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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109017/clostridium-butyricum-b1-alleviates-high-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-in-mice-via-enterohepatic-immunoregulation
#1
Da Zhou, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lin Liu, Rui-Xu Yang, Yuan-Wen Chen, Chang Liu, Jian-Gao Fan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Enterohepatic immunologic derangement is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we investigated whether Clostridium butyricum B1 (CB) would be an effective immune-targeted substance to attenuate steatohepatitis in mice. METHODS: Thirty mice were randomized into a control group fed with common forage, a high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD for 16 weeks, and a HFD + CB group treated with CB for the latter 8 weeks. Inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes in the liver or epididymal fat tissue were quantified, intrahepatic and intestinal immune factors were detected...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#2
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108299/mouse-model-of-hydroquinone-hypersensitivity-via-innate-and-acquired-immunity-and-its-promotion-by-combined-reagents
#3
Kanan Bando, Yukinori Tanaka, Toshinobu Kuroishi, Keiichi Sasaki, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Shunji Sugawara, Yasuo Endo
We established a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to hydroquinone (HQ), a widespread chemical in our environment. HQ was painted onto flanks. Then, HQ was challenged by painting onto ear-pinnas on days 7 and 14. The CHS after the 2(nd) challenge was markedly greater than that after the 1(st) challenge. Both challenges increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Th2 cytokines in ear-pinnas, while IFN-γ (typical Th1 cytokine) was decreased, despite an increase in IL-18 (typical IFN-γ inducer)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107450/systemic-t-cells-immunosuppression-of-glioma-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-is-mediated-by-monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#4
Rossana Domenis, Daniela Cesselli, Barbara Toffoletto, Evgenia Bourkoula, Federica Caponnetto, Ivana Manini, Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Tamara Ius, Miran Skrap, Carla Di Loreto, Giorgia Gri
A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC) can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107427/serine-phosphorylation-of-slp76-is-dispensable-for-t-cell-development-but-modulates-helper-t-cell-function
#5
Victor H Navas, Céline Cuche, Andres Alcover, Vincenzo Di Bartolo
The adapter protein SLP76 is a key orchestrator of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction. We previously identified a negative feedback loop that modulates T cell activation, involving phosphorylation of Ser376 of SLP76 by the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1). However, the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism was still unknown. To address this question, we generated a SLP76-S376A-expressing knock-in mouse strain and investigated the effects of Ser376 mutation on T cell development and function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106273/the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-member-cd200r-identifies-cells-involved-in-type-2-immune-responses
#6
Lars H Blom, Britta C Martel, Lau F Larsen, Camilla V Hansen, Malene P Christensen, Nanna Juel-Berg, Thomas Litman, Lars K Poulsen
BACKGROUND: The pathology of allergic diseases involves type 2 immune cells, such as Th2, ILC2, and basophils exerting their effect by production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. However, surface receptors that are specifically expressed on type 2 immune cells are less well documented. The aim of this investigation was to identify surface markers associated with type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Naïve human CD4(+) T-cells were short-term activated in the presence or absence of IL-4, and analysed for expression of >300 cell-surface proteins...
January 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106258/t-cell-clones-in-human-trichinellosis-evidence-for-a-mixed-th1-th2-response
#7
C Della Bella, M Benagiano, M De Gennaro, M A Gomez-Morales, A Ludovisi, S D'Elios, S Luchi, E Pozio, M M D'Elios, F Bruschi
: In humans, studies on the cellular immune response against Trichinella are scarce. Aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine profile of T cells specific for Trichinella britovi in trichinellosis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from five patients involved in a trichinellosis outbreak caused by Trichinella britovi, which occurred in 2013 in Tuscany (Italy). All the patients resulted positive for Trichinella-specific IgG, IgE and presented eosinophilia...
January 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104239/cd8-t-cells-of-chronic-hcv-infected-patients-express-multiple-negative-immune-checkpoints-following-stimulation-with-hcv-peptides
#8
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Jamuna Vadivelu, Li Yen Chang, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Panneer Sigamani, Alireza Saeidi, M Ravishankar Ram, Vijayakumar Velu, Marie Larsson, Esaki M Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)...
December 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103916/tim-1-defines-a-human-regulatory-b-cell-population-that-is-altered-in-frequency-and-function-in-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#9
Octavio Aravena, Ashley Ferrier, Madhvi Menon, Claudia Mauri, Juan Carlos Aguillón, Lilian Soto, Diego Catalán
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by excessive production of extracellular matrix by fibroblasts on skin and internal organs. Although Th2 cells have been involved in fibroblast stimulation, hyperactivated B cells may also play an important role. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are cells capable of inhibiting inflammatory responses and controlling autoimmune diseases. Although many Breg populations have in common the ability to produce high amounts of IL-10, a unique surface marker defining most human Bregs is lacking...
January 19, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103790/microrna-146a-rs2910164-is-associated-with-severe-preeclampsia-in-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#10
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: South African (SA) Black women have a high prevalence of preeclampsia and HIV, both conditions associated with increased inflammation. miR-146a is an inflammatory-associated miR and a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2910164) has been associated with several disease conditions. To date, this SNP has not been investigated in SA Black women. We therefore aimed to investigate the miR-146a G > C SNP in SA Blacks with preeclampsia, and further examine possible association among preeclamptic (PE) women with HIV infection on HAART...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103263/splenic-cd4-t-cells-in-progressive-visceral-leishmaniasis-show-a-mixed-effector-regulatory-phenotype-and-impair-macrophage-effector-function-through-inhibitory-receptor-expression
#11
Audrie A Medina-Colorado, Elvia Y Osorio, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, Fanping Kong, Heidi Spratt, Lynn Soong, Peter C Melby
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is a chronic progressive disease with a relentlessly increasing parasite burden in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. The disease is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, cachexia, and pancytopenia, and progresses to death if not treated. Control of Leishmania infection is mediated by Th1 (IFNγ-producing) CD4+ T cells, which activate macrophages to produce nitric oxide and kill intracellular parasites. However, despite expansion of CD4+ T cells and increased IFNγ expression in the spleen, humans with active VL do not control the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101965/a-multi-hit-hypothesis-of-bullous-pemphigoid-and-associated-neurological-disease-is-hla-dqb1-03-01-a-potential-link-between-immune-privileged-antigen-exposure-and-epitope-spreading
#12
REVIEW
K T Amber, J Zikry, M Hertl
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease and is linked to IgG recognition of 2 hemidesmosomal antigens, that is, BP230 (BP antigen 1) and BP180 (BP antigen 2, collagen XVII). The association of BP with other systemic diseases, particularly neurocognitive diseases, provides a potential clue in the underlying pathogenesis of BP. The role of HLA-DQB1*03:01 binding to the immunogenic portion of BP180 provides a potential mechanism by which exposure to neuronal collagen BP180 may lead to cutaneous disease...
January 19, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100680/th22-cells-form-a-distinct-th-lineage-from-th17-cells-in-vitro-with-unique-transcriptional-properties-and-tbet-dependent-th1-plasticity
#13
Maximilian W Plank, Gerard E Kaiko, Steven Maltby, Jessica Weaver, Hock L Tay, Wei Shen, Mark S Wilson, Scott K Durum, Paul S Foster
Th22 cells are a major source of IL-22 and have been found at sites of infection and in a range of inflammatory diseases. However, their molecular characteristics and functional roles remain largely unknown because of our inability to generate and isolate pure populations. We developed a novel Th22 differentiation assay and generated dual IL-22/IL-17A reporter mice to isolate and compare pure populations of cultured Th22 and Th17 cells. Il17a fate-mapping and transcriptional profiling provide evidence that these Th22 cells have never expressed IL-17A, suggesting that they are potentially a distinct cell lineage from Th17 cells under in vitro culture conditions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099848/biophysical-attributes-of-cpg-presentation-control-tlr9-signaling-to-differentially-polarize-systemic-immune-responses
#14
Jardin A Leleux, Pallab Pradhan, Krishnendu Roy
It is currently unknown whether and how mammalian pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) respond to biophysical patterns of pathogen-associated molecular danger signals. Using synthetic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) that mimic physical properties of bacteria or large viruses, we have discovered that the quality and quantity of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling by CpG in mouse dendritic cells (mDCs) are uniquely dependent on biophysical attributes; specifically, the surface density of CpG and size of the presenting PLP...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096423/trogocytosis-of-peptide-mhc-class-ii-complexes-from-dendritic-cells-confers-antigen-presenting-ability-on-basophils
#15
Kensuke Miyake, Nozomu Shiozawa, Toshihisa Nagao, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Hajime Karasuyama
Th2 immunity plays important roles in both protective and allergic responses. Nevertheless, the nature of antigen-presenting cells responsible for Th2 cell differentiation remains ill-defined compared with the nature of the cells responsible for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Basophils have attracted attention as a producer of Th2-inducing cytokine IL-4, whereas their MHC class II (MHC-II) expression and function as antigen-presenting cells are matters of considerable controversy. Here we revisited the MHC-II expression on basophils and explored its functional relevance in Th2 cell differentiation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094276/b7-h3-participates-in-the-development-of-asthma-by-augmentation-of-the-inflammatory-response-independent-of-tlr2-pathway
#16
Wenjing Gu, Xinxing Zhang, Yongdong Yan, Yuqing Wang, Li Huang, Meijuan Wang, Xuejun Shao, Zhengrong Chen, Wei Ji
B7-H3, a new member of the B7 superfamily, acts as both a T cell costimulator and coinhibitor. Recent studies identified B7-H3 plays a critical role in the development of asthma. But the definitive mechanism is not clear. In this study, we further report that B7-H3 participates in the development of OVA-induced asthma in a murine model. And study its mechanism through the vitro and vivo experiment. Exogenous administration of B7-H3 strongly amplified the inflammatory response and augmented proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and vivo...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093114/in-vitro-effects-of-the-toll-like-receptor-agonists-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-cpg-rich-oligonucleotides-on-cytokine-production-by-equine-cells
#17
A Ziegler, V Gerber, E Marti
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine allergic dermatitis to Culicoides spp. antigens. Attempts at using allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) as a treatment for IBH have so far proven unsuccessful. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can promote a shift in the immune response from the allergy-promoting T helper cell 2 (Th2) response towards a Th1 and/or regulatory response. The aim of this study was to evaluate two immunomodulatory TLR agonists in vitro as potential vaccine adjuvants for a more efficacious AIT in IBH...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092864/augmentation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-in-response-to-tetanus-and-diphtheria-toxoids-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracts-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaves
#18
Bindhya Jayashankar, Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, K P Mishra, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Jigni Mishra, R Tulswani, K Misra, S B Singh, Lilly Ganju
Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092612/evaluation-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-recurrent-airway-obstruction
#19
A Niedźwiedź, H Borowicz, K Kubiak, J Nicpoń, P Skrzypczak, Z Jaworski, M Cegielski, J Nicpoń
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represents a serious health problem and is traditionally classified as an allergic disease, where contact with an antigen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the Th2 response in the lungs of human patients with asthma and horses with heaves. These cells are involved in the production of cytokines which regulate the synthesis of immunoglobulins. 40 horses were evaluated: 30 horses with RAO and 10 healthy animals...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089609/de-immunized-and-functional-therapeutic-deft-versions-of-a-long-lasting-recombinant-alpha-interferon-for-antiviral-therapy
#20
Eduardo F Mufarrege, Sofía Giorgetti, Marina Etcheverrigaray, Frances Terry, William Martin, Anne S De Groot
Interferon α (IFN-α) exerts potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative activity and have proven clinical utility in chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections. However, repeated IFN-α administration induces neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against the therapeutic in a significant number of patients. Associations between IFN-α immunogenicity and loss of efficacy have been described. So as to improve the in vivo biological efficacy of IFN-α, a long lasting hyperglycosylated protein (4N-IFN) derived from IFN-α2b wild type (WT-IFN) was developed...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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