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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933754/the-positive-correlation-of-the-enhanced-immune-response-to-pcv2-subunit-vaccine-by-conjugation-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-with-the-deacetylation-degree
#1
Guiqiang Zhang, Gong Cheng, Peiyuan Jia, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Tao Hu, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals...
July 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932629/a-circulating-th2-cytokines-profile-predicts-survival-in-patients-with-resectable-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#2
Geny Piro, Francesca Simionato, Carmine Carbone, Melissa Frizziero, Giuseppe Malleo, Silvia Zanini, Raffaella Casolino, Raffaela Santoro, Maria Mihaela Mina, Camilla Zecchetto, Valeria Merz, Aldo Scarpa, Claudio Bassi, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
Surgery is the only potentially curative option for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but metastatic relapse remains common. We hypothesized that the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines could predict recurrence of PDAC, thus allowing to select patients who most likely could benefit from surgical resection. We prospectively collected plasma at diagnosis from 287 patients with pancreatic resectable neoplasms. The expression levels of 23 cytokines were measured in 90 patients with PDAC by using a multiplex analyte profiling assay...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931869/dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus-immunotherapy-changes-the-t-regulatory-cell-activity
#3
M Gonzalez, I Doña, F Palomares, P Campo, M J Rodriguez, C Rondon, F Gomez, T D Fernandez, J R Perkins, M M Escribese, M J Torres, C Mayorga
Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) has been shown to modify the Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP) allergic response, characterized by generation of Treg cells. However, studies have reported no changes in the proportion of Treg cells after immunotherapy, indicating that the effects may be due to modifications in their regulatory activities. We aimed to determine whether Tregs generated by DP-SCIT can switch the allergic response to tolerant and study the involvement of suppressive cytokines on it...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#4
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929455/role-of-mast-cells-in-regulation-of-t-cell-responses-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#5
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Korneel Grauwet
Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929423/oxidative-stress-in-inflammatory-cells-of-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-clinical-efficacy-of-dietary-antioxidants
#6
REVIEW
Asis Bala, Chaitali Mondal, Pallab Kanti Haldar, Bidita Khandelwal
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease responsible for significant human morbidity in modern life. However, oxidative stress is one of the key markers for determining pathophysiology of patients with RA. The interaction between cellular immune system and body's endogenous and/or exogenous antigens produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in autoimmune disease like RA. ROS and RNS include highly toxic superoxide (O2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) radicals, which activate the signaling cascades of inflammatory cells to synthesize pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
September 19, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928792/garidisan-improving-the-quality-of-ulcer-healing-in-rats-with-ulcerative-colitis
#7
Lin Wang, Wei-Zhi Liu, Ling-Yan Pei, Yu-Shi Ke, Jian Cui, Shu-Chun Li
Garidisan, commonly used in Mongolia to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), contains wild poppy and Artemisia frigida Willd. Clinical evidence shows that Garidisan can effectively treat UC and that recurrence is low. Thus, we evaluated the effects of Garidisan on ulcer healing quality and the regulation of immune balance in rats with experimental UC. UC was induced by immunization with TNBS and Garidisan significantly reduced DAI, CMDI, and HS. H&E staining, SEM, and VG staining showed that Garidisan repaired damaged intestinal mucosa and significantly reduced expression of ICAM-1 and CD105 in regenerated tissues of UC rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927906/il-17a-contributes-to-reducing-ifn-%C3%AE-il-4-ratio-and-persistence-of-entamoeba-histolytica-during-intestinal-amebiasis
#8
Sharmina Deloer, Risa Nakamura, Mihoko Kikuchi, Taeko Moriyasu, Yombo Dan Justin Kalenda, Eman Sayed Mohammed, Masachika Senba, Yoichiro Iwakura, Hiroki Yoshida, Shinjiro Hamano
Amebiasis is an infectious disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in areas with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Th1 responses, represented by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), play a protective role by clearing the amebae from the gut, whereas Th2 responses are responsible for chronic infection. Th17 responses preconditioned by vaccination or by modulating the intestinal microbiome protect mice from the settlement of E...
September 16, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923981/pillars-article-m-1-m-2-macrophages-and-the-th1-th2-paradigm-j-immunol-2000-164-6166-6173
#9
Charles D Mills, Kristi Kincaid, Jennifer M Alt, Michelle J Heilman, Annette M Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923825/qualitative-differences-in-t-cell-activation-by-dendritic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes
#10
Mercedes Tkach, Joanna Kowal, Andres E Zucchetti, Lotte Enserink, Mabel Jouve, Danielle Lankar, Michael Saitakis, Lorena Martin-Jaular, Clotilde Théry
Exosomes, nano-sized secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), are actively studied for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. In particular, exosomes secreted by dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to carry MHC-peptide complexes allowing efficient activation of T lymphocytes, thus displaying potential as promoters of adaptive immune responses. DCs also secrete other types of EVs of different size, subcellular origin and protein composition, whose immune capacities have not been yet compared to those of exosomes...
September 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923131/innate-and-adaptive-immune-response-to-chronic-pulmonary-infection-of-hyphae-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-new-murine-model
#11
Fengyuan Wang, Caiyun Zhang, Yuan Jiang, Caixia Kou, Qingtao Kong, Nanbiao Long, Ling Lu, Hong Sang
PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has seldom been studied due partly to a lack of animal models. Since hypha is the main morphology colonizing the airway in CPA, it's critical to study the immune reaction to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, which also has seldom been studied in vivo before. METHODOLOGY: We established a novel murine model of chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae by challenging immunocompetent mice with tightly-structured hyphae balls intratracheally, and described the ensuing immunoreaction to hyphae and conidia, and the pathogenesis of CPA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922426/a-dna-vaccine-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-protects-against-disease-and-death-in-two-lethal-mouse-models
#12
Aura R Garrison, Charles J Shoemaker, Joseph W Golden, Collin J Fitzpatrick, John J Suschak, Michelle J Richards, Catherine V Badger, Carolyn M Six, Jacqueline D Martin, Drew Hannaman, Marko Zivcec, Eric Bergeron, Jeffrey W Koehler, Connie S Schmaljohn
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV-associated disease. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein precursor gene of CCHFV and assessed its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel transiently immune suppressed (IS) mouse model. Vaccination of mice by muscle electroporation of the M-segment DNA vaccine elicited strong antigen-specific humoral immune responses with neutralizing titers after three vaccinations in both IFNAR-/- and IS mouse models...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921728/undifferentiated-connective-tissue-diseases-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-an-undervalued-association
#13
REVIEW
Arsenio Spinillo, Fausta Beneventi, Roberto Caporali, Veronique Ramoni, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by symptoms and signs suggestive of systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD), but which do not fulfill all the established criteria for definite diagnosis of a condition. Although a third of UCTDs can progress to a definite ARD within months or years, most UCTDs can remain stable for years with minimal disease activity. The annual incidence of UCTD in the general population ranges from 14 to 140 per 100 000 people...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921566/pegylation-of-cationic-liposomes-encapsulating-soluble-leishmania-antigens-sla-reduces-the-adjuvant-efficacy-of-liposomes-in-murine-model
#14
Hadi Naseri, Faezeh Eskandari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Azam Abbasi, Ali Badiee
Although there have been several attempts to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis; no vaccine in human has been developed yet. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) encapsulating soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) enhance protective immunity of SLA against L. major infection in mice. However, they immobilized at the injection site because of their positive charge. To overcome the problem, shielding the surface charge with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) was chosen in this study...
September 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917537/hbcag-produced-in-transgenic-tobacco-triggers-th1-and-th2-response-when-intramuscularly-delivered
#15
Marcin Pyrski, Anna Rugowska, Kamil Robert Wierzbiński, Anna Kasprzyk, Maria Bogusiewicz, Piotr Bociąg, Sławomir Samardakiewicz, Marcin Czyż, Maciej Kurpisz, Tomasz Pniewski
Hepatitis B core Antigen (HBcAg) assembled into Capsid-Like Particles (CLPs) is investigated as a therapeutic vaccine in treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in diagnostic tests or as a carrier for various epitopes. While the expression of HBcAg has been thoroughly clarified in E. coli and yeast, it has also been investigated in other expression systems. Stably transformed tobacco expressed HBcAg at a level of 110-250µg/g fresh weight, therefore in view of its large leaf biomass it offers a production platform comparable with transient expression systems regarding the final yield of HBcAg...
September 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917326/serum-levels-of-cytokines-in-water-buffaloes-experimentally-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#16
Fu-Kai Zhang, Ai-Jiang Guo, Jun-Ling Hou, Miao-Miao Sun, Zhao-An Sheng, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Fasciola gigantica infection in water buffaloes causes significant economic losses especially in developing countries. Although modulation of the host immune response by cytokine neutralization or vaccination is a promising approach to control infection with this parasite, our understanding of cytokine's dynamic during F. gigantica infection is limited. To address this, we quantified the levels of serum cytokines produced in water buffaloes following experimental infection with F. gigantica. Five buffaloes were infected via oral gavage with 500 viable F...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914568/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-decrease-the-development-of-severe-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-in-b10-riii-mice
#17
Yu Qin, Ann M Chan, Yu-Ling Chang, Anna Matynia, Nicholas A Kouris, Erin A Kimbrel, Negin Ashki, Sachin Parikh, Michael B Gorin, Robert Lanza, Ralph D Levinson, Lynn K Gordon
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of exogenously administered human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hESC-MSCs) in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in B10.RIII mice, a murine model of severe uveitis. METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized with an uveitogenic peptide, and intraperitoneal injections of 5 million hESC-MSCs per animal were given on the same day. Behavioral light sensitivity assays, histological evaluation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cells were analyzed at the peak of the disease...
September 15, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906131/effects-of-immunomodulators-on-the-response-induced-by-vaccines-against-autoimmune-diseases
#18
Dante J Marciani
A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity...
September 14, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903402/impact-of-chronic-methamphetamine-treatment-on-the-atherosclerosis-formation-in-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#19
Pengfei Zhu, Lun Li, Bo Gao, Mingjing Zhang, Yuting Wang, Ye Gu, Liqun Hu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that methamphetamine could promote atherosclerosis (AS) in ApoE-/- mice fed normal chow. We herein observed the impact of methamphetamine on AS in ApoE-/- mice fed a high cholesterol diet and explored the potential mechanisms. RESULTS AND MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ApoE-/- mice fed a high cholesterol diet were treated with saline (NS, n = 5) or methamphetamine [8 mg/kg/day (M8, n = 6) through intraperitoneal injection] for 24 weeks...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900758/in-utero-development-of-memory-t-cells
#20
REVIEW
Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
Pathogen-specific immune memory develops subsequent to primary exposure to antigen, mainly in the context of infection or vaccination to provide protection. Although a safe fetal life requires a tolerogenic environment in order to circumvent unnecessary inflammatory responses, it needs to be prepared in utero to face the microbial environment outside the womb. The possibility of immune memory generation in the fetus would help such transition providing protection in early life. This requires fetal T cell exposure to foreign antigens presented by dendritic cells...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
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