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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169147/c-type-lectin-receptors-in-anti-fungal-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Moe Shiokawa, Sho Yamasaki, Shinobu Saijo
Host immune systems are constantly engaged with fungal pathogens which are common in environments as well as in healthy human skin and mucosa. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are expressed in myeloid cells and play central roles in host defenses against fungal infections by coordinating innate and adaptive immune systems. Upon ligand binding, CLRs stimulate cellular responses by inducing the production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species via the Syk/CARD9 signaling pathway, leading to fungal elimination...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168613/immune-defense-of-wild-caught-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-berkenhout-1769-is-characterized-by-increased-levels-of-basal-activity-but-reduced-capability-to-respond-to-further-immune-stimulation
#2
Ivana Mirkov, Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Vesna Subota, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski
Studying wild animal's immunity often use comparison with laboratory-raised individuals. Using such an approach different data were obtained concerning wild Norway rat's immunity. Lower or higher potential of immune system cells to respond to activation stimuli were shown, because of analysis of disparate parameters and/or small number of analyzed individuals. Inconsistent differences between laboratory and wild rats were shown too, owing to great response variability in wild rats. We hypothesized that wild rats will express more intense immune activity compared to laboratory counterparts which live in less demanding environment...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167670/the-cholinergic-system-modulates-memory-and-hippocampal-plasticity-via-its-interactions-with-non-neuronal-cells
#3
REVIEW
Sara V Maurer, Christina L Williams
Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer's disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167641/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-agonist-ar-r17779-protects-mice-against-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-a-spleen-dependent-way
#4
Andrea Grandi, Irene Zini, Lisa Flammini, Anna M Cantoni, Valentina Vivo, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Simona Bertoni
The existence of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway negatively modulating the inflammatory and immune responses in various clinical conditions and experimental models has long been postulated. In particular, the protective involvement of the vagus nerve and of nicotinic Ach receptors (nAChRs) has been proposed in intestinal inflammation and repeatedly investigated in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. However, the role of α7 nAChRs stimulation is still controversial and the potential contribution of α4β2 nAChRs has never been explored in this experimental condition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167375/loss-of-apobec1-rna-editing-function-in-microglia-exacerbates-age-related-cns-pathophysiology
#5
Daniel C Cole, Youngcheul Chung, Khatuna Gagnidze, Kaitlyn H Hajdarovic, Violeta Rayon-Estrada, Dewi Harjanto, Benedetta Bigio, Judit Gal-Toth, Teresa A Milner, Bruce S McEwen, F Nina Papavasiliou, Karen Bulloch
Microglia (MG), a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells, play important roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and neural plasticity. Under steady-state conditions, MG maintain homeostasis by producing antiinflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, support myelin production, and remove synapses and cellular debris, as well as participating in "cross-correction," a process that supplies neurons with key factors for executing autophagy-lysosomal function. As sentinels for the immune system, MG also detect "danger" signals (pathogenic or traumatic insult), become activated, produce proinflammatory cytokines, and recruit monocytes and dendritic cells to the site of damage through a breached blood-brain barrier or via brain lymphatics...
November 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166972/long-term-sex-differential-effects-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-in-vitro-cytokine-responses
#6
Kristoffer J Jensen, Mia J Søndergaard, Andreas Andersen, Cesario Martins, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Aaby, Katie L Flanagan, Christine Stabell Benn
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166940/effects-of-urban-coarse-particles-inhalation-on-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-mouse-lung-and-colon
#7
Cécile Vignal, Muriel Pichavant, Laurent Y Alleman, Madjid Djouina, Florian Dingreville, Esperanza Perdrix, Christophe Waxin, Adil Ouali Alami, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Pierre Desreumaux, Mathilde Body-Malapel
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a recognized aggravating factor for pulmonary diseases and has notably deleterious effects on asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia. Recent studies suggest that air pollution may also cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Accumulating experimental evidence shows that immune responses in the pulmonary and intestinal mucosae are closely interrelated, and that gut-lung crosstalk controls pathophysiological processes such as responses to cigarette smoke and influenza virus infection...
November 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166574/altered-tnf-%C3%AE-response-by-aconibal-%C3%A2-and-methotrexate-in-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-setting-of-inflammatory-conditions-potential-on-a-synergistic-combination
#8
Gunhyuk Park, Seoung Hoon Lee, Ji-Ye Han, Dal-Seok Oh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum carmichaelii (AC) is a common herbal medicine used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in Eastern Asia. In Korea, a commercial processed AC (Aconibal(®)) is traditionally used to treat the symptoms of spondylosis deformans and rheumatic pain. AIM OF STUDY: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is systemic and auto-immune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Methotrexate (MTX) is often the first-line therapy for RA. If MTX monotherapy is ineffective or RA is initially severe, adding a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor to the treatment can be beneficial...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166568/camel-whey-protein-protects-lymphocytes-from-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-atf-3-and-hsp-70-signaling-pathways-in-heat-stressed-male-mice
#9
Gamal Badr, Nancy K Ramadan, Hanem S Abdel-Tawab, Samia F Ahmed, Mohamed H Mahmoud
Heat stress (HS) is an environmental factor that depresses the immune systems mediating dysfunctional immune cells. Camel whey protein (CWP) can scavenge free radicals and enhance immunity. The present study investigated the impact of dietary supplementation with CWP on immune dysfunction induced by exposure to HS. Male mice (n = 45) were divided into three groups: control group; HS group; and HS mice that were orally administered CWP (HS+CWP group). The HS group exhibited elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) as well as a significant reduction in the IL-2 and IL-4 levels...
November 22, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165176/the-different-roles-of-innate-immune-receptors-in-inflammation-and-carcinogenesis-between-races
#10
Natsu Yamaguchi, Yoshimi Suzuki, M H Mahbub, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryosuke Hase, Yasutaka Ishimaru, Hiroshi Sunagawa, Rie Watanabe, Yoshinobu Eishi, Tsuyoshi Tanabe
Innate immune factors exert widespread effects on cytokine secretion, cell survival, autophagy, and apoptosis. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are members of the innate immune system in the cytosol that sense pathogens, endogenous danger molecules such as uric acid, and pollutants. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 and 2 (NOD1 and NOD2) are components of NLR family, and ligands of these factors are γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP), respectively...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165098/effects-of-olive-oil-on-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-in-humans-implication-in-obesity-and-frailty
#11
Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Angela Polito, Ilaria Peluso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 are important mediators of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. The latter plays a central role in several obesity-related pathologies, such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Besides, these cytokines have been also implicated in geriatric and cancer-induced anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia and frailty. Potential interventions for both obesity and frailty include dietary advice and nutraceuticals...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164003/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-pain-and-inflammation-its-relevance-to-rheumatic-disease
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Barrie, Nicholas Manolios
Pain is the most common manifestation of both acute and chronic inflammation that often challenges patients with rheumatic disease. Simply, we attribute this to local joint changes of pH in joints, the formation of radicals, enhanced joint pressure, or cytokine release acting on local nerves to produce pain. However, there is a more complex interplay of interactions between cytokines, mediators of inflammation, and ion channels that influence the final immune response and our perception of pain. Endocannabinoids, a group of less well-known endogenous bioactive lipids, have such manifold immunomodulatory effects able to influence both inflammation and pain...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163764/inhibition-of-autoimmune-th17-cell-responses-by-pain-killer-ketamine
#13
Jeong-Eun Lee, Jung-Man Lee, Young-Jun Park, Byung-Seok Kim, Young-Tae Jeon, Yeonseok Chung
Ketamine is widely used in animals and humans as a systemic anesthetic. Although several immune-modulatory functions of ketamine have been reported, the effects of ketamine on the differentiation of Th17 cell are unknown. We found that ketamine significantly diminished the frequency of IL-17-producers among CD4(+) T cells stimulated under Th17-skewing conditions. Mechanistic studies showed that ketamine had little effect on the production of Th17-inducing cytokines by dendritic cells and the proliferation of T cells in response to anti-CD3; however it significantly hampered IL-21 expression as well as STAT3 phosphorylation in T cells upon IL-6 stimulation...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163546/glucose-6-phosphatase-catalytic-subunit-3-g6pc3-deficiency-associated-with-autoinflammatory-complications
#14
Anoop Mistry, Thomas Scambler, David Parry, Mark Wood, Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Clive Carter, Rainer Doffinger, Sinisa Savic
G6PC3 deficiency typically causes severe congenital neutropenia, associated with susceptibility to infections, cardiac and urogenital abnormalities. However, here we describe two boys of Pakistani origin who were found to have G6PC3 deficiency due to c.130 C>T mutation, but who have clinical phenotypes that are typical for a systemic autoinflammatory syndrome. The index case presented with combination of unexplained fevers, severe mucosal ulcers, abdominal symptoms, and inflammatory arthritis. He eventually fully responded to anti-TNF therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163540/local-high-dose-radiotherapy-induces-systemic-immunomodulating-effects-of-potential-therapeutic-relevance-in-oligometastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Elena Muraro, Carlo Furlan, Michele Avanzo, Debora Martorelli, Elisa Comaro, Aurora Rizzo, Damiana A Fae', Massimiliano Berretta, Loredana Militello, Alessandro Del Conte, Simon Spazzapan, Riccardo Dolcetti, Marco Trovo'
Local irradiation of cancer through radiotherapy can induce spontaneous regression of non-directly irradiated lesions, suggesting the involvement of systemic antitumor immune responses. In oligometastatic breast cancer (BC) patients, the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) favors the local control of treated lesions and may contribute to break local tolerance and release tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), improving host antitumor immunity. We performed a detailed immunomonitoring of BC patients undergoing SBRT to verify its ability to "switch on" the anti-tumor immunity both systemically, in peripheral blood, and locally, employing in vitro BC models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163532/biodistribution-and-immunogenicity-of-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-intraarticular-chondrocyte-xenotransplantation
#16
Maribel Marquina, Javier A Collado, Magdiel Pérez-Cruz, Pablo Fernández-Pernas, Juan Fafián-Labora, Francisco J Blanco, Rafael Máñez, María C Arufe, Cristina Costa
Xenogeneic chondrocytes and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered a potential source of cells for articular cartilage repair. We here assessed the immune response triggered by xenogeneic chondrocytes when injected intraarticularly, as well as the immunoregulatory effect of allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSC after systemic administration. To this end, a discordant xenotransplantation model was established by injecting three million porcine articular chondrocytes (PAC) into the femorotibial joint of Lewis rats and monitoring the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163530/sense-and-immunity-context-dependent-neuro-immune-interplay
#17
REVIEW
Simmie L Foster, Corey R Seehus, Clifford J Woolf, Sébastien Talbot
The sensory nervous and immune systems, historically considered autonomous, actually work in concert to promote host defense and tissue homeostasis. These systems interact with each other through a common language of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases as well as cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides. While this bidirectional communication is adaptive in many settings, helping protect from danger, it can also become maladaptive and contribute to disease pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163524/t-helper-17-promotes-induction-of-antigen-specific-gut-mucosal-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-following-adenovirus-vector-vaccination
#18
Masahisa Hemmi, Masashi Tachibana, Natsuki Fujimoto, Masaki Shoji, Fuminori Sakurai, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Few current vaccines can establish antigen (Ag)-specific immune responses in both mucosal and systemic compartments. Therefore, development of vaccines providing defense against diverse infectious agents in both compartments is of high priority in global health. Intramuscular vaccination of an adenovirus vector (Adv) has been shown to induce Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in both systemic and gut-mucosal compartments. We previously found that type I interferon (IFN) signaling is required for induction of gut-mucosal, but not systemic, CTLs following vaccination; however, the molecular mechanism involving type I IFN signaling remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163518/mixed-signals-co-stimulation-in-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Susannah C Shissler, Michael S Lee, Tonya J Webb
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163502/regulating-immunogenicity-and-tolerogenicity-of-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-through-modulation-of-cell-surface-glycosylation-by-dexamethasone-treatment
#20
Kevin Lynch, Oliver Treacy, Jared Q Gerlach, Heidi Annuk, Paul Lohan, Joana Cabral, Lokesh Joshi, Aideen E Ryan, Thomas Ritter
Dendritic cellular therapies and dendritic cell vaccines show promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, the prolongation of graft survival in transplantation, and in educating the immune system to fight cancers. Cell surface glycosylation plays a crucial role in the cell-cell interaction, uptake of antigens, migration, and homing of DCs. Glycosylation is known to change with environment and the functional state of DCs. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are commonly generated using corticosteroids including dexamethasone, however, to date, little is known on how corticosteroid treatment alters glycosylation and what functional consequences this may have...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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