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Hpa dysfunction

John M Violanti, Desta Fekedulegn, Ja Kook Gu, Penelope Allison, Anna Mnatsakanova, Cathy Tinney-Zara, Michael E Andrew
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is associated with an atypical cortisol response. ERI has been associated with higher job stress. Stress triggers cortisol secretion via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and significant deviation from a typical cortisol pattern can indicate HPA axis dysfunction. METHODS: 176 police officers participated from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study. ERI was the exposure variable...
March 7, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Hongxin Dong, Jack M Keegan, Ellie Hong, Christopher Gallardo, Janitza Montalvo-Ortiz, Becky Wang, Kenner C Rice, John Csernansky
Mounting evidence suggests that chronic stress can alter brain structure and function and promote the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. Although the results of several studies have indicated that aged brains are more vulnerable to chronic stress, it remains unknown whether antagonists of a key stress regulator, the corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1), can prevent stress-induced anxiety and memory deficits in animal models. In this study, we evaluated the potential benefits of two CRF1 antagonists, R121919 and antalarmin, for preventing stress-induced anxiety-related behavioral and memory deficits and neurodegeneration in aged rats...
February 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Simon Jönsson, Anna K Lundberg, Rosanna W S Chung, Lena Jonasson
OBJECTIVE: Mechanisms behind sustained inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clarified but hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may have a role. Here, we investigated whether inflammatory status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity in CAD patients. METHODS: In 55 CAD patients and 30 controls, mRNA levels of GR-α, GR-β, NF-κB, IκBα, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were measured in PBMCs...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Jun-Ming Wang, Li-Xin Pei, Yue-Yue Zhang, Yong-Xian Cheng, Chun-Ling Niu, Ying Cui, Wei-Sheng Feng, Gui-Fang Wang
The dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (Scrophulariaceae) are of both medicinal and nutritional importance. Our previous study has found that the 80% ethanol extract of R. glutinosa (RGEE) produced antidepressant-like activities in mouse behavioral despair depression models. However, its mechanisms are still unclear. The present study aimed to observe the antidepressant-like mechanisms of RGEE on a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model by involving monoaminergic neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Angela N Pierce, Olivia C Eller-Smith, Julie A Christianson
AIMS: Patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) commonly suffer from widespread pain and mood disorder, which has been attributed to improper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Voluntary exercise has been shown to improve HPA axis function, therefore we are determining whether voluntary wheel running can attenuate urological pain and dysfunction following neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in female mice. METHODS: Mice underwent NMS for 3 h/day from postnatal Day 1-21, were caged with free access to running wheels at 4 weeks of age, and assessed 4 weeks later for bladder sensitivity, micturition, reward behavior, mast cell degranulation, and HPA axis-related in vitro analysis...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Anjali Varma, Mamta Sapra, Ali Iranmanesh
Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined...
February 17, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Isabella M Fuentes, Julie A Christianson
Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes) report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Tania Molina-Jiménez, Ofelia Limón-Morales, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime
Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior...
January 31, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jason J Radley, Shane B Johnson
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and behavioral responses to emotionally stressful experiences, and chronic disruption of these systems chronically is implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA activity, as these limbic forebrain regions do not provide any direct innervation of HPA effector cell groups in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)...
December 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ken Takeshima, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Tatsuya Ishibashi, Shintaro Kawai, Shinsuke Uraki, Jinsoo Koh, Hidefumi Ito, Takashi Akamizu
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease affecting muscles, the eyes and the endocrine organs. Diabetes mellitus and primary hypogonadism are endocrine manifestations typically seen in patients with DM1. Abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have also been reported in some DM1 patients. We present a case of DM1 with a rare combination of multiple endocrinopathies; diabetes mellitus, a combined form of primary and secondary hypogonadism, and dysfunction of the HPA axis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Bram Peeters, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe
Critically ill patients have elevated plasma cortisol concentrations, in proportion to illness severity. This was traditionally attributed exclusively to a central activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. However, low rather than high plasma ACTH concentrations have been reported in critically ill patients, with loss of diurnal ACTH and cortisol rhythm. Low ACTH together with high cortisol is referred to as "ACTH-cortisol dissociation." Although cortisol production is somewhat increased with inflammation, a reduced cortisol breakdown explains to a larger extent the hypercortisolism during critical illness...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Shelley R Winn, Tanja Scherer, Beat Thöny, Ming Ying, Aurora Martinez, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Cary O Harding
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in human phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we confirmed the occurrence of brain dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in association with severe behavioral alterations and cognitive impairments in hyperphenylalaninemic C57BL/6-Pahenu2/enu2 mice, a model of human PKU. Phenylalanine-reducing treatments, including either dietary phenylalanine restriction or liver-directed gene therapy, initiated during adulthood were associated with increased brain monoamine content along with improvements in nesting behavior but without a change in the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by these mice...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivation of the BLA can modulate the stress-induced changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the PFC...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Laverne Camille Melón, Andrew Hooper, Xuzhong Yang, Stephen J Moss, Jamie Maguire
The stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is normally suppressed during pregnancy. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been proposed to play a role in postpartum depression. However, direct investigation into the relationship between the HPA axis and postpartum depression has been hindered by the lack of useful animal models. Building on our discovery of a role for the K+/Cl-co-transporter, KCC2, in the GABAergic regulation of CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), critical for mounting the body's physiological response to stress, we assessed the role of KCC2 in the regulation of the HPA axis during pregnancy and the postpartum period...
December 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sara Asalgoo, Mahdi Tat, Hedayat Sahraei, Gila Pirzad Jahromi
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs following life-threatening events. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which serves as the first line of defense against stress, is dysfunctional in this disorder. The current study aimed to investigate the role of Crocin in normalizing HPA function in an animal model of PTSD induced by electric foot shock. Rats were treated with Crocin 5 min prior to stress induction. The stimulus was re-introduced after 21 days, and we measured individual behaviors such as sniffing, rearing, grooming, and freezing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brigitte Dahmen, Vanessa B Puetz, Wolfgang Scharke, Georg G von Polier, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caregivers have to cope repeatedly with acute stressors in their daily lives, and this is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Such disturbances could contribute to the development of health problems in informal caregivers of people with chronic illnesses, such as eating disorders (EDs). The main objective of this study was to examine endocrine (salivary cortisol levels (Csal)), immune (immunoglobulin-A (IgA)), and psychological (anxiety, mood, and anger feelings) responses to an acute psychological stressor in a sample of informal caregivers of individuals with EDs compared to a sample of non-caregivers...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
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