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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035585/effect-of-exercise-on-ovulation-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Osnat Hakimi, Luiz-Claudio Cameron
BACKGROUND: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women...
December 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024808/total-and-free-cortisol-responses-and-their-relation-to-outcomes-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-infants
#2
Eric L Wald, Carl L Backer, Joseph A Dearani, Zhuo Li, William C Oliver, Sheri S Crow
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may be partially responsible for the hemodynamic instability experienced by infants after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We report the full spectrum of the HPA response surrounding CPB for infant congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled 84 infants who received 1 mg/kg of dexamethasone before initiation of CPB. Total cortisol (TC), free cortisol (FC), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) were measured at 3 time points: immediately before CPB (TP1), on intensive care unit arrival (TP2), and at 24 hours after surgery (TP3)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024274/heterogeneity-in-hpa-axis-dysregulation-and-serotonergic-vulnerability-to-depression
#3
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Jacqueline Scali, Joanna Norton, Karen Ritchie, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan
Variability in the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene can influence the risk of depression associated with adversity, as well as cortisol stress reactivity, although not consistently. No study has examined the impact of both a stressful environment and corticotropic-axis dysfunction on depression, as a function of 5-HTTLPR. This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older. Depression was measured at both diagnostic (major depression according to DSM-IV) and symptomatic (subthreshold depression) levels of caseness, in addition to 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 genotyping and diurnal cortisol measures...
December 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998231/hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-childhood-cns-tumors-importance-of-systematic-follow-up-and-early-endocrine-consultation
#4
Wassim Chemaitilly, Gregory T Armstrong, Amar Gajjar, Melissa M Hudson
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981187/the-microbiome-a-key-regulator-of-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#5
REVIEW
Kieran Rea, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing emphasis on the relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health/disease, including brain health and disorders of the central nervous system. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a dynamic matrix of tissues and organs including the brain, glands, gut, immune cells and gastrointestinal microbiota that communicate in a complex multidirectional manner to maintain homeostasis. Changes in this environment can lead to a broad spectrum of physiological and behavioural effects including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and altered activity of neurotransmitter systems and immune function...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965624/ru486-mitigates-hippocampal-pathology-following-status-epilepticus
#6
Aynara C Wulsin, James P Herman, Steve C Danzer
Status epilepticus (SE) induces rapid hyper-activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis hyperactivity results in excess exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which are associated with neurotoxicity and depression-like behavior. These observations have led to the hypothesis that HPA axis dysfunction may exacerbate SE-induced brain injury. To test this hypothesis, we used the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy to determine whether use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 can attenuate hippocampal pathology following SE...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930953/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-increases-risk-assessment-behaviors-in-male-wistar-rats-after-exposure-to-an-acute-psychological-stressor-in-adulthood
#7
Audrey Torcaso, AnnaDorothea Asimes, Margaret Meagher, Toni R Pak
Teenage binge drinking is a common practice that has been shown to increase the risk for developing mood disorders in adulthood. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often dysfunctional in mood disorder patients, and animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure similarly show disordered HPA axis function, even after long periods of alcohol abstinence. Here, we sought to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral consequences of binge alcohol exposure in a Wistar rat model. Male rats were administered alcohol in a binge pattern during peri-puberty, and one month later, anxiety-like behaviors were measured using the elevated plus maze...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922635/increased-plasma-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-suicide-attempters-associations-with-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#8
D Lindqvist, J Fernström, C Grudet, L Ljunggren, L Träskman-Bendz, L Ohlsson, Å Westrin
Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#9
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887997/a-role-for-leptin-regulated-neurocircuitry-in-subordination-stress
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan N Flak
The visible burrow system produces a distinct combination of psychological and metabolic stress on, primarily, subordinate individuals that results in pronounced physiologic and behavioral dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the consequences of chronic subordination stress are largely unknown. The simplest mechanistic explanation is that adaptations within brain systems with overlapping functions of both psychological and metabolic control provide immediate benefits that result in lasting susceptibility to diseases, disorders, and increased mortality rates in subordinates...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883963/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-cognition-in-major-depression-the-role-of-remission-status
#11
Neus Salvat-Pujol, Javier Labad, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Cinto Segalàs, Eva Real, Alex Ferrer, José M Crespo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, José M Menchón, Virginia Soria
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological deficits and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction have been described in major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the role of remission status in the relationship between HPA axis and cognition in MDD. METHODS: Ninety-seven MDD patients (44 remitted, 53 non-remitted) and 97 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated. We measured verbal and visual memory, working memory, processing speed, attention, and executive function...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857954/heat-stress-gastrointestinal-permeability-and-interleukin-6-signaling-implications-for-exercise-performance-and-fatigue
#12
REVIEW
Nicole Vargas, Frank Marino
Exercise in heat stress exacerbates performance decrements compared to normothermic environments. It has been documented that the performance decrements are associated with reduced efferent drive from the central nervous system (CNS), however, specific factors that contribute to the decrements are not completely understood. During exertional heat stress, blood flow is preferentially distributed away from the intestinal area to supply the muscles and brain with oxygen. Consequently, the gastrointestinal barrier becomes increasingly permeable, resulting in the release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxin) into the circulation...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845056/antidepressant-like-effects-of-yl-ipa08-a-potent-ligand-for-the-translocator-protein-18%C3%A2-kda-in-chronically-stressed-rats
#13
Li-Ming Zhang, Yu-Lu Wang, Yan-Qin Liu, Rui Xue, You-Zhi Zhang, Ri-Fang Yang, Yun-Feng Li
The present study aimed to examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effect of YL-IPA08, a novel TSPO ligand designed and synthesized at our institute. We firstly used the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) procedure of rats, a well validated stress-related animal model of depression, to further determine the antidepressant-like of YL-IPA08. And we found that YL-IPA08 caused significant suppression of inhibiting of locomotor activity, reducing the sucrose preference and increasing the latency to eat induced by CUS...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#14
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810935/disruption-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-signaling-in-sim1-neurons-reduces-physiological-and-behavioral-reactivity-to-acute-and-chronic-stress
#16
Sriparna Ghosal, Amy E B Packard, Parinaz Mahbod, Jessica M McKlveen, Randy J Seeley, Brent Myers, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, Eric P Smith, David A D'Alessio, James P Herman
Organismal stress initiates a tightly orchestrated set of responses involving complex physiological and neurocognitive systems. Here, we present evidence for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mediated paraventricular hypothalamic circuit coordinating the global stress response. The GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r) in mice was knocked down in neurons expressing single-minded 1 (Sim1), a transcription factor abundantly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Mice with Sim1-mediated Glp1r knockdown had reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to both acute and chronic stress and were protected against weight loss associated with chronic stress...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751733/the-link-between-aberrant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-during-development-and-the-emergence-of-aggression-animal-studies
#17
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697410/time-dependence-of-radiation-induced-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-dysfunction-in-adults-treated-for-non-pituitary-intracranial-neoplasms
#18
N Taku, M Gurnell, N Burnet, R Jena
AIMS: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction is a sequela of cranial radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to use endocrine data from existing publications to characterise the baseline endocrine status, the effects of radiotherapy on the HPA during the first follow-up year and the time dependence of radiation-induced HPA dysfunction in patients treated with radiotherapy for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of databases was carried out for articles that reported the results of endocrine testing for patients aged 16 years and older who were treated with neurosurgery for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms or radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal neoplasms...
January 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677093/hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-dysfunction-in-elderly-male-marathon-runners-feedback-sensitivity-stress-response-and-effects-on-verbal-memory
#19
Michael Deuschle, Ulrike Gotthardt, Ulrich Schweiger, Michael Dettling, Florian Holsboer, Isabella Heuser
Animal studies suggest that repeated episodes of elevated glucocorticoids lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system at a supra-pituitary level, and to impaired mnemonic function. We compared cognitive tests and both, feedback integrity and stress responsivity of the HPA system, between 11 elderly, male marathon runners - a model of repeated HPA system activation - and 10 sedentary controls. Marathon runners had significantly increased baseline, stress and post-stress ACTH, but not cortisol concentrations...
September 28, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641324/long-lasting-monoaminergic-and-behavioral-dysfunctions-in-a-mice-model-of-socio-environmental-stress-during-adolescence
#20
A P N de Lima, T M Sandini, T M Reis-Silva, C O Massoco
Adolescence is one of the critical periods of development and has great importance to health for an individual as an adult. Stressors or traumatic events during this period are associated with several psychiatric disorders as related to anxiety or depression and cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individuals as they age is not as well understood. We determined how stress during adolescence affects behavior and neurochemistry in adulthood. Using an unpredictable paradigm (2 stressors per day for 10days) in Balb/c mice, behavioral, hormonal, and neurochemical changes were identified 20days after the cessation of treatment...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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