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Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yingguo Ren, Baochao Zhang, Dongpei Jia, Ke Hu
Objective To investigate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in rats and explore the possible immune regulation mechanism. Methods Lewis rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, EAMG group, TMP low-dose group (TMP-L, 10 mg/kg) and TMP high-dose group (TMP-H, 20 mg/kg). Except the control group, the other 3 groups were subjected to EAMG modeling. The body mass was determined and the symptoms of muscular weakness in rats were scored by Lennon EAMG criteria...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Anna Slovick, Abdel Douiri, Rachel Muir, Andrea Guerra, Konstantinos Tsioulos, Evie Hay, Emily P S Lam, Joanna Kelly, Janet L Peacock, Sun Ying, Mohamed H Shamji, David J Cousins, Stephen R Durham, Stephen J Till
BACKGROUND: Repeated low dose grass pollen intradermal allergen injection suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late phase responses, comparable with conventional subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of grass pollen intradermal immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. METHODS: We randomly assigned 93 adults with grass pollen allergic rhinitis to receive 7 pre-seasonal intradermal allergen injections (containing 7 nanograms of Phl p 5 major allergen) or histamine control...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Menaga Ilangkovan, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Phyllanthin found in many Phyllanthus species has various biochemical and pharmacological properties especially on its hepatoprotective effects. However, its effect on the immune system has not been well documented. PURPOSE: In the present study, phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for its immunosuppressive effects on various cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. METHODS: Male mice were treated daily at 20, 40 and 100mg/kg of phyllanthin for 14 days by oral gavage...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Wubing He, Lihong Chen, Lin Zheng, Liuping Luo, Lingyun Gao
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for inducing immune tolerance. However, the suppressive function of infused Treg cells and immature DCs (imDCs) following solid organ transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: ImDCs derived from DA-donor rats and Treg cells isolated from spleens of Lewis rats were prepared. A heterotopic liver transplantation model was established to examine the immune tolerance effects of infusion of Treg-imDCs, imDCs and Treg cells individually...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Chunqing Ai, Na Ma, Qiuxiang Zhang, Gang Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Fengwei Tian, Pei Chen, Wei Chen
Some studies reported that probiotic could relieve allergy-induced damage to the host, but how to get a useful probiotic is still a challenge. In this study, the protective effects of three lactic acid bacteria (La, Lp and Lc) were evaluated in a mouse model, and its relationship with the in vitro properties was analyzed. The in vitro results indicated that La with the capacity to inhibit IL-4 production could have a better anti-allergy effect in vivo than two others. However, the animal trials showed that all LAB strains could alleviate allergen-induced airway inflammation...
2016: PloS One
Justus Mahnke, Valéa Schumacher, Stefanie Ahrens, Nadja Käding, Lea Marie Feldhoff, Magdalena Huber, Jan Rupp, Friederike Raczkowski, Hans-Willi Mittrücker
The transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for TH2 and TH17 cell formation and controls peripheral CD8(+) T cell differentiation. We used Listeria monocytogenes infection to characterize the function of IRF4 in TH1 responses. IRF4(-/-) mice generated only marginal numbers of listeria-specific TH1 cells. After transfer into infected mice, IRF4(-/-) CD4(+) T cells failed to differentiate into TH1 cells as indicated by reduced T-bet and IFN-γ expression, and showed limited proliferation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Su-Min Lim, Hyun Sik Choi, Jin-Ju Jeong, Seung-Won Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska, Paulina Werner, Maria Skrzypkowska, Agnieszka Brandt, Jolanta Myśliwska
IL-33 is an IL-1 cytokine family member, with ability to induce both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. It binds to ST2 receptor, whose deficiency is associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The most recent studies have shown the immunoregulatory effect of IL-33 on Tregs in animal models. As type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease, where Treg defects have been described, we aimed to analyze the in vitro influence of recombinant IL-33 on quantitative properties of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) T cells...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Matthew Gordon Varga, Maria Blanca Piazuelo, Judith Romero-Gallo, Alberto G Delgado, Giovanni Suarez, Morgan E Whitaker, Uma S Krishna, Rachna V Patel, Eric P Skaar, Keith T Wilson, Holly M Scott Algood, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori induces chronic gastritis in humans and infection can persist for decades. One H. pylori strain-specific constituent that augments disease risk is the cag pathogenicity island. The cag island encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates DNA into host cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor that detects hypo-methylated CpG DNA motifs. In this study, we sought to define the role of the H. pylori cag T4SS on TLR9-mediated responses in vivo H. pylori strain PMSS1 or its cagE(-) mutant, which fails to assemble a T4SS, were used to infect wild-type or Tlr9(-/-) C57BL/6 mice...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Imran Rashid, Nathalie Moiré, Bruno Héraut, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Marie-Noëlle Mévélec
Infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes serious public health problems and is of great economic importance worldwide. No vaccine is currently available, so the design of efficient vaccine strategies is still a topical question. In this study, we evaluated the immunoprophylactic potential of a T. gondii virulence factor, the rhoptry kinase ROP18, in a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis: first using a recombinant protein produced in Schneider insect cells adjuvanted with poly I:C emulsified in Montanide SV71 by a parenteral route or adjuvanted with cholera toxin by the nasal route and second using a DNA plasmid encoding ROP18 adjuvanted with GM-CSF ± IL-12 DNA...
October 18, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Hiroyuki Inoue, Jae-Hyun Park, Kazuma Kiyotani, Makda Zewde, Azusa Miyashita, Masatoshi Jinnin, Yukiko Kiniwa, Ryuhei Okuyama, Ryota Tanaka, Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Hiroshi Kato, Akimichi Morita, Jun Asai, Norito Katoh, Kenji Yokota, Masashi Akiyama, Hironobu Ihn, Satoshi Fukushima, Yusuke Nakamura
Immune checkpoint inhibitors blocking the interaction between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) are revolutionizing the cancer immunotherapies with durable clinical responses. Although high expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues has been implicated to correlate with the better response to the anti-PD-1 therapies, this association has been controversial. In this study, to characterize immune microenvironment in tumors, we examined mRNA levels of immune-related genes and characterized T cell repertoire in the tumors of 13 melanoma patients before and after nivolumab treatment...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Fang Zhang, Guiyou Liu, Changjuan Wei, Chao Gao, Junwei Hao
In this study, we strove to substantiate the ability of linc-MAF-4 to act as a regulator of pathogenesis during multiple sclerosis (MS). We recruited 34 patients who were diagnosed with MS according to the revised McDonald Criteria. Six patients with MS and 5 healthy volunteers contributed peripheral blood mononuclear cells for microarray analysis. Subsequent knockdown and overexpression of linc-MAF-4 in naive CD4(+) T cells from the additional 28 patients with MS was performed to track changes in CD4(+) T-cell subsets and their function as well as to confirm results from the prior microarray analysis...
October 18, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Chih-Hung Lee, Jau-Shiuh Chen, Hsien-Ching Chiu, Chien-Hui Hong, Ching-Yi Liu, Yng-Cun Ta, Li-Fang Wang
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunization with allergens is an important sensitization route for atopic dermatitis. We recently showed in addition to the Th2 response following single epicutaneous immunization, a remarkable Th1 response is induced in B6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice, mimicking the immune response to allergens in human non-atopics and atopics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving this differential Th1 response between BALB/c and B6 mice...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Annukka Pietikäinen, Mikael Maksimow, Tommi Kauko, Saija Hurme, Marko Salmi, Jukka Hytönen
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eunchong Park, Ju Han Song, Myun Soo Kim, Su-Ho Park, Tae Sung Kim
CD4(+) T cell activation and adequate differentiation into effector T helper (Th) cells are crucial for mediating adaptive immune responses to cope with foreign pathogens. Despite the significant role of Th cells, excessive increases in their numbers result in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of costunolide, a plant-derived natural compound with an anti-inflammatory activity, in regulating Th cells and the underlying mechanisms. Costunolide significantly decreased cell populations of differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets under Th subset-polarizing conditions, while exerting statistically negligible effects on Treg cell differentiation...
October 15, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Samuel Torres-Landa, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Enrique Coss-Adame, Miguel A Valdovinos, Edgar Alejandro-Medrano, Bárbara Ramos-Ávalos, Braulio Martínez-Benítez, Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos
The aim of the study was to characterize the presence of diverse CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and regulatory cells in peripheral blood and lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) from a young patient with BE/achalasia without treatment versus achalasia group. In order to characterize the circulating cells in this patient, a cytometric analysis was performed. LES tissue was evaluated by double-immunostaining procedure. Five healthy blood donors, 5 type achalasia patients, and 5 oesophagus tissue samples (gastrooesophageal junction) from transplant donors were included as control groups...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Yang Tan, Xingxin Wu, Jing Sun, Wenjie Guo, Fangyuan Gong, Fenli Shao, Tao Tan, Yi Cao, Bingfeng Zheng, Yanhong Gu, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in T cells plays an important role in developing T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated inflammation. Selective regulation of IFN-γ signaling is an attractive strategy for treating Th1-mediated immune diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore possible means of targeting IFN-γ signaling by using small molecule compound. A synthetic small molecule FC9 was identified as it selectively inhibited IFN-γ signaling in T cells without suppressing interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling. Furthermore, FC9 inhibited IFN-γ-induced Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activation via competing with IFN-γ for binding to IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γ R1)...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jasmyn S Abrams, Savannah E Howe, Nathalie Becerra, Punit Kohli, Vjollca Konjufca
In this work we report a protocol for synthesizing nano-size ovalbumin-functionalized polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes (LP-Ova). We show that LP-Ova administered per-orally (p.o.) and subcutaneously (s.c.), without the use of adjuvants, induces high serum IgG1 titers. As reported previously using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs), p.o.-primed mice developed high titers of IgG2c and intestinal IgA following s.c. boosting immunization with LP-Ova. In contrast, mice that received a single s.c. immunization with LP-Ova did not develop serum IgG2c or intestinal IgA antibodies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Edith Chen, Madeleine U Shalowitz, Rachel E Story, Katherine B Ehrlich, Cynthia S Levine, Robin Hayen, Adam K K Leigh, Gregory E Miller
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate 2 key dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES)-prestige and resources-and their associations with immune, behavioral, and clinical outcomes in childhood asthma. METHODS: Children ages 9 to 17 years with a physician's diagnosis of asthma (N = 150), and one of their parents participated in this study. Children and parents completed interviews and questionnaires about SES (prestige = parent education; resources = family assets), environmental exposures, and clinical asthma measures...
September 30, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
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