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Hpa dysfunction

Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
N Taku, M Gurnell, N Burnet, R Jena
AIMS: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction is a sequela of cranial radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to use endocrine data from existing publications to characterise the baseline endocrine status, the effects of radiotherapy on the HPA during the first follow-up year and the time dependence of radiation-induced HPA dysfunction in patients treated with radiotherapy for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of databases was carried out for articles that reported the results of endocrine testing for patients aged 16 years and older who were treated with neurosurgery for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms or radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal neoplasms...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Michael Deuschle, Ulrike Gotthardt, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Dettling, Florian Holsboer, Isabella Heuser
Animal studies suggest that repeated episodes of elevated glucocorticoids lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system at a supra-pituitary level, and to impaired mnemonic function. We compared cognitive tests and both, feedback integrity and stress responsivity of the HPA system, between 11 elderly, male marathon runners - a model of repeated HPA system activation - and 10 sedentary controls. Marathon runners had significantly increased baseline, stress and post-stress ACTH, but not cortisol concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
A P N de Lima, T M Sandini, T M Reis-Silva, C O Massoco
Adolescence is one of the critical periods of development and has great importance to health for an individual as an adult. Stressors or traumatic events during this period are associated with several psychiatric disorders as related to anxiety or depression and cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individuals as they age is not as well understood. We determined how stress during adolescence affects behavior and neurochemistry in adulthood. Using an unpredictable paradigm (2 stressors per day for 10days) in Balb/c mice, behavioral, hormonal, and neurochemical changes were identified 20days after the cessation of treatment...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Eduardo De la Cruz-Cano
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death around the world with approximately one million suicides per year. An increasing number of neurobiological studies implicate HPA system dysfunction in suicide behavior, stimulating genetic research to focus on genes related to this system. This systematic review was focused on searching a correlation between FKBP5 and CRHR1 genes with suicidal behavior. Therefore, an electronic search strategy, using PubMed, EBSCO and Cochrane Library databases, was conducted from the inception of the studies into the databases to July 2016...
September 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Christopher F Sharpley, Vicki Bitsika, Nicholas M Andronicos, Linda L Agnew
To further describe Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the Diurnal Fluctuation (DF) and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) were investigated in a sample of 39 high functioning girls with ASD. Although group mean data conformed to the DF and CAR models, over half of the participants showed inverse CAR and over 14% had inverted DF cortisol concentrations. Examination of three potential sets of predictor factors (physiological, ASD-related, and mood) revealed that only self-reported Major Depressive Disorder was significantly associated with CAR status, and that the girls' concern about dying or suicide was the most powerful contributor to the variance in CAR status...
September 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jie Zhu, Feng Zhu, Na Zhao, Xin Mu, Pingping Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Xiancang Ma
Previous studies demonstrated that dysfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis played an important role in morphine dependence. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism underlying morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and morphine dependence remains unclear. In the current study, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), was used to examine the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) promoter 17 methylation on chronic morphine-induced HPA axis dysfunction and behavioral changes in rats and the underlying mechanism...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Shane B Johnson, Eric B Emmons, Rachel M Anderson, Ryan M Glanz, Sara A Romig-Martin, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Ryan T LaLumiere, Jason J Radley
UNLABELLED: The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) are critically important for integrating stress-related signals between the limbic forebrain and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) effector neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH). Nevertheless, the circuitry underlying BST control over the stress axis and its role in depression-related behaviors has remained obscure. Utilizing optogenetic approaches in rats, we have identified a novel role for the anteroventral subdivision of BST in the coordinated inhibition of both HPA output and passive coping behaviors during acute inescapable (tail suspension, TS) stress...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vânia L Batalha, Diana G Ferreira, Joana E Coelho, Jorge S Valadas, Rui Gomes, Mariana Temido-Ferreira, Tatiana Shmidt, Younis Baqi, Luc Buée, Christa E Müller, Malika Hamdane, Tiago F Outeiro, Michael Bader, Sebastiaan H Meijsing, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, David Blum, Luísa V Lopes
Caffeine is associated with procognitive effects in humans by counteracting overactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is upregulated in the human forebrain of aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We have previously shown that an anti-A2AR therapy reverts age-like memory deficits, by reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback and corticosterone circadian levels. These observations suggest that A2AR over-activation and glucocorticoid dysfunction are key events in age-related hippocampal deficits; but their direct connection has never been explored...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gretchen N Neigh, Fariya F Ali
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a psychiatric disorder; however, PTSD co-occurs with multiple somatic manifestations. People living with PTSD commonly manifest dysregulations in the systems that regulate the stress response, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and development of a pro-inflammatory state. Additionally, somatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and disorders have a high rate of co-morbidity with PTSD. Recognition and understanding of the compounding effect that these disease states can have on each other, evidenced from poorer treatment outcomes and accelerated disease progression in patients suffering from co-morbid PTSD and/or other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, has the potential to lead to additional treatment opportunities...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Christine G Yedinak, Isabelle Cetas, Alp Ozpinar, Shirley McCartney, Aclan Dogan, Maria Fleseriu
Our objective was to compare prevalence and rates of recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in prolactinoma patients before and after dopamine agonist therapy with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients pre-transsphenoidal and post-transsphenoidal surgery. We retrospectively compared hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with prolactinomas naïve to dopamine agonist therapy with a cohort of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients matched for gender and tumor size by classification (n = 57; 30 male/27 female; 27 microadenoma/30 macroadenoma)...
July 26, 2016: Endocrine
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Taku Murakami
Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zeljka Brkic, Zorica Petrovic, Dusanka Franic, Milos Mitic, Miroslav Adzic
RATIONALE: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) for a subset of depressed individuals. One of the possible routes by which cytokines can induce depressive symptoms is by promoting the dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis via altering glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the mechanisms that finely tune the GR functioning upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS), i.e., subcellular localization of the GR, the levels of its co-chaperones FK506 binding protein 52 (FKBP4) and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), the receptor phosphorylation status along with its upstream kinases, as well as mRNA levels of GR-regulated genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male and female Wistar rats...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Tingxu Yan, Mengjie Xu, Shutong Wan, Mengshi Wang, Bo Wu, Feng Xiao, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Chenglong Rao, Haiyang Shi, Chanjuan Zhou, Dan Zhu, Mingjun Zhao, Ziye Wang, Yongtao Yang, Jin Chen, Li Liao, Jianyong Tang, You Wu, Jian Zhou, Ke Cheng, Peng Xie
Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis...
September 2016: Neurochemical Research
Aynara C Wulsin, Matia B Solomon, Michael D Privitera, Steve C Danzer, James P Herman
Epilepsy is a common neurological disease, affecting 2.4million people in the US. Among the many different forms of the disease, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most frequent in adults. Recent studies indicate the presence of a hyperactive hypothalamopituitary- adrenocortical (HPA) axis and elevated levels of glucocorticoids in TLE patients. Moreover, in these patients, stress is a commonly reported trigger of seizures, and stress-related psychopathologies, including depression and anxiety, are highly prevalent...
May 16, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Anna Bludau, Dominik Grabski, Robert Strasser, Dominic Schmidt, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
Chronic stress-related psychiatric conditions and comorbid somatic pathologies are an enormous public health concern in modern society. The etiology of these disorders is complex, with stressors holding a chronic and psychosocial component representing the most acknowledged risk factor. During the last decades, research on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) system advanced dramatically and much attention was given to the role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGlu7) in acute stress-related behavior and physiology...
May 14, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Andrey Y Abramov, Komgrid Charngkaew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Stressor exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes elevations in the levels of glucocorticoids (GC) from the adrenal glands. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that prolonged exposure to high GC levels can lead to oxidative stress, calcium deregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, melatonin, via its antioxidant activity, exhibits a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the protective effect of melatonin in GC-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
Erwin Lemche, Oleg S Chaban, Alexandra V Lemche
Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rosiane A Miranda, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio C de Oliveira, Luiz F Barella, Claudinéia C da Silva Franco, Patrícia C Lisboa, Egberto G Moura, Paulo C F Mathias
Neuroendocrine dysfunctions such as the hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis greatly contribute to obesity and hyperinsulinemia; however, little is known about these dysfunctions in the pancreatic β-cells of obese individuals. We used a hypothalamic-obesity model obtained by neonatal treatment with monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) to induce obesity. To assess the role of the HPA axis and vagal tonus in the genesis of hypercorticosteronemia and hyperinsulinemia in an adult MSG-obese rat model, bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAG) alone or combined surgeries (ADX-VAG) were performed...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
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