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Allergy, Th2 cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906527/induction-of-bystander-tolerance-and-immune-deviation-following-fel-d-1-peptide-immunotherapy
#1
Daniel M Moldaver, Mantej S Bharhani, Christopher D Rudulier, Jennifer Wattie, Mark D Inman, Mark Larché
BACKGROUND: Treatment of cat allergic subjects with peptides derived from Fel d 1 (the major cat allergen) ameliorated symptoms of cat allergy in phase 2 clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the tolerance induced by Fel d 1 peptide immunotherapy can be exploited to reduce allergic responses to a second allergen, ovalbumin (OVA), in mice dually sensitized to OVA and Fel d 1. METHODS: The induction of tolerance to OVA was achieved via a simultaneous exposure to both allergens following peptide treatment...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890625/hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-immune-response-in-a-murine-model-of-peanut-allergy
#2
Giovanna Trinchese, Lorella Paparo, Rosita Aitoro, Carmela Fierro, Michela Varchetta, Rita Nocerino, Maria Pina Mollica, Roberto Berni Canani
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a relevant role for liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in allergic disease. However, the role of hepatic mitochondrial function in food allergy is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in a murine model of peanut allergy. METHODS: Three-week-old C3H/HeOuJ mice were sensitized by the oral route with peanut-extract (PNT). We investigated: 1. the occurrence of effective sensitization to PNT by analysing acute allergic skin response, anaphylactic symptoms score, body temperature, serum mucosal mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) and anti-PNT immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels; 2...
June 8, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883409/tobacco-smoke-induces-and-alters-immune-responses-in-the-lung-triggering-inflammation-allergy-asthma-and-other-lung-diseases-a-mechanistic-review
#3
REVIEW
Agnieszka Strzelak, Aleksandra Ratajczak, Aleksander Adamiec, Wojciech Feleszko
Many studies have been undertaken to reveal how tobacco smoke skews immune responses contributing to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other lung diseases. Recently, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked with asthma and allergic diseases in children. This review presents the most actual knowledge on exact molecular mechanisms responsible for the skewed inflammatory profile that aggravates inflammation, promotes infections, induces tissue damage, and may promote the development of allergy in individuals exposed to ETS...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882879/immunological-processes-driving-ige-sensitisation-and-disease-development-in-males-and-females
#4
REVIEW
Jonatan Leffler, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
IgE sensitisation has increased significantly over the last decades and is a crucial factor in the development of allergic diseases. IgE antibodies are produced by B cells through the process of antigen presentation by dendritic cells, subsequent differentiation of CD4⁺ Th2 cells, and class switching in B cells. However, many of the factors regulating these processes remain unclear. These processes affect males and females differently, resulting in a significantly higher prevalence of IgE sensitisation in males compared to females from an early age...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868522/the-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-pediatric-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#5
REVIEW
Carolina Gutiérrez-Junquera, Sonia Fernández-Fernández, M Luz Cilleruelo, Ana Rayo, Enriqueta Román
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, local, immune-mediated disorder characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and the presence of a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophageal mucosa. Consensus diagnostic recommendations for EoE diagnosis included absence of histological response to a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) trial, to exclude gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-associated esophagitis. This recommendation exposed an entity known as "proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia" (PPI-REE), which refers to patients with EoE phenotype who are PPI-responsive and do not present GERD...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858582/antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cell-responses-against-aeroantigens-and-their-role-in-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold
The mucosal immune system of the respiratory tract is specialized to continuously monitor the external environment and to protect against invading pathogens, while maintaining tolerance to innocuous inhaled particles. Allergies result from a loss of tolerance against harmless antigens characterized by formation of allergen-specific Th2 cells and IgE. Tolerance is often described as a balance between harmful Th2 cells and various types of protective "regulatory" T cells. However, the identity of the protective T cells in healthy vs...
June 1, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779209/gata3-hypermethylation-and-foxp3-hypomethylation-are-associated-with-sustained-protection-and-bystander-effect-following-epicutaneous-immunotherapy-in-peanut-sensitized-mice
#7
Lucie Mondoulet, Vincent Dioszeghy, Florence Busato, Camille Plaquet, Véronique Dhelft, Kevin Bethune, Laurence Leclere, Christian Daviaud, Mélanie Ligouis, Hugh Sampson, Christophe Dupont, Jörg Tost
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a promising method for treating food allergies. In animal models, EPIT induces sustained unresponsiveness and prevents further sensitization mediated by Tregs. Here, we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of EPIT, by characterizing the kinetics of DNA methylation changes in sorted cells from spleen and blood and by evaluating its persistence and bystander effect compared to oral immunotherapy (OIT). METHODS: BALB/c mice orally sensitized to peanut proteins (PPE) were treated by EPIT using a PPE-patch or by PPE-OIT...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772005/atrophy-of-skin-draining-lymph-nodes-predisposes-for-impaired-immune-responses-to-secondary-infection-in-mice-with-chronic-intestinal-nematode-infection
#8
Xiaogang Feng, Cajsa Classon, Graciela Terán, Yunlong Yang, Lei Li, Sherwin Chan, Ulf Ribacke, Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Jonathan M Coquet, Susanne Nylén
Intestinal nematodes suppress immune responses in the context of allergy, gut inflammation, secondary infection and vaccination. Several mechanisms have been proposed for this suppression including alterations in Th2 cell differentiation and increased Treg cell suppressive function. In this study, we show that chronic nematode infection leads to reduced peripheral responses to vaccination because of a generalized reduction in the available responsive lymphocyte pool. We found that superficial skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) in mice that are chronically infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomides polygyrus, do not reach the same cellularity as worm-free mice upon subsequent BCG infection in the skin...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757493/egg-yolk-provides-th2-adjuvant-stimuli-and-promotes-sensitization-to-egg-white-allergens-in-balb-c-mice
#9
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Mónica Martínez-Blanco, Elena Molina, Rosina López-Fandiño
SCOPE: Egg is the second most frequent source of allergic reactions in children. Egg yolk (EY) amounts to one third in weight of a fresh whole egg, but its contribution to egg allergy has not been investigated in depth. This study assesses whether EY influences the capacity of egg white (EW) to sensitize and trigger allergic responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice were exposed to EW, EY and their mixture, using models of orally (with and without adjuvant) and adjuvant-free intraperitoneally-induced allergy...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757238/the-initiation-of-th2-immunity-towards-food-allergens
#10
REVIEW
Yosef Ellenbogen, Rodrigo Jiménez-Saiz, Paul Spill, Derek K Chu, Susan Waserman, Manel Jordana
In contrast with Th1 immune responses against pathogenic viruses and bacteria, the incipient events that generate Th2 responses remain less understood. One difficulty in the identification of universal operating principles stems from the diversity of entities against which cellular and molecular Th2 responses are produced. Such responses are launched against harmful macroscopic parasites and noxious substances, such as venoms, but also against largely innocuous allergens. This suggests that the established understanding about sense and recognition applied to Th1 responses may not be translatable to Th2 responses...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755469/urinary-peptides-as-a-novel-source-of-t-cell-allergen-epitopes
#11
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, John Pham, Curtis McMurtrey, William H Hildebrand, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, John Sidney, Paula Busse, Bjoern Peters, Véronique Schulten, Alessandro Sette
Mouse allergy in both laboratory workers and in inner-city children is associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma, posing a serious public health concern. Urine is a major source of mouse allergens, as mice spray urine onto their surroundings, where the proteins dry up and become airborne on dust particles. Here, we tested whether oligopeptides that are abundant in mouse urine may contribute to mouse allergic T cell response. Over 1,300 distinct oligopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry analysis of the low molecular weight filtrate fraction of mouse urine (LoMo)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751492/aluminum-adjuvant-containing-vaccines-in-the-context-of-the-hygiene-hypothesis-a-risk-factor-for-eosinophilia-and-allergy-in-a-genetically-susceptible-subpopulation
#12
REVIEW
Todd D Terhune, Richard C Deth
There are similarities between the immune response following immunization with aluminum adjuvants and the immune response elicited by some helminthic parasites, including stimulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophilia. Immunization with aluminum adjuvants, as with helminth infection, induces a Th2 type cell mediated immune response, including eosinophilia, but does not induce an environment conducive to the induction of regulatory mechanisms. Helminths play a role in what is known as the hygiene hypothesis, which proposes that decreased exposure to microbes during a critical time in early life has resulted in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma and atopic disorders over the past few decades, especially in Western countries...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739687/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-acquisition-of-tolerance-to-food-allergens-in-children
#13
REVIEW
E Bernaldo de Quiros, E Seoane-Reula, E Alonso-Lebrero, M Pion, R Correa-Rocha
Food allergy is a pathological immune reaction that identifies certain harmless food proteins, usually tolerated by the majority of the people, as a threat. The prevalence of these food allergies is increasing worldwide and currently affects 8% of children. Exacerbated reactions to milk, egg and peanut are the most frequent in the pediatric population. It is well known that allergic diseases are a type 2 T-helper (Th2) immune response, characterized by the elevated production of IgE antibodies. However, little is known about the immune mechanisms responsible for the development of clinical tolerance toward food allergens...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726281/exopolysaccharide-from-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-35624%C3%A2-modulates-murine-allergic-airway-responses
#14
E Schiavi, S Plattner, N Rodriguez-Perez, W Barcik, R Frei, R Ferstl, M Kurnik-Lucka, D Groeger, R Grant, J Roper, F Altmann, D van Sinderen, C A Akdis, L O'Mahony
Interactions between the host and the microbiota are thought to significantly influence immunological tolerance mechanisms at mucosal sites. We recently described that the loss of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bifidobacterium longum 35624™ eliminated its protective effects in colitis and respiratory allergy murine models. Our goal was to investigate the immune response to purified EPS from B. longum 35624, determine if it has protective effects within the lung and identify the protective mechanisms. Isolated EPS from B...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707474/vitamin-a-and-d-in-allergy-from-experimental-animal-models-and-cellular-studies-to-human-disease
#15
REVIEW
Karin Hufnagl, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Introduction: Vitamins A and D are able to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and may therefore influence the development and the course of allergic diseases. Materials and methods: This article reviews the current evidence for the experimental effects of vitamins A and D in vivo in animal models and on immune cells in vitro , and discusses their translational implication. A systematic literature search over the last 10 years was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed databases...
2018: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704811/involvement-of-ion-channels-in-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Lucette Pelletier, Magali Savignac
Allergic asthma is a complex disease, often characterized by an inappropriate Th2 response to normally harmless allergens. Epithelial cells damaged or activated by the allergen produce IL-33, TSLP and IL-25, activating ILC2 and dendritic cells. The latter migrate into lymph nodes where they induce Th2-cell commitment. Th2 and other type 2 innate inflammatory cells trigger inflammation and airway hyper-reactivity. The toolbox consisting of the ion channels varies from one cellular type to another and depends on its activation state, offering the possibility to design novel drugs in the field of allergy...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700872/oral-immunotherapy-with-omalizumab-reverses-the-th2-cell-like-program-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-restores-their-function
#17
Azza Abdel-Gadir, Lynda Schneider, Arianna Casini, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Sara V Little, Timothy Harrington, Dale T Umetsu, Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) successfully desensitizes patients with food allergies, but the immune mechanisms mediating its efficacy remain obscure. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that allergen-specific regulatory T (Treg) cell function is impaired in food allergy and is restored by anti-IgE antibody (omalizumab)-supplemented OIT. METHODS: Peanut-specific T effector (Teff) and Treg cell proliferative responses, activation markers and cytokine expression were analyzed by flow cytometry in 13 peanut allergic subjects before the start of omalizumab- supplemented OIT and periodically in some subjects thereafter for up to two years...
April 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678672/genetic-restriction-of-antigen-presentation-dictates-allergic-sensitization-and-disease-in-humanized-mice
#18
Alina Neunkirchner, Bernhard Kratzer, Cordula Köhler, Ursula Smole, Lukas F Mager, Klaus G Schmetterer, Doris Trapin, Victoria Leb-Reichl, Edward Rosloniec, Ronald Naumann, Lukas Kenner, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Barbara Bohle, Rudolf Valenta, Winfried F Pickl
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin(Ig)E-associated allergies result from misguided immune responses against innocuous antigens. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical for initiating and perpetuating that process, yet the crucial factors determining whether an individual becomes sensitized towards a given allergen remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key factors for sensitization and allergy towards a given allergen. METHODS: We here created a novel human T cell receptor(TCR) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 (TCR-DR1) transgenic mouse model of asthma, based on the human-relevant major mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen allergen Art v 1 to examine the critical factors for sensitization and allergy upon natural allergen exposure via the airways in the absence of systemic priming and adjuvants...
May 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670037/expression-and-regulation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-receptor-heterocomplex-in-the-innate-adaptive-immunity-of-pediatric-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Fang-Yi Cheng, Jun-Jen Liu, Yi-Ling Ye
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airway, and it is characterized by a wheezing breathing sound, variable airflow obstruction and the presence of inflammatory cells in the submucosa of the bronchi. Viral infection, pollutants and sensitivity to aeroallergens damage the epithelium from childhood, which causes asthma. The pathogenesis of asthma includes pathways of innate stimulation by environmental microbes and irritant pathogens. Damaged epithelial cells produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and stimulate myeloid dendritic cell maturation through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) heterocomplex...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562801/long-term-effect-of-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-adjuvanted-specific-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-grass-pollen-allergy
#20
Stefan Zielen, Jennis Gabrielpillai, Eva Herrmann, Johannes Schulze, Ralf Schubert, Martin Rosewich
BACKGROUND: Ultra-short course pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is attractive to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). Long term efficacy of MPL-AIT has not been evaluated. METHODS: 68 patients (age 16.75 ± 5.3 years) with allergic rhinitis to grass pollen were investigated. Group 1: 21 controls; Group 2: 19 after complete AIT, and Group 3: 28 with AIT and treatment cessation: 4 years range 3-6 years ago. RESULTS: The clinical symptoms (running nose, sneezing, conjunctivitis and the weekly overall score) were significantly reduced in patients group 2 and 3 compared with controls without AIT p < 0...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
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