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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638279/preventive-actions-of-allergen-immunotherapy-the-facts-and-the-effects-in-search-of-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Irene Martignago, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Erminia Ridolo
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that works on the causes of allergy. Available AIT nowadays are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis and asthma, while for allergy to Hymenoptera venom only subcutaneous route is recommended. A bulk of trials and meta-analyses demonstrated that efficacy and safety of AIT in decreasing allergic clinical symptoms and use of rescue medications, while its preventive capacity is yet under investigation. The most important of these effects is the prevention of potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings by venom immunotherapy (VIT)...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614408/schistosoma-japonicum-infection-downregulates-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Sugan Qiu, Xiaolin Fan, Yingying Yang, Panpan Dong, Wei Zhou, Yongliang Xu, Yonghua Zhou, Fukun Guo, Yi Zheng, Jun-Qi Yang
The "hygiene hypothesis" is a theory try to explain the dramatic increases in the prevalence of autoimmune and allergic diseases over the past two to three decades in developed countries. According to this theory, reduced exposure to parasites and microorganisms in childhood is the main cause for the increased incidences of both T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated autoimmunity and Th2-mediated allergy. In this study, we investigated the impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on the allergic airway inflammation induced by repeated intracheal inoculations of house dust mites (HDM), which is a Th17 and neutrophils dominant murine asthma model, mimicking severe asthma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612233/targeting-the-pgd2-crth2-dp1-signaling-pathway-in-asthma-and-allergic-disease-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#3
Maciej Kupczyk, Piotr Kuna
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) released by degranulating mast cells is believed to play a key role in orchestrating mechanisms of inflammation in allergies and asthma. The biological effects of PGD2 are mediated by D-prostanoid (DP1), CRTH2 (DP2), and thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors. The CRTH2 receptor is involved in induction of migration and activation of T helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils; up-regulation of adhesion molecules; and promotion of pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, 5, 13), whereas the DP receptor is associated with relaxation of smooth muscles, vasodilation, inhibition of cell migration, and apoptosis of eosinophils...
June 13, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606183/allergenic-activity-of-pseudoterranova-decipiens-nematoda-anisakidae-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Alessandra Ludovisi, Gabriella Di Felice, Noelia Carballeda-Sangiao, Bianca Barletta, Cinzia Butteroni, Silvia Corinti, Gianluca Marucci, Miguel González-Muñoz, Edoardo Pozio, Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales
BACKGROUND: Anisakis simplex is the only fishery-product associated parasite causing clinical allergic responses in humans so far. However, other anisakids, due to the presence of shared or own allergens, could also lead to allergic reactions after sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine if Pseudoterranova decipiens belonging to the family Anisakidae has allergenic activity and is able to induce sensitization after oral administration in a murine (BALB/c mice) model. RESULTS: The ingestion of A...
June 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583445/novel-concepts-of-prevention-and-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-through-barrier-and-immune-manipulations-with-implications-for-the-atopic-march
#5
REVIEW
Tali Czarnowicki, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Skin barrier abnormalities have been suggested to play an essential role in initiation of early atopic dermatitis (AD). Antigen penetration through a compromised barrier likely leads to increased innate immune responses, antigen-presenting cell stimulation, and priming of overt cutaneous disease. In a TH2-promoting environment, T-cell/B-cell interactions occurring in regional lymph nodes lead to excessive IgE switch. Concurrent redistribution of memory T cells into the circulation not only leads to exacerbation of AD through T-cell skin infiltration but also spreads beyond the skin to initiate the atopic march, which includes food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552763/prevention-of-food-allergy-development-and-suppression-of-established-food-allergy-by-neutralization-of-tslp-il-25-and-il-33
#6
Marat V Khodoun, Sunil Tomar, Joel E Tocker, Yui Hsi Wang, Fred D Finkelman
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is an increasing problem that has no approved treatment. The pro-Th2 cytokines, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP, are associated with FA and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to these cytokines are reported to suppress murine FA development. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether anti-pro-Th2 cytokine mAbs can block both FA maintenance and induction. METHODS: IgE-mediated FA was induced in BALB/c mice by oral gavage (o.g.) with medium chain triglycerides plus egg white (MCT/EW) and was characterized by increased numbers of lamina propria Th2 cells, mast cells shock, and eosinophils, shock (hypothermia), mast cell degranulation (increased serum MMCP1), increased serum IgG1 anti-EW and IgE, and increased IL-4 and IL-13 secretion following MCT/EW challenge...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545251/oxidative-stress-promoter-of-allergic-sensitization-to-protease-allergens
#7
REVIEW
Leonie S van Rijt, Lara Utsch, René Lutter, Ronald van Ree
Allergies arise from aberrant T helper type 2 responses to allergens. Several respiratory allergens possess proteolytic activity, which has been recognized to act as an adjuvant for the development of a Th2 response. Allergen source-derived proteases can activate the protease-activated receptor-2, have specific effects on immune cells by cleaving cell membrane-bound regulatory molecules, and can disrupt tight junctions. The protease activity can induce a non-allergen-specific inflammatory response in the airways, which will set the stage for an allergen-specific Th2 response...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544327/genetic-variation-at-the-th2-immune-gene-il13-is-associated-with-ige-mediated-paediatric-food-allergy
#8
S E Ashley, H-T T Tan, R Peters, K J Allen, P Vuillermin, S C Dharmage, M L K Tang, J Koplin, A Lowe, A-L Ponsonby, J Molloy, M C Matheson, R Saffery, J A Ellis, D Martino
BACKGROUND: Food allergies pose a considerable world-wide public health burden with incidence as high as one in ten in 12-month-old infants. Few food allergy genetic risk variants have yet been identified. The Th2 immune gene IL13 is a highly plausible genetic candidate as it is central to the initiation of IgE class switching in B cells. OBJECTIVE: Here, we sought to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms at IL13 are associated with the development of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy...
April 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512288/lactic-acid-bacteria-specific-induction-of-cd4-foxp3-t-cells-ameliorates-shrimp-tropomyosin-induced-allergic-response-in-mice-via-suppression-of-mtor-signaling
#9
Linglin Fu, Jixiang Peng, Shushu Zhao, Yan Zhang, Xiurong Su, Yanbo Wang
The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in allergic sensitization and diseases; however, many questions remain unanswered, such as characteristics of the most effective strains in modulation of allergic responses and how orally administered probiotics affect the systemic immune system. In the present work, oral administration of five lactic acid bacteria strains showed variable effects on protection against the allergic reaction in a mouse model of food allergy to shrimp tropomyosin (ST). The most effective anti-allergic strain, Bacillus coagulans 09...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507062/interleukin-4-promotes-the-development-of-ex-foxp3-th2-cells-during-immunity-to-intestinal-helminths
#10
Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Manolis Gialitakis, Lewis J Entwistle, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Isobel S Okoye, Dominik Rückerl, Judith E Allen, Frank Brombacher, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex-T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504580/intragastric-administration-of-lactobacillus-casei-bl23-induces-regulatory-foxp3-ror%C3%AE-t-t-cells-subset-in-mice
#11
N G Cortes-Perez, D Lozano-Ojalvo, M A Maiga, S Hazebrouck, K Adel-Patient
Many studies have highlighted the immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of this strain to modulate the Th2-oriented immune response in a mouse model of cow's milk allergy based on the induction of a Th17-biased immune response. The probiotic function of L. casei has been also linked to gut-microbiota modifications which could been potentially involved in the immune regulation; however, its precise mechanism of action remains poorly understood...
May 30, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494800/somatic-extracts-of-marshallagia-marshalli-downregulate-the-th2-associated-immune-responses-in-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-balb-c-mice
#12
Sima Parande Shirvan, Azadeh Ebrahimby, Arezoo Dousty, Mohsen Maleki, Ahmadreza Movassaghi, Hassan Borji, Alireza Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Recently the role of gastrointestinal nematodes in modulating the immune responses in inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions such as allergy and autoimmune diseases has been introduced. This is mainly due to the suppressive effects of somatic and excretory secretory (ES) products of nematodes on the immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory potentials of somatic products of Marshallagia marshalli, a gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep, to suppress the immune-mediated responses in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation...
May 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483565/when-is-allergen-immunotherapy-effective
#13
Akane Hara, Yoh Iwasa
Allergen immunotherapy is used to treat allergic symptoms such as rhinitis and itchy eyes in Japanese patients with cedar pollen allergy (JCPA). Administration of small amounts of pollen over several years may suppress severe allergic symptoms when these patients are later exposed to large amounts of pollen in the environment. Herein, we developed a simple mathematical model to identify conditions in which allergen immunotherapy is effective. We considered the dynamics of type 2 T helper cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg), both of which differentiate from naive T cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479335/allergen-specific-igg-antibodies-signaling-via-fc%C3%AE-riib-promote-food-tolerance
#14
Oliver T Burton, Jaciel M Tamayo, Amanda J Stranks, Kyle J Koleoglou, Hans C Oettgen
BACKGROUND: Food-allergic subjects produce high-titer IgE antibodies that bind to mast cells via FcεRI and trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions upon antigen encounter. Food-specific IgG antibodies arise in the setting of naturally resolving food allergy and accompany the acquisition of food allergen unresponsiveness in oral immunotherapy (OIT). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to delineate the effects of IgG and its inhibitory Fc receptor, FcγRIIb, on both de novo allergen sensitization in naïve animals and on established immune responses in the setting of pre-existing food allergy...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479331/forkhead-box-protein-3-foxp3-demethylation-is-associated-with-tolerance-induction-in-peanut-induced-intestinal-allergy
#15
Meiqin Wang, Ivana V Yang, Elizabeth J Davidson, Anthony Joetham, Katsuyuki Takeda, Brian P O'Connor, Erwin W Gelfand
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in allergic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To define the mechanisms underlying induction of tolerance to peanut protein and prevention of the development of peanut allergy. METHODS: High or low doses of peanut extract (PE) were administered to pups every day for 2 weeks prior to peanut sensitization and challenge. Following challenge, symptoms, Treg numbers, FoxP3, Th2, Th17 cytokine and TGFβ expression in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4(+) T cells and in jejunum were monitored...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454097/upregulation-of-calprotectin-in-mild-ige-mediated-ovalbumin-hypersensitivity
#16
Qingling Zhu, Feng Li, Junli Wang, Jingqiu Ma, Xiaoyang Sheng
Calprotectin, also known as S100A8/A9, has been linked to gut inflammation caused by IgE-mediated food hypersensitivities, but the pathophysiologic abnormalities it causes remain to be determined. We created a mild food hypersensitivity model through oral gavage of ovalbumin in Norway brown rats without using immune adjuvant. Changes in the levels of calprotectin and inflammation-associated cytokines were then observed over time. We found that fecal calprotectin as well as jejunal and liver TLR4, TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-1β, and IL-6 were upregulated in hypersensitive rats...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392331/maternal-phthalate-exposure-promotes-allergic-airway-inflammation-over-two-generations-via-epigenetic-modifications
#17
Susanne Jahreis, Saskia Trump, Mario Bauer, Tobias Bauer, Loreen Thürmann, Ralph Feltens, Qi Wang, Lei Gu, Konrad Grützmann, Stefan Röder, Marco Averbeck, Dieter Weichenhan, Christoph Plass, Ulrich Sack, Michael Borte, Virginie Dubourg, Gerrit Schüürmann, Jan C Simon, Martin von Bergen, Jörg Hackermüller, Roland Eils, Irina Lehmann, Tobias Polte
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children due to exposure to plasticizers like phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in the subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms including epigenetic alterations...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390860/basophil-derived-il-4-promotes-epicutaneous-antigen-sensitization-concomitant-with-the-development-of-food-allergy
#18
Maryam Hussain, Loïc Borcard, Kevin P Walsh, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Christoph Mueller, Brian S Kim, Masato Kubo, David Artis, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production and infiltration of basophils are associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a recognized risk factor for the development of food allergies. Although TSLP and basophils have been implicated in promotion of food-induced allergic disorders in response to epicutaneous sensitization, the mechanisms by which TSLP-elicited basophils guide the progression of allergic inflammation in the skin to distant mucosal sites, such as the gastrointestinal tract, are poorly understood...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380410/quercetin-exhibits-adjuvant-activity-by-enhancing-th2-immune-response-in-ovalbumin-immunized-mice
#19
Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, Bindhya Jayashankar, Jyoti Sharma, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Shashi Bala Singh, Lilly Ganju
Quercetin, one of the most abundant of plant flavonoids, has been studied with a great deal of attention over the last several decades mainly for its properties in inflammation and allergy. In this study, we are reporting for the first time the in vivo immunostimulatory activity of quercetin in ovalbumin immunized Balb/c mice. Administration of quercetin (50mg/kg body weight) along with ovalbumin antigen showed increased ovalbumin specific serum IgG antibody titres in comparison to the control group (p<0...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368013/structure-and-antagonism-of-the-receptor-complex-mediated-by-human-tslp-in-allergy-and-asthma
#20
Kenneth Verstraete, Frank Peelman, Harald Braun, Juan Lopez, Dries Van Rompaey, Ann Dansercoer, Isabel Vandenberghe, Kris Pauwels, Jan Tavernier, Bart N Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad, Hans De Winter, Rudi Beyaert, Guy Lippens, Savvas N Savvides
The pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is pivotal to the pathophysiology of widespread allergic diseases mediated by type 2 helper T cell (Th2) responses, including asthma and atopic dermatitis. The emergence of human TSLP as a clinical target against asthma calls for maximally harnessing its therapeutic potential via structural and mechanistic considerations. Here we employ an integrative experimental approach focusing on productive and antagonized TSLP complexes and free cytokine...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
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