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Allergy, Th2 cells

Chunqing Ai, Na Ma, Qiuxiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Fengwei Tian, Pei Chen, Wei Chen
Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation...
2016: PloS One
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Paul C Schröder, Sabina Illi, Vera I Casaca, Anna Lluis, Andreas Böck, Caroline Roduit, Martin Depner, Remo Frei, Jon Genuneit, Petra Ina Pfefferle, Marjut Roponen, Juliane Weber, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Josef Riedler, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Juha Pekkanen, Roger Lauener, Erika von Mutius, Bianca Schaub, Anne Hyvärinen, Anne M Karvonen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Pekka Tiittanen, Sami Remes, Vincent Kaulek, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Markus J Ege, Georg J Loss, Harald Renz, Gert Doekes, Michael Kabesch
BACKGROUND: Farm exposure protects against development of allergies early in life. At 4.5 years, protection against asthma by farm-milk exposure was partially mediated by regulatory T-cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to investigate the critical time window of the "asthma-protective" farm effect via Tregs during childhood immune maturation. METHODS: Tregs were assessed longitudinally at 4.5 and 6 years in 111 children (56 farm, 55 reference children) from the PASTURE/EFRAIM birth cohort (flow-cytometry)...
October 12, 2016: Allergy
Juan Carlos Lopez-Rodriguez, Rodrigo Barderas, Mercedes Echaide, Jesus Perez-Gil, Mayte Villalba, Eva Batanero, Antonio Cruz
Aeroallergens are airborne substances -mainly proteins- capable of triggering Th2-immune responses in respiratory allergies. They enter into the body through the upper airways, reaching the mucosa afterwards. Mucosae lining at the luminal side consists of an epithelial barrier completely covered by mucus and pulmonary surfactant. Both, pulmonary surfactant and plasma membrane of the epithelial cells represent two physiological phospholipid-based barriers where allergens first impact before triggering their biological effects...
October 10, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anna Winberg, Olga Nagaeva, Ivan Nagaev, Catarina Lundell, Ignacio Arencibia, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Eva Rönmark, Christina E West
BACKGROUND: There is need for prognostic markers for symptomatic food allergy since current diagnostic methods are insufficient and/or time and labor consuming. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cytokine mRNA profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge series in schoolchildren with suspected allergy to milk, egg or cod and in healthy controls. Analyses of fecal inflammatory biomarkers before and after the challenge were included...
December 2016: Cytokine
Ok-Kyung Kim, Da-Eun Nam, Minhee Lee, Han Ol Kwon, Jeongjin Park, Yanghee You, Su-Il Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Woojin Jun
We have provided a protocol for establishing an atopic dermatitis (AD) in vitro model, and evaluated the effects of Costaria costata (CC) extracts on AD in an in vitro model using keratinocytes and splenocytes from AD-induced mice and mast cells. HaCaT cells were each treated with 200 μg/mL of CC water extract (CCW), CC 10% ethanol extract (CCE10%), and CC 70% ethanol extract (CCE70%), immediately followed by stimulation with 20 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and 20 ng/mL interferon (IFN)-γ for inflammation...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
F M Carlier, Y Sibille, C Pilette
Airway and intestinal epithelial layers represent first-line physical barriers, playing a key role in mucosal immunity. Barrier dysfunction, characterized by alterations such as disruption of cell-cell apical junctions and aberrant epithelial responses, probably constitutes early and key events for chronic immune responses to environmental antigens in the skin and in the gut. For instance, barrier dysfunction drives Th2 responses in atopic disorders or eosinophilic esophagitis. Such epithelial impairment is also a salient feature of allergic asthma and growing evidence indicates that barrier alterations probably play a driving role in this disease...
September 29, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yi Wang, Cindy S Ma, Yun Ling, Aziz Bousfiha, Yildiz Camcioglu, Serge Jacquot, Kathryn Payne, Elena Crestani, Romain Roncagalli, Aziz Belkadi, Gaspard Kerner, Lazaro Lorenzo, Caroline Deswarte, Maya Chrabieh, Etienne Patin, Quentin B Vincent, Ingrid Müller-Fleckenstein, Bernhard Fleckenstein, Fatima Ailal, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Sylvie Fraitag, Marie-Alexandra Alyanakian, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Capucine Picard, Anne Puel, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Marie Malissen, Bernard Malissen, Laurent Abel, Alain Hovnanian, Luigi D Notarangelo, Emmanuelle Jouanguy, Stuart G Tangye, Vivien Béziat, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Combined immunodeficiency (CID) refers to inborn errors of human T cells that also affect B cells because of the T cell deficit or an additional B cell-intrinsic deficit. In this study, we report six patients from three unrelated families with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in RLTPR, the mouse orthologue of which is essential for CD28 signaling. The patients have cutaneous and pulmonary allergy, as well as a variety of bacterial and fungal infectious diseases, including invasive tuberculosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Shan-Shan Meng, Rong Gao, Bing-di Yan, Jin Ren, Fei Wu, Peng Chen, Jie Zhang, Li-Fang Wang, Yuan-Ming Xiao, Jing Liu
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergic disease history and impaired regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical risk factors for allergy development in children. However, the mechanisms that underlie these risk factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether maternal allergies affect the Tregs of offspring and lead to allergy development in childhood. METHODS: A total of 332 mothers of healthy newborns (234 from no allergic mothers, 98 from allergic mothers) were recruited to this study...
September 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Willem S Lexmond, Jeremy A Goettel, Jonathan J Lyons, Justin Jacobse, Marion M Deken, Monica G Lawrence, Thomas H DiMaggio, Daniel Kotlarz, Elizabeth Garabedian, Paul Sackstein, Celeste C Nelson, Nina Jones, Kelly D Stone, Fabio Candotti, Edmond H H M Rings, Adrian J Thrasher, Joshua D Milner, Scott B Snapper, Edda Fiebiger
In addition to the infectious consequences of immunodeficiency, patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) often suffer from poorly understood exaggerated immune responses that result in autoimmunity and elevated levels of serum IgE. Here, we have shown that WAS patients and mice deficient in WAS protein (WASP) frequently develop IgE-mediated reactions to common food allergens. WASP-deficient animals displayed an adjuvant-free IgE-sensitization to chow antigens that was most pronounced for wheat and soy and occurred under specific pathogen-free as well as germ-free housing conditions...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yun Liang, Johann E Gudjonsson
Dysregulation of the type 2 immune system presents with various manifestations, including allergic inflammation, and has emerged as an alarming public health issue. The pathological mechanisms that underlie T helper type 2 cell-driven (Th2-driven) allergic diseases remain unclear. In particular, it is not completely understood how type 2 immunity is restricted in inflammatory responses. In this issue of the JCI, Lexmond et al. use Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome as a model disease and establish that the Wiskott-Aldrich gene product (WASP) serves an essential role in T regulatory cells to contain Th2 effector cell differentiation and prevent allergic sensitization to dietary antigens...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jared J Schwartzer, Milo Careaga, Morgan A Coburn, Destanie R Rose, Heather K Hughes, Paul Ashwood
Recent population-based studies of expecting mothers identified a unique profile of immune markers that are associated with an increased risk of having a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This immune profile, including increased levels of maternal and placental interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, is consistent with an immune response found in an allergic-asthma phenotype. Allergies and asthma reflect an imbalance in immune responses including polarization towards T-helper type 2 (TH2) responses, with both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors affecting this T-cell polarization...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Kazunari Sugita, Cezmi A Akdis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of biological therapies has rapidly progressed during the last few years, and major advances were reported for the treatment of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, food allergy, and asthma. Here, we review biologicals targeting the type 2 immune response involving Th2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, natural killer T cells, mast cells, basophils, and epithelial cells, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Wayne R Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent findings on house dust allergens and their contribution to knowledge that will significantly impact on current and future allergy treatments are appraised. RECENT FINDINGS: Quantitation of IgE binding to a spectrum of allergen components in several independent studies in varying locations has largely affirmed the main components as the groups 1 and 2 and possibly 23 allergens with mid-tier contributions from the groups 4, 5, 7, and 21. Prevalent binding to Der p 23 has been recapitulated sometimes with low titers...
September 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Brett P Bielory, Steven P Shah, Terrence P O'Brien, Victor L Perez, Leonard Bielory
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides an overview on the potential of different systemic and topical treatments in chronic forms of ocular allergy and dry eye disorder (DED). The impact on anterior surface of ocular inflammatory disorder encompasses an array of conditions, which are frequently underreported. This can contribute to underdiagnoses and ineffective management from healthcare providers such as an allergist and/or ophthalmologist who routinely provide care for these common disorders...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hirofumi Tsuzuki, Yojiro Arinobu, Kohta Miyawaki, Ayako Takaki, Shun-Ichiro Ota, Yuri Ota, Hiroki Mitoma, Mitsuteru Akahoshi, Yasuo Mori, Hiromi Iwasaki, Hiroaki Niiro, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Koichi Akashi
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) induces Th2 cytokine production and eosinophilia independently of acquired immunity, leading to innate immunity-mediated allergic inflammation. Allergy-related innate myeloid cells such as eosinophils, basophils and mast cells express the IL-33 receptor (IL-33R), but it is still unknown how IL-33 regulates allergic inflammation involving these cells and their progenitors. Here, we revealed that the functional IL-33R was expressed on eosinophil progenitors (EoPs), basophil progenitors (BaPs) and mast cell progenitors (MCPs)...
August 29, 2016: Immunology
Pedro H Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Sandra Bonne-Année, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Helton C Santiago, Thomas B Nutman
Among the various hypotheses put forward to explain the modulatory influence of helminth infection on allergic effector responses in humans, the IL-10-induced suppression of Th2-associated responses has been the leading candidate. To explore this helminth/allergy interaction more fully, parasite- and allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in 12 subjects with filarial infections, and coincident allergic sensitization (filarial [Fil](+)allergy [A](+)) were compared with the responses to three appropriate control groups (Fil(-)A(-) [n = 13], Fil(-)A(+) [n = 12], Fil(+)A(-) [n = 11])...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Claire Mesnil, Stéfanie Raulier, Geneviève Paulissen, Xue Xiao, Mark A Birrell, Dimitri Pirottin, Thibaut Janss, Philipp Starkl, Eve Ramery, Monique Henket, Florence N Schleich, Marc Radermecker, Kris Thielemans, Laurent Gillet, Marc Thiry, Maria G Belvisi, Renaud Louis, Christophe Desmet, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau
Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5-independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite-induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5-dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L-CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Thibaut Janss, Claire Mesnil, Dimitri Pirottin, Pierre Lemaitre, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau, Christophe J Desmet
Very few transcription factors have been identified that are required by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to induce T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. Because lung CD11b(+) conventional dendritic cells (CD11b(+) cDCs) are responsible for priming Th2 responses in house-dust mite (HDM)-induced airway allergy, we used them as a model to identify transcriptional events regulating the pro-Th2 activity of cDCs. Transcriptomic profiling of lung CD11b(+) cDCs exposed to HDM in vivo revealed first that HDM triggers an antiviral defence-like response, and second that the majority of HDM-induced transcriptional changes depend on the transcription factor Interferon Response Factor-3 (Irf3)...
August 22, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Jean Christoph Caubet, Ramon Bencharitiwong, Andrew Ross, Hugh A Sampson, M Cecilia Berin, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). METHODS: Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG4, and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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