sites of the body. The best preventive strategy is to avoid any unnecessary catheterization or to reduce indwelling duration when a CVC is required...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399977/acute-kidney-injury-during-treatment-for-latent-tuberculous-infection-with-rifampin
#9
J M Wortham, M Goggin, C Mora, L Vandehey, L Manangan, K M Powell
Treatment for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) is a key strategy for the elimination of tuberculosis. Rare adverse reactions associated with LTBI treatment have been reported. We report the only case of acute kidney injury reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance for LTBI treatment-related adverse events. The patient experienced rapid intravascular hemolysis, resulting in heme pigment nephropathy; he was hospitalized and received three hemodialysis treatments, but recovered without sequelae...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399057/staphylococcus-aureus-central-nervous-system-infections-in-children
#10
Jesus G Vallejo, Alexandra N Cain, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan, Kristina G Hultén
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). METHODS: Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess for S. aureus at TCH from 2001-2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: 70 cases of S...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392175/structural-basis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transcription-and-transcription-inhibition
#11
Wei Lin, Soma Mandal, David Degen, Yu Liu, Yon W Ebright, Shengjian Li, Yu Feng, Yu Zhang, Sukhendu Mandal, Yi Jiang, Shuang Liu, Matthew Gigliotti, Meliza Talaue, Nancy Connell, Kalyan Das, Eddy Arnold, Richard H Ebright
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis, which kills 1.8 million annually. Mtb RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the target of the first-line antituberculosis drug rifampin (Rif). We report crystal structures of Mtb RNAP, alone and in complex with Rif, at 3.8-4.4 Å resolution. The results identify an Mtb-specific structural module of Mtb RNAP and establish that Rif functions by a steric-occlusion mechanism that prevents extension of RNA. We also report non-Rif-related compounds-Nα-aroyl-N-aryl-phenylalaninamides (AAPs)-that potently and selectively inhibit Mtb RNAP and Mtb growth, and we report crystal structures of Mtb RNAP in complex with AAPs...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387180/mycobacterium-marinum
#12
Alexandra Aubry, Faiza Mougari, Florence Reibel, Emmanuelle Cambau
Mycobacterium marinum is a well-known pathogenic mycobacterium for skin and soft tissue infections and is associated with fishes and water. Among nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), it is the leading cause of extrarespiratory human infections worldwide. In addition, there is a specific scientific interest in M. marinum because of its genetic relatedness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and because experimental infection of M. marinum in fishes mimics tuberculosis pathogenesis. Microbiological characteristics include the fact that it grows in 7 to 14 days with photochromogenic colonies and is difficult to differentiate from Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycolactone-producing NTM on a molecular basis...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385543/rosuvastatin-pharmacokinetics-in-asian-and-white-subjects-wild-type-for-both-oatp1b1-and-bcrp-under-control-and-inhibited-conditions
#13
Hsin-Fang Wu, Nadya Hristeva, Jae Chang, Xiaorong Liang, Ruina Li, Lynda Frassetto, Leslie Z Benet
The FDA recommends rosuvastatin dosage reductions in Asian patients because pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated an approximate two-fold increase in median exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects when compared to Caucasian controls. Yet, no explanation for this ethnic difference has been confirmed. Here we show that rosuvastatin exposure in Asians and Whites does not differ significantly when all subjects are wildtype carriers for both Solute Carrier Organic anion transporter1B1 *1a and ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2 c...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372916/oral-therapy-microbiological-findings-and-comorbidity-influence-the-outcome-of-prosthetic-joint-infections-undergoing-2-stage-exchange
#14
Tiziana Ascione, Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Balato, Massimo Mariconda, Renato Rotondo, Silvano Esposito
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. METHODS: Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372894/the-additional-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-the-diagnosis-of-intrathoracic-tuberculous-lymphadenitis
#15
Jinwoo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Jae-Joon Yim, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young Sik Park
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis remains a challenge because of difficulties in obtaining adequate tissue and the lack of a sensitive test. Recently, Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary TB, but it has not yet been widely validated in intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. The aim of this study was to assess the additional role of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) specimen...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371445/influence-of-oatp1b1-function-on-the-disposition-of-sorafenib-%C3%AE-d-glucuronide
#16
S Bins, L van Doorn, M A Phelps, A A Gibson, S Hu, L Li, A Vasilyeva, G Du, P Hamberg, Falm Eskens, P de Bruijn, A Sparreboom, Rhj Mathijssen, S D Baker
The oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib undergoes extensive UGT1A9-mediated formation of sorafenib-β-D-glucuronide (SG). Using transporter-deficient mouse models, it was previously established that SG can be extruded into bile by ABCC2 or follow a liver-to-blood shuttling loop via ABCC3-mediated efflux into the systemic circulation, and subsequent uptake in neighboring hepatocytes by OATP1B-type transporters. Here we evaluated the possibility that this unusual process, called hepatocyte hopping, is also operational in humans and can be modulated through pharmacological inhibition...
March 31, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369296/the-not-so-good-prognosis-of-streptococcal-periprosthetic-joint-infection-managed-by-implant-retention-the-results-of-a-large-multicenter-study
#17
Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Éric Senneville, Alba Ribera, Louis Bernard, Michel Dupon, Valérie Zeller, Ho Kwong Li, Cédric Arvieux, Martin Clauss, Ilker Uçkay, Dace Vigante, Tristan Ferry, José Antonio Iribarren, Trisha N Peel, Parham Sendi, Nina Gorišek Miksic, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, María Dolores Del Toro, Marta Fernández-Sampedro, Ulrike Dapunt, Kaisa Huotari, Joshua S Davis, Julián Palomino, Danielle Neut, Benjamin M Clark, Thomas Gottlieb, Rihard Trebše, Alex Soriano, Alberto Bahamonde, Laura Guío, Alicia Rico, Mauro Jc Salles, M José G Pais, Natividad Benito, Melchor Riera, Lucía Gómez, Craig A Aboltins, Jaime Esteban, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Karina O'Connell, Matteo Ferrari, Gábor Skaliczki, Rafael San Juan, Javier Cobo, Mar Sánchez-Somolinos, Antonio Ramos, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Alfredo Jover-Sáenz, Josu Mirena Baraia-Etxaburu, José María Barbero, Peter F M Choong, Nathalie Asseray, Séverine Ansart, Gwenäel Le Moal, Werner Zimmerli, Javier Ariza
Background: Streptococci are not an infrequent cause of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Management by debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is thought to produce a good prognosis, but little is known about the real likelihood of success. Methods: Retrospective, observational, multicenter, international study performed during 2003-2012. Eligible patients had a streptococcal PJI that was managed with DAIR. The primary endpoint was failure, defined as death related to infection, relapse/persistence of infection, or the need for salvage therapy...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361737/therapy-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#18
Barbara J Seaworth, David E Griffith
The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin was recently reported as larger than previously estimated, with at least 580,000 new cases reported in 2015. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), MDR-TB with additional resistance to a second-line fluoroquinolone and injectable, continues to account for nearly 10% of MDR cases globally. Cases in India, China, and the Russian Federation account for >45% of the cases of MDR-TB...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353169/the-effect-of-single-and-multiple-doses-of-rifampin-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-doravirine-in-healthy-subjects
#19
Ka Lai Yee, Sauzanne G Khalilieh, Rosa I Sanchez, Rachael Liu, Matt S Anderson, Helen Manthos, Timothy Judge, John Brejda, Joan R Butterton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Doravirine is a novel, next-generation, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in combination with other antiretrovirals. Doravirine is a substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and P-glycoprotein. Rifampin (rifampicin) is used for treating tuberculosis in patients who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Rifampin demonstrates organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and P-glycoprotein inhibition after single-dose administration and CYP3A and P-glycoprotein induction after multiple-dose administration...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348772/case-series-of-bartonella-quintana-blood-culture-negative-endocarditis-in-washington-dc
#20
Fisseha Y Ghidey, Osamuyimen Igbinosa, Kristin Mills, Leon Lai, Christian Woods, Maria E Ruiz, Dawn Fishbein, Rahul Sampath, Robert Lowery, Glenn Wortmann
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies (predominantly from Europe) have demonstrated blood culture-negative endocarditis due to Bartonella. Our objective was to describe three cases of Bartonella quintana endocarditis identified within one year at a large hospital in Washington, DC, USA. CASE PRESENTATION: We constructed a descriptive case series from a retrospective review of medical records from April to December 2013 at an 800-bed urban hospital. All three patients (ages: 52, 55 and 57 years) were undomiciled/homeless men with a history of alcoholism...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
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