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Immune system, cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913530/cytokine-release-syndrome-with-novel-therapeutics-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Noelle V Frey, David L Porter
T-cell-engaging immunotherapies are exciting new approaches to treat patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These unique agents, which include blinatumomab, a CD3/CD19 bispecific antibody, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells targeted to CD19 have shown unprecedented remission rates in the relapsed, refractory ALL setting. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), resulting from the high magnitude of immune activation by these therapies, is the most significant treatment-related toxicity. CRS manifests with fever and malaise and can progress to life-threatening capillary leak with hypoxia and hypotension...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913418/a-novel-rhamnose-rich-hetero-exopolysaccharide-isolated-from-lactobacillus-paracasei-dg-activates-thp-1-human-monocytic-cells
#3
Silvia Balzaretti, Valentina Taverniti, Simone Guglielmetti, Walter Fiore, Mario Minuzzo, Hansel N Ngo, Judith B Ngere, Sohaib Sadiq, Paul N Humphreys, Andrew P Laws
: Lactobacillus paracasei DG is a bacterial strain with recognized probiotic properties and is used in commercial probiotic products. However, the mechanisms underlying its probiotic properties are mainly unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the capability of strain DG to interact with the host is, at least partly, associated with its ability to synthesize a surface-associated exopolysaccharide (EPS). Comparative genomics revealed the presence of putative EPS gene clusters in DG genome; accordingly, EPS was isolated from the surface of the bacterium...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912750/fermented-barley-and-soybean-bs-mixture-enhances-intestinal-barrier-function-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#4
Jong Kyu Woo, Seungho Choi, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Eung Kim, Byung-Serk Hurh, Jong-Eun Jeon, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Oh
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or relapsing immune system activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of safety and efficacy of standard therapies, the use of food supplements for managing IBD is increasing, and many studies have reported that various food supplements provide many beneficial effects for the IBD. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of dietary supplementation with a fermented barley and soybean mixture (BS) on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911947/the-yersinia-pestis-effector-yopm-inhibits-pyrin-inflammasome-activation
#5
Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Mark D Wewers, Emad S Alnemri, Peter F Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D Goguen, Egil Lien
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are central virulence factors for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and secreted T3SS effectors can block key aspects of host cell signaling. To counter this, innate immune responses can also sense some T3SS components to initiate anti-bacterial mechanisms. The Yersinia pestis T3SS is particularly effective and sophisticated in manipulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are typically processed into their mature forms by active caspase-1 following inflammasome formation...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911401/an-optimized-protocol-to-analyze-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-lymphocytes
#6
Javier Traba, Pietro Miozzo, Billur Akkaya, Susan K Pierce, Munir Akkaya
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation, and cytokine production. All of these events are tightly linked to the energy status of the cell, and therefore studying the energy-producing pathways may give clues about the overall functionality of these cells. The extracellular flux analyzer is a commonly used device for evaluating the performance of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in many cell types...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911288/the-effect-of-base-transceiver-station-waves-on-some-immunological-and-hematological-factors-in-exposed-persons
#7
Mohammad Taheri, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Jamileh Ghaffari, Samira Rahimnejad, Behzad Nazel Khosroshahi, Mohsen Aliabadi, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian
BACKGROUND: Since the number of mobile subscribers has significantly increased in recent years, the installation and deployment of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennas sending and receiving signals has become common and inevitable in different regions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have tried to evaluate the effect of the waves on some immunological and hematological parameters in exposed individuals. In this study, the exposed and non-exposed individuals were used as the test and control groups, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910859/t-cell-programming-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Y D Seo, V G Pillarisetty
Despite recent advancements in multimodal therapy, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) continues to have a dismal prognosis. In the era of burgeoning immune therapies against previously difficult-to-treat malignancies, there has been growing interest in activating the immune system against PDA; however, unlike in other cancers such as melanoma and lymphoma, immunotherapy has not yielded many clinically significant results. To harness these mechanisms for therapeutic use, an in-depth understanding of T-cell programming in the immune microenvironment of PDA must be achieved...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910138/canine-and-feline-colostrum
#9
S Chastant-Maillard, C Aggouni, A Albaret, A Fournier, H Mila
Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr)...
November 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909880/il-9-producing-cells-in-the-development-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy
#10
REVIEW
Dana Shik, Sunil Tomar, Jee-Boong Lee, Chun-Yu Chen, Andrew Smith, Yui-Hsi Wang
Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinical observations suggest that patients sensitized to food through the skin early in life may later develop severe food allergies. Aberrant epidermal thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin (IL) 33 production and genetic predisposition can initiate an allergic immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4(+)TH2 cells in inflamed skin...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908931/filling-the-tank-keeping-antitumor-t-cells-metabolically-fit-for-the-long-haul
#11
REVIEW
Greg M Delgoffe
Discoveries in tumor immunology and subsequent clinical advances in cancer immunotherapy have revealed that the immune system is not oblivious to tumor progression but heavily interacts with developing neoplasia and malignancy. A major factor preventing immune destruction is the establishment of a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which provides architecture to the tumor, supports indirect means of immunosuppression such as the recruitment of tolerogenic cells like regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and represents a zone of metabolically dearth conditions...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908212/are-crh-ngf-as-psychoneuroimmune-regulators-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
F Z Zangeneh, M M Naghizadeh, M Bagheri, M Jafarabadi
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nerves growth factor (NGF) are the modulator for the actions of the sympathetic nervous and immune systems. METHODS: In total, 171 women divided into two groups: study and control groups. Serum CRH, NGF, and interleukins: IL-1α. IL-1β, 17A, and TNFα were determined by ELISA Kits in both groups...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907202/a-reproducible-method-for-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture-of-functional-human-lymphoid-stromal-cells-from-tonsils
#13
Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Tanja Konijn, Mehmet Gönültas, Reina E Mebius, Rogier M Reijmers
The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#14
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906187/systemic-application-of-3-methyladenine-markedly-inhibited-atherosclerotic-lesion-in-apoe-mice-by-modulating-autophagy-foam-cell-formation-and-immune-negative-molecules
#15
Shen Dai, Bo Wang, Wen Li, Liyang Wang, Xingguo Song, Chun Guo, Yulan Li, Fengming Liu, Faliang Zhu, Qun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yongyu Shi, Jianing Wang, Wei Zhao, Lining Zhang
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular degradation process, is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we tested the effect of two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-chromone (LY294002), commonly used as inhibitors of autophagy, in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice. Systemic application of 3-MA but not LY294002 markedly reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaque and increased the stability of lesions in high-fat diet-fed mice as compared with controls...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905535/bordetella-pertussis-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-confers-equal-efficacy-in-mice-with-milder-inflammatory-responses-compared-to-a-whole-cell-vaccine
#16
René H M Raeven, Jolanda Brummelman, Jeroen L A Pennings, Larissa van der Maas, Wichard Tilstra, Kina Helm, Elly van Riet, Wim Jiskoot, Cécile A C M van Els, Wanda G H Han, Gideon F A Kersten, Bernard Metz
The demand for improved pertussis vaccines is urgent due to the resurgence of whooping cough. A deeper understanding of the mode of action of pertussis vaccines is required to achieve this improvement. The vaccine-induced effects of a candidate outer membrane vesicle vaccine (omvPV) and a classical protective but reactogenic whole cell vaccine (wPV) were comprehensively compared in mice. The comparison revealed essential qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to immunogenicity and adverse effects for these vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903619/interleukin-10-mediated-regenerative-postnatal-tissue-repair-is-dependent-on-regulation-of-hyaluronan-metabolism-via-fibroblast-specific-stat3-signaling
#17
Swathi Balaji, Xinyi Wang, Alice King, Louis D Le, Sukanta S Bhattacharya, Chad M Moles, Manish J Butte, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez, Kenneth W Liechty, Thomas N Wight, Timothy M Crombleholme, Paul L Bollyky, Sundeep G Keswani
The cytokine IL-10 has potent antifibrotic effects in models of adult fibrosis, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we report a novel finding that IL-10 triggers a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent signaling pathway that regulates hyaluronan (HA) metabolism and drives adult fibroblasts to synthesize an HA-rich pericellular matrix, which mimics the fetal regenerative wound healing phenotype with reduced fibrosis. By using cre-lox-mediated novel, inducible, fibroblast-, keratinocyte-, and wound-specific STAT3 knockdown postnatal mice-plus syngeneic fibroblast cell-transplant models-we demonstrate that the regenerative effects of IL-10 in postnatal wounds are dependent on HA synthesis and fibroblast-specific STAT3-dependent signaling...
November 30, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#18
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
December 1, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#19
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901481/human-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-recapitulate-key-aspects-of-cancer-cachexia
#20
Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Fernanda G Rocha, Bayli B DiVita, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
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