Read by QxMD icon Read

White matter

L A Kalashnikova, T S Gulevskaya, L A Dobrynina
Cerebral microangiopathy (small vessels disease) is a cause of diffuse changes of brain tissue (encephalopathy) denoted in Russian literature by the term dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE). The main cause of microangiopathy leading to encephalopathy is arterial hypertension, less frequently - cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in patients with microangiopathy is based on the combination of clinical manifestations (mainly, cognitive impairment of varying severity and disorders of gait) with the neuroimaging changes (white matter hyperintensity, multiple lacunar infarcts on MRI)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
G V Ponomarev, T V Lalayan, S A Dambinova, A A Skoromets
The study aimed at assessing the level of glutamate receptors antibodies (Abs) in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal cord ischemia along with traditional diagnostic approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with spinal cord ischemia (10 with spinal stroke and 30 with subacute and chronic course of the disease) were enrolled. After exclusion of some participants, 27 patients continued the study. Comparison groups included 30 patients with ischemic stroke and 30 patients with radiculopathy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann, Volker Baur, Jürgen Hänggi, Lutz Jäncke, Marco Piccirelli, Spyros Kollias, Ulrich Schnyder, Ofer Pasternak, Chantal Martin-Soelch, Gabriella Milos
BACKGROUND: Acute anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by reduced brain mass and corresponding increased sulcal and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Recent studies of white matter using diffusion tensor imaging consistently identified alterations in the fornix, such as reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). However, because the fornix penetrates the ventricles, it is prone to cerebrospinal fluid-induced partial volume effects that interfere with a valid assessment of FA. We investigated the hypothesis that in the acute stage of AN, FA of the fornix is markedly affected by ventricular volumes...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jan Kassubek, Hans-Peter Müller, Kelly Del Tredici, Michael Hornberger, Matthias L Schroeter, Karsten Müller, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Ingo Uttner, Murray Grossman, Heiko Braak, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph
Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) excluding Pick's disease (PiD) across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression. Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Riho Nakajima, Masashi Kinoshita, Hirokazu Okita, Tetsutaro Yahata, Mie Matsui, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Mentalizing is the ability to understand others' mental state through external cues. It consists of two networks, namely low-level and high-level metalizing. Although it is an essential function in our daily social life, surgical resection of right cerebral hemisphere disturbs mentalizing processing with high possibility. In the past, little was known about the white matter related to high-level mentalizing, and the conservation of high-level mentalizing during surgery has not been a focus of attention. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine the neural networks underlying high-level mentalizing and then, secondarily, investigate the usefulness of awake surgery in preserving the mentalizing network...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Joseph Scafidi, Jonathan Ritter, Brooke M Talbot, Jorge Edwards, Li-Jin Chew, Vittorio Gallo
Newly developed targeted anticancer drugs inhibit signaling pathways commonly altered in adult and pediatric cancers. However, as these pathways are also essential for normal brain development, concerns have emerged of neurologic sequelae resulting specifically from their application in pediatric cancers. The neural substrates and age dependency of these drug-induced effects in vivo are unknown, and their long-term behavioral consequences have not been characterized. This study defines the age-dependent cellular and behavioral effects of these drugs on normally developing brains and determines their reversibility with post-drug intervention...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Takuichiro Hide, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yuko Miyasato, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Takeya, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Akitake Mukasa, Shigetoshi Yano
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized...
March 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Yeseon Moon, Janet DeRosa, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI are common and associated with vascular and functional outcomes. However, the relationship between WMHs and longitudinal trajectories of functional status is not well characterized. We hypothesized that whole brain WMHs are associated with functional decline independently of intervening clinical vascular events and other vascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a population-based racially/ethnically diverse prospective cohort study, 1,290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain MRI and were followed afterwards for a mean 7...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
A Ulate-Campos, J Petanas-Argemi, M Rebollo-Polo, C Jou, C Sierra, J Armstrong, M C Fons-Estupina
INTRODUCTION: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most frequent peroxisomal disease. It is due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The loss of functioning of ABCD1 triggers ineffective beta oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids, which gives rise to an accumulation of these fatty acids. The typical alteration revealed in neuroimaging scans in the cerebral form is symmetrical periventricular demyelination with posterior location. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with right spastic hemiparesis and subacute cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Defne Alfandari, Chris Vriend, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld
Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Yoshitaka Inui, Takashi Ichihara, Masaki Uno, Masanobu Ishiguro, Kengo Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Hajime Sakuma, Hidehiko Okazawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Rocío-Nur Villar-Quiles, Celia Delgado-Suárez, Manuela Jorquera-Moya, Javier Arpa-Gutiérrez, Gloria Ortega-Suero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Neurology
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hanna Cho, Sang Won Seo, Jae Yong Choi, Hye Sun Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, and tau pathology can be found in 40%-50% of bvFTD patients. In this study, we sought to investigate18 F-flortaucipir-binding patterns and their correlates in clinically diagnosed bvFTD patients by comparing with results for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We enrolled 20 bvFTD, 20 AD, and 20 age-matched healthy subjects who underwent neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and tau positron emission tomography scans with18 F-flortaucipir...
February 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Isaac H Solomon, Kristyn M Spera, Sophia L Ryan, Jeffrey Helgager, Juliana Andrici, Sherif R Zaki, Henrikas Vaitkevicius, Kristoffer E Leon, Michael R Wilson, Joseph L DeRisi, Sophia Koo, Stelios M Smirnakis, Umberto De Girolami
Importance: Powassan virus is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of severe neurological disease. Objective: To highlight the diagnostic challenges and neuropathological findings in a fatal case of Powassan encephalitis caused by deer tick virus (lineage II) in a patient with follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab, with nonspecific anti-GAD65 antibodies, who was initially seen with fever and orchiepididymitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Comparison of clinical, radiological, histological, and laboratory findings, including immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, antibody detection, and unbiased sequencing assays, in a single case report (first seen in December 2016) at an academic medical center...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Nicola Moscufo, Dorothy B Wakefield, Dominik S Meier, Michele Cavallari, Charles R G Guttmann, William B White, Leslie Wolfson
Mobility impairment in older persons is associated with brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH), a common finding in magnetic resonance images and one established imaging biomarker of small vessel disease. The contribution of possible microstructural abnormalities within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) to mobility, however, remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures, i.e. fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), to assess microstructural changes within supratentorial NAWM and WMH sub-compartments, and to investigate their association with changes in mobility performance, i...
2018: PloS One
Jae W Song, Gerlinde M Gruber, Janina M Patsch, Rainer Seidl, Daniela Prayer, Gregor Kasprian
Prenatal detection of abnormal white matter tracts might serve as a structural marker for altered neurodevelopment. As a result of many technical and patient-related challenges, the accuracy of prenatal tractography remains unknown. We hypothesized that characteristics of prenatal tractography of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts derived from fetal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are accurate and predictive of the integrity of these tracts postnatally. We compared callosal and corticospinal tracts of 12 subjects with paired prenatal (age: 23-35 gestational weeks) and postnatal (age: 1 day to 2 years) DTI examinations (b values of 0 s/mm2 and 700 s/mm2 , 16 gradient encoding directions) using deterministic tractography...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Russell Ouellette, Åsa Bergendal, Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Caterina Mainero, Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg, Sten Fredrikson, Tobias Granberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term progression of cognitive dysfunction and its neuroanatomical correlates and predictors in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort of 37 MS patients reflecting five decades of disease duration and all subtypes was followed over 17.5 years. Matched controls were recruited at the last follow-up. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using a principal component cognitive index based on comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Suheyla Cetin Karayumak, Evren Özarslan, Gozde Unal
Characterization of anisotropy via diffusion MRI reveals fiber crossings in a substantial portion of voxels within the white-matter (WM) regions of the human brain. A considerable number of such voxels could exhibit asymmetric features such as bends and junctions. However, widely employed reconstruction methods yield symmetric Orientation Distribution Functions (ODFs) even when the underlying geometry is asymmetric. In this paper, we employ inter-voxel directional filtering approaches through a cone model to reveal more information regarding the cytoarchitectural organization within the voxel...
March 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"