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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742257/dynamic-carboniferous-tropical-forests-new-views-of-plant-function-and-potential-for-physiological-forcing-of-climate
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan P Wilson, Isabel P Montañez, Joseph D White, William A DiMichele, Jennifer C McElwain, Christopher J Poulsen, Michael T Hren
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The Carboniferous, the time of Earth's penultimate icehouse and widespread coal formation, was dominated by extinct lineages of early-diverging vascular plants. Studies of nearest living relatives of key Carboniferous plants suggest that their physiologies and growth forms differed substantially from most types of modern vegetation, particularly forests. It remains a matter of debate precisely how differently and to what degree these long-extinct plants influenced the environment...
July 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742248/biallelic-col3a1-mutations-result-in-a-clinical-spectrum-of-specific-structural-brain-anomalies-and-connective-tissue-abnormalities
#2
Denise Horn, Eberhard Siebert, Ulrich Seidel, Imma Rost, Karin Mayer, Rami Abou Jamra, Diana Mitter, Uwe Kornak
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type IV) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous variants of COL3A1. We identified biallelic COL3A1 variants in two unrelated families. In a 3-year-old female with developmental delay the nonsense variant c.1282C>T, p.(Arg428*) was detected in combination the c.2057delC, p.(Pro686Leufs*105) frame shift variant. Both compound heterozygous variants were novel. This patient was born with bilateral clubfoot, joint laxity, and dysmorphic facial features. At the age of 2 years she developed an aneurysmal brain hemorrhage...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741982/multimodal-mr-imaging-signatures-of-cognitive-impairment-in-active-professional-fighters
#3
Virendra R Mishra, Xiaowei Zhuang, Karthik R Sreenivasan, Sarah J Banks, Zhengshi Yang, Charles Bernick, Dietmar Cordes
Purpose To investigate whether combining multiple magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities such as T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging could reveal imaging biomarkers associated with cognition in active professional fighters. Materials and Methods Active professional fighters (n = 297; 24 women and 273 men) were recruited at one center. Sixty-two fighters (six women and 56 men) returned for a follow-up examination. Only men were included in the main analysis of the study. On the basis of computerized testing, fighters were separated into the cognitively impaired and nonimpaired groups on the basis of computerized testing...
July 25, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741714/abnormal-fronto-parietal-white-matter-organisation-in-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-branches-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Alexander Leemans, Elizabeth Kehoe, Erik O'Hanlon, Louise Gallagher, Jane McGrath
Core features of ASD may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741437/traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-individuals
#5
Toby Schmitt, Allen Thornton, Iris Rawtaer, Alasdair Barr, Kristina Gicas, Donna Lang, Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, Ric Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, Alex Cheng, Sarah Mackay, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Thalia Field, Manraj K S Heran, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Tiffany-Anne O'Connor, William MacEwan, William Honer, William Panenka
We characterized traumatic brain injury (TBI) and studied its associations with mental and physical health in a community cohort of homeless and vulnerably-housed individuals. METHODS: Detailed mental and physical health structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and multimodal MRI were performed on 283 participants. Two traumatic brain injury (TBI) participant groups were defined for primary analyses: those with a self-reported history of TBI and those with MRI evidence of TBI...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741075/brain-relaxometry-after-macrocyclic-gd-based-contrast-agent
#6
Andreas Müller, Alina Jurcoane, Burkhard Mädler, Philip Ditter, Hans Schild, Elke Hattingen
PURPOSE: To assess if ratios of T1-weighted (T1w) signal intensity (SI) and quantitative T1 relaxometry (qT1) change on serial administration of macrocyclic gadobutrol. METHODS: A total of 17 glioblastoma patients were scanned at 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every 6 weeks after tumor resection with standard MRI and T1 and T2 relaxometry before and after gadobutrol administration. On co-registered images T1w SI was measured and relaxation times T1 (qT1) and quantitative T2 (qT2) were quantified in several deep grey matter nuclei as ratios relative to frontal white matter and to the pons...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740446/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-gliomas-grades-ii-and-iii-a-study-of-perilesional-tumor-infiltration-tumor-grades-and-subtypes-at-clinical-presentation
#7
Anna F Delgado, Markus Fahlström, Markus Nilsson, Shala G Berntsson, Maria Zetterling, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Anja Smits, Elna-Marie Larsson
BACKGROUND: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) allows for assessment of diffusion influenced by microcellular structures. We analyzed DKI in suspected low-grade gliomas prior to histopathological diagnosis. The aim was to investigate if diffusion parameters in the perilesional normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) differed from contralesional white matter, and to investigate differences between glioma malignancy grades II and III and glioma subtypes (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas)...
June 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739513/intrauterine-inflammation-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-neuroinflammation-white-matter-and-behavior
#8
Ryan Makinson, Kelsey Lloyd, Aditya Rayasam, Sarah McKee, Amy Brown, Guillermo Barila, Nicola Grissom, Robert George, Matt Marini, Zsuzsanna Fabry, Michal Elovitz, Teresa M Reyes
Exposure to inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring. One common route through which a developing fetus is exposed to inflammation is with intrauterine inflammation. To that end, we utilized an animal model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI; intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, 50 µg, E15) to assess placental and fetal brain inflammatory responses, white matter integrity, anxiety-related behaviors (elevated zero maze, light dark box, open field), microglial counts, and the CNS cytokine response to an acute injection of LPS in both males and females...
July 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739393/rat-brain-digital-stereotaxic-white-matter-atlas-with-fine-tract-delineation-in-paxinos-space-and-its-automated-applications-in-dti-data-analysis
#9
Shengxiang Liang, Shang Wu, Qi Huang, Shaofeng Duan, Hua Liu, Yuxiao Li, Shujun Zhao, Binbin Nie, Baoci Shan
PURPOSE: To automatically analyze diffusion tensor images of the rat brain via both voxel-based and ROI-based approaches, we constructed a new white matter atlas of the rat brain with fine tracts delineation in the Paxinos and Watson space. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unlike in previous studies, we constructed a digital atlas image from the latest edition of the Paxinos and Watson. This atlas contains 111 carefully delineated white matter fibers. A white matter network of rat brain based on anatomy was constructed by locating the intersection of all these tracts and recording the nuclei on the pathway of each white matter tract...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#10
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738366/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-hypophonia-in-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#11
Ji Hye Yoon, Yisuh Ahn, Sook Hui Kim, Juhee Chin, Seongbeom Park, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early detection and intervention may alter the disease course of subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). Patients with SVCI have white matter ischemia that disrupts connections between the cortex and subcortical gray matter and therefore manifest various symptoms such as motor disturbances and behavioral/cognitive dysfunction. Reduced vocal loudness, or hypophonia, is one of the common motor symptoms of SVCI, but few studies have systematically investigated it in this patient population...
July 24, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738218/common-variation-in-the-autism-risk-gene-cntnap2-brain-structural-connectivity-and-multisensory-speech-integration
#12
Lars A Ross, Victor A Del Bene, Sophie Molholm, Young Jae Woo, Gizely N Andrade, Brett S Abrahams, John J Foxe
Three lines of evidence motivated this study. 1) CNTNAP2 variation is associated with autism risk and speech-language development. 2) CNTNAP2 variations are associated with differences in white matter (WM) tracts comprising the speech-language circuitry. 3) Children with autism show impairment in multisensory speech perception. Here, we asked whether an autism risk-associated CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism in neurotypical adults was associated with multisensory speech perception performance, and whether such a genotype-phenotype association was mediated through white matter tract integrity in speech-language circuitry...
July 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737295/towards-a-unified-analysis-of-brain-maturation-and-aging-across-the-entire-lifespan-a-mri-analysis
#13
Pierrick Coupé, Gwenaelle Catheline, Enrique Lanuza, José Vicente Manjón
There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737289/comparison-of-pasl-pcasl-and-background-suppressed-3d-pcasl-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Sudipto Dolui, Marta Vidorreta, Ze Wang, Ilya M Nasrallah, Abass Alavi, David A Wolk, John A Detre
We compared three implementations of single-shot arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging: two-dimensional (2D) pulsed ASL (PASL), 2D pseudocontinuous ASL (PCASL), and background-suppressed (BS) 3D PCASL obtained in a cohort of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls. Study subjects also underwent (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET). While BS 3D PCASL showed the lowest (P < 0.001) gray matter-white matter cerebral blood flow (CBF) contrast ratio, it provided the highest (P < 0...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737246/prematurity-white-matter-and-cognition-support-for-leukocentrism
#15
Christopher M Filley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736910/longitudinal-mr-spectroscopy-shows-altered-metabolism-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Andrew A Maudsley, Varan Govind, Gaurav Saigal, Stuart G Gold, Leo Harris, Sulaiman Sheriff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain trauma is known to result in heterogeneous patterns of tissue damage and altered neuronal and glial metabolism that evolve over time following injury; however, little is known on the longitudinal evolution of these changes. In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was used to map the distributions of altered metabolism in a single subject at five time points over a period of 28 months following injury. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging and volumetric MRSI data were acquired in a subject that had experienced a moderate traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 13) at five time points, from 7 weeks to 28 months after injury...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736215/human-ipsc-glial-mouse-chimeras-reveal-glial-contributions-to-schizophrenia
#17
Martha S Windrem, Mikhail Osipovitch, Zhengshan Liu, Janna Bates, Devin Chandler-Militello, Lisa Zou, Jared Munir, Steven Schanz, Katherine McCoy, Robert H Miller, Su Wang, Maiken Nedergaard, Robert L Findling, Paul J Tesar, Steven A Goldman
In this study, we investigated whether intrinsic glial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Our approach was to establish humanized glial chimeric mice using glial progenitor cells (GPCs) produced from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with childhood-onset SCZ. After neonatal implantation into myelin-deficient shiverer mice, SCZ GPCs showed premature migration into the cortex, leading to reduced white matter expansion and hypomyelination relative to controls...
July 18, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736137/nogo-presence-is-inversely-associated-with-shifts-in-cortical-microglial-morphology-following-experimental-diffuse-brain-injury
#18
Jenna M Ziebell, Helen Ray-Jones, Jonathan Lifshitz
Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates secondary pathology, including inflammation and reduced myelination. Considering these injury-related pathologies, the many states of activated microglia as demonstrated by differing morphologies would form, migrate, and function in and through fields of growth-inhibitory myelin byproduct, specifically Nogo. Here we evaluate the relationship between inflammation and reduced myelin antigenicity in the wake of diffuse TBI and present the hypothesis that the Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide NEP(1-40) would reverse the injury-induced shift in distribution of microglia morphologies by limiting myelin-based inhibition...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735913/gray-matter-abnormalities-of-the-dorsal-posterior-cingulate-in-sleep-walking
#19
Anna Heidbreder, Ambra Stefani, Elisabeth Brandauer, Ruth Steiger, Christian Kremser, Elke R Gizewski, Peter Young, Werner Poewe, Birgit Högl, Christoph Scherfler
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether voxel-based analysis of T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging is able to detect alterations of gray and white matter morphometry as well as measures of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy in patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnia. METHODS: 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 14 drug-free, polysomnography-confirmed adult patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnia (age: 29 ± 4...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734802/co-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-stem-cells-and-overexpressing-stromal-derived-factor-1-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Dara J Brown, Matthew N Fini, Katherine L Copely, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neuronal stem cells (NSCs) has been used to treat spinal cord injuries (SCI). As a mechanism of therapy, MSCs secrete high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors, while NSCs can differentiate into neuronal lineages and aid in tissue replacement. Additionally, the forced overexpression of secreted proteins can enhance the secretome of transplanted cells, which can increase therapeutic efficacy. This study utilized a combinational treatment consisting of MSCs, NSCs, and the forced overexpression of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) from MSCs (SDF-1-MSCs), to treat a rat model of SCI...
July 19, 2017: Brain Research
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