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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773855/the-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg3-on-chronic-unpredictable-stress-in-rats
#1
Jia-Ning Xu, Li-Fang Chen, Jun Su, Zhi-Li Liu, Jie Chen, Qing-Fen Lin, Wei-Dong Mao, Dong Shen
The present study is to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activities underlying ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3). The anxiolytic-like activities were induced by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g), evidenced by blocking the decreased time and entries in the open arms in elevated plus maze test and by reversing the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test. In addition, the decreased levels on progesterone, allopregnanolone, serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were blocked by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743584/is-psychosis-a-multisystem-disorder-a-meta-review-of-central-nervous-system-immune-cardiometabolic-and-endocrine-alterations-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-perspective-on-potential-models
#2
REVIEW
Toby Pillinger, Enrico D'Ambrosio, Robert McCutcheon, Oliver D Howes
People with psychotic disorders show abnormalities in several organ systems in addition to the central nervous system (CNS); and this contributes to excess mortality. However, it is unclear how strong the evidence is for alterations in non-CNS systems at the onset of psychosis, how the alterations in non-CNS systems compare to those in the CNS, or how they relate to symptoms. Here, we consider these questions, and suggest potential models to account for findings. We conducted a systematic meta-review to summarize effect sizes for both CNS (focusing on brain structural, neurophysiological, and neurochemical parameters) and non-CNS dysfunction (focusing on immune, cardiometabolic, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems) in first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730618/role-of-sampling-times-and-serum-cortisol-cut-off-concentrations-on-the-routine-assessment-of-adrenal-function-using-the-standard-cosyntropin-test-in-an-academic-hospital-from-spain-a-retrospective-chart-review
#3
Andrés E Ortiz-Flores, Elisa Santacruz, Lucía Jiménez-Mendiguchia, Ana García-Cano, Lia Nattero-Chávez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale, Manuel Luque-Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: Aiming to validate the use of a single poststimulus sampling protocol for cosyntropin test short standard high-dose test (SST) in our institution, our primary objectives were (1) to determine the concordance between 30 and 60 min serum cortisol (SC) measurements during SST; and (2) to evaluate the diagnostic agreement between both sampling times when using classic or assay-specific and sex-specific SC cut-off values. The secondary objectives included (1) estimating the specificity and positive predictive value of 30 and 60 min sampling times while considering the suspected origin of adrenal insufficiency (AI); and (2) obtaining assay-specific cut-off values for SC after SST in a group of subjects with normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
May 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701827/differential-responses-of-the-hpa-axis-to-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-male-and-female-mice
#4
Ashley L Russell, M Riley Richardson, Bradly M Bauman, Ian M Hernandez, Samantha Saperstein, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 10 million people world-wide, annually. TBI is linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders. TBI induced by explosive devices has a unique phenotype. Over 1/3 of people exposed to blast-induced (b)TBI have prolonged neuroendocrine deficits, shown by anterior pituitary dysfunction. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is linked to increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Not only is there limited information on how the HPA axis responds to mild (m)bTBI, sex differences are understudied...
April 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681219/antidepressant-like-effects-of-embelin-and-its-possible-mechanisms-of-action-in-chronic-unpredictable-stress-induced-mice
#5
Bailing Wang, Xiaoqin Chen, Tiantian Zhou, Xiaoying Wang
Objectives Embelin, a principal active constituent of embelin ribes burm, has good therapeutic effects on various diseases. To explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of embelin on depression, we made a preliminary study to clarify this issue. Methods We first used chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to construct the model of depression in mice. Then, we determined the effects of embelin on CUS-induced behavioral dysfunction using open field test, sucrose preference test, tail suspension test and forced swimming test...
April 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#6
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651676/essence-of-shen-kidney-controlling-bones-conceptual-analysis-based-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-osteo-related-cells-axis
#7
Tao-Tao Xu, Hong-Ting Jin, Pei-Jian Tong
As a traditional concept of Chinese medicine (CM), the theory of "Shen (Kidney) controlling bones" has been gradually proven. And in modern allopathic medicine, the multiple mechanisms of bone growth, development and regeneration align with the theory. Shen defifi ciency as a pathological condition has a negative effect on the skeleton of body, specififi cally the disorder of bone homeostasis. Present studies indicate that Shen defifi ciency shares a common disorder characterized by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649711/the-interaction-of-bdnf-val66met-ptsd-and-child-abuse-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-and-hpa-axis-function-in-a-sample-of-gulf-war-veterans
#8
Dmitri A Young, Thomas C Neylan, Aoife O'Donovan, Thomas Metzler, Anne Richards, Jessica A Ross, Sabra S Inslicht
INTRODUCTION: While the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to various psychological disorders, limited focus has been on its relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early traumas such as child abuse. Therefore, we assessed whether Val66Met was associated with fear potentiated psychophysiological response and HPA axis dysfunction and whether PTSD status or child abuse history moderated these outcomes in a sample of Veterans. METHODS: 226 and 173 participants engaged in a fear potentiated acoustic startle paradigm and a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577522/fear-of-pain-and-cortisol-reactivity-predict-the-strength-of-stress-induced-hypoalgesia
#9
Inge Timmers, Amanda L Kaas, Conny Wem Quaedflieg, Emma E Biggs, Tom Smeets, Jeroen R de Jong
BACKGROUND: Acute stress can have an effect on pain sensitivity, yet the direction of the effect - whether it is hypoalgesic or hyperalgesic - is mixed across studies. Moreover, which part of the stress response influences pain sensitivity is still unclear. In the current experimental study, we aim to examine the effect of acute stress on heat pain thresholds and pain tolerance levels in healthy participants, while taking into account individual differences in stress responses. METHODS: 42 healthy participants were randomly assigned to either a well validated stress paradigm: the Maastricht Acute Stress Task (MAST; combining physical and psychological stressors) or to a non-stressful version of the task...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516173/effort-reward-imbalance-in-police-work-associations-with-the-cortisol-awakening-response
#10
John M Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Ja Kook Gu, Penelope Allison, Anna Mnatsakanova, Cathy Tinney-Zara, Michael E Andrew
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is associated with an atypical cortisol response. ERI has been associated with higher job stress. Stress triggers cortisol secretion via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and significant deviation from a typical cortisol pattern can indicate HPA axis dysfunction. METHODS: 176 police officers participated from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. ERI was the exposure variable...
March 7, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477954/corticotrophin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-antagonists-prevent-chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-and-synapse-loss-in-aged-rats
#11
Hongxin Dong, Jack M Keegan, Ellie Hong, Christopher Gallardo, Janitza Montalvo-Ortiz, Becky Wang, Kenner C Rice, John Csernansky
Mounting evidence suggests that chronic stress can alter brain structure and function and promote the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. Although the results of several studies have indicated that aged brains are more vulnerable to chronic stress, it remains unknown whether antagonists of a key stress regulator, the corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1), can prevent stress-induced anxiety and memory deficits in animal models. In this study, we evaluated the potential benefits of two CRF1 antagonists, R121919 and antalarmin, for preventing stress-induced anxiety-related behavioral and memory deficits and neurodegeneration in aged rats...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473427/glucocorticoid-sensitivity-and-inflammatory-status-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Simon Jönsson, Anna K Lundberg, Rosanna W S Chung, Lena Jonasson
OBJECTIVE: Mechanisms behind sustained inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clarified but hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may have a role. Here, we investigated whether inflammatory status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity in CAD patients. METHODS: In 55 CAD patients and 30 controls, mRNA levels of GR-α, GR-β, NF-κB, IκBα, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were measured in PBMCs...
May 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468477/ethanol-extract-of-rehmannia-glutinosa-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-on-a-rat-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-model-by-involving-monoamines-and-bdnf
#13
Jun-Ming Wang, Li-Xin Pei, Yue-Yue Zhang, Yong-Xian Cheng, Chun-Ling Niu, Ying Cui, Wei-Sheng Feng, Gui-Fang Wang
The dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae) are of both medicinal and nutritional importance. Our previous study has found that the 80% ethanol extract of R. glutinosa (RGEE) produced antidepressant-like activities in mouse behavioral despair depression models. However, its mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to observe the antidepressant-like mechanisms of RGEE on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model by involving monoaminergic neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464752/voluntary-wheel-running-attenuates-urinary-bladder-hypersensitivity-and-dysfunction-following-neonatal-maternal-separation-in-female-mice
#14
Angela N Pierce, Olivia C Eller-Smith, Julie A Christianson
AIMS: Patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) commonly suffer from widespread pain and mood disorder, which has been attributed to improper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Voluntary exercise has been shown to improve HPA axis function, therefore we are determining whether voluntary wheel running can attenuate urological pain and dysfunction following neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in female mice. METHODS: Mice underwent NMS for 3 h/day from postnatal Day 1-21, were caged with free access to running wheels at 4 weeks of age, and assessed 4 weeks later for bladder sensitivity, micturition, reward behavior, mast cell degranulation, and HPA axis-related in vitro analysis...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453925/impact-of-opioid-therapy-on-gonadal-hormones-focus-on-buprenorphine
#15
REVIEW
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434541/the-influence-of-early-life-experience-on-visceral-pain
#16
REVIEW
Isabella M Fuentes, Julie A Christianson
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407872/early-postnatal-treatment-with-clomipramine-induces-female-sexual-behavior-and-estrous-cycle-impairment
#17
Tania Molina-Jiménez, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior...
March 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395488/anteroventral-bed-nuclei-of-the-stria-terminalis-neurocircuitry-towards-an-integration-of-hpa-axis-modulation-with-coping-behaviors-curt-richter-award-paper-2017
#18
REVIEW
Jason J Radley, Shane B Johnson
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and behavioral responses to emotionally stressful experiences, and chronic disruption of these systems chronically is implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA activity, as these limbic forebrain regions do not provide any direct innervation of HPA effector cell groups in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367875/myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-with-diabetes-mellitus-mixed-hypogonadism-and-adrenal-insufficiency
#19
Ken Takeshima, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Tatsuya Ishibashi, Shintaro Kawai, Shinsuke Uraki, Jinsoo Koh, Hidefumi Ito, Takashi Akamizu
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease affecting muscles, the eyes and the endocrine organs. Diabetes mellitus and primary hypogonadism are endocrine manifestations typically seen in patients with DM1. Abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have also been reported in some DM1 patients. We present a case of DM1 with a rare combination of multiple endocrinopathies; diabetes mellitus, a combined form of primary and secondary hypogonadism, and dysfunction of the HPA axis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357129/adrenocortical-stress-response-during-the-course-of-critical-illness
#20
Bram Peeters, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe
Critically ill patients have elevated plasma cortisol concentrations, in proportion to illness severity. This was traditionally attributed exclusively to a central activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. However, low rather than high plasma ACTH concentrations have been reported in critically ill patients, with loss of diurnal ACTH and cortisol rhythm. Low ACTH together with high cortisol is referred to as "ACTH-cortisol dissociation." Although cortisol production is somewhat increased with inflammation, a reduced cortisol breakdown explains to a larger extent the hypercortisolism during critical illness...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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