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Viral glycoprotein-D

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176979/us6-gene-deletion-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-enhances-dendritic-cell-function-and-t-cell-activation
#1
Angello Retamal-Díaz, Kayla A Weiss, Eduardo I Tognarelli, Mariela Freire, Susan M Bueno, Betsy C Herold, William R Jacobs, Pablo A González
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) produce lifelong infections that are associated with frequent asymptomatic or clinically apparent reactivation. Importantly, HSV express multiple virulence factors that negatively modulate innate and adaptive immune components. Notably, HSV interfere with dendritic cell (DC) viability and function, likely hindering the capacity of the host to mount effective immunity against these viruses. Recently, an HSV-2 virus that was deleted in glycoprotein D was engineered (designated ΔgD-2)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166910/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-human-coronaviruses-among-cross-border-children
#2
Peilin Liu, Lei Shi, Wei Zhang, Jianan He, Chunxiao Liu, Chunzhong Zhao, Siu Kai Kong, Jacky Fong Chuen Loo, Dayong Gu, Longfei Hu
BACKGROUND: More than a decade after the outbreak of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) SARS in Guangdong province and Hong Kong SAR of China in 2002, there is still no reoccurrence, but the evolution and recombination of the coronaviruses in this region are still unknown. Therefore, surveillance on the prevalence and the virus variation of HCoVs circulation in this region is conducted. METHODS: A total of 3298 nasopharyngeal swabs samples were collected from cross-border children (<6 years, crossing border between Southern China and Hong Kong SAR) showing symptoms of respiratory tract infection, such as fever (body temperature > 37...
November 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160219/complete-sequences-of-4-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-ivb-isolates-and-their-virulence-in-northern-pike-fry
#3
Rodman G Getchell, Emily R Cornwell, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andrés, William N Batts, Gael Kurath, Rachel Breyta, Joanna G Choi, John M Farrell, Paul R Bowser
Four viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb isolates were sequenced, their genetic variation explored, and comparative virulence assayed with experimental infections of northern pike Esox lucius fry. In addition to the type strain MI03, the complete 11183 bp genome of the first round goby Neogobius melanostomus isolate from the St. Lawrence River, and the 2013 and 2014 isolates from gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum die-offs in Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario and Dunkirk Harbor, Lake Erie were all deep sequenced on an Illumina platform...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149197/sieve-analysis-of-breakthrough-hiv-1-sequences-in-hvtn-505-identifies-vaccine-pressure-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-of-env-gp120
#4
Allan C deCamp, Morgane Rolland, Paul T Edlefsen, Eric Sanders-Buell, Breana Hall, Craig A Magaret, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Michal Juraska, Lindsay N Carpp, Shelly T Karuna, Meera Bose, Steven LePore, Shana Miller, Annemarie O'Sullivan, Kultida Poltavee, Hongjun Bai, Kalpana Dommaraju, Hong Zhao, Kim Wong, Lennie Chen, Hasan Ahmed, Derrick Goodman, Matthew Z Tay, Raphael Gottardo, Richard A Koup, Robert Bailer, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Mario Roederer, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Elizabeth Adams, Patricia D'Souza, James Kublin, Lawrence Corey, Daniel E Geraghty, Nicole Frahm, Georgia D Tomaras, M Juliana McElrath, Lisa Frenkel, Sheila Styrchak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Scott M Hammer, Jerome H Kim, James I Mullins, Peter B Gilbert
Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142124/truncating-the-gp41-cytoplasmic-tail-of-siv-decreases-sensitivity-to-neutralizing-antibodies-without-increasing-envelope-content-of-virions
#5
Ellen White, Fan Wu, Elena Chertova, Julian Bess, James D Roser, Jeffrey D Lifson, Vanessa M Hirsch
An incomplete understanding of native HIV and SIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) impedes the development of structural models of Env and vaccine design. This shortcoming is due in part to the low number of Env trimers on virus particles. For SIV, this low expression can be counteracted by truncating the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT truncation has been shown to increase Env incorporation into the virion and is commonly used in vaccine and imaging studies, but its effects on viral antigenicity have not been fully elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114027/an-alphavirus-e2-membrane-proximal-domain-promotes-envelope-protein-lateral-interactions-and-virus-budding
#6
Emily A Byrd, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are members of a group of small enveloped RNA viruses that includes important human pathogens such as Chikungunya virus and the equine encephalitis viruses. The virus membrane is covered by a lattice composed of 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E2 and E1 transmembrane proteins. During virus endocytic entry, the E1 glycoprotein mediates the low-pH-dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane, thus initiating virus infection. While much is known about E1 structural rearrangements during membrane fusion, it is unclear how the E1/E2 dimer dissociates, a step required for the fusion reaction...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063173/bovine-single-chain-fv-antibody-inhibits-bovine-herpesvirus-1-infectivity-by-targeting-viral-glycoprotein-d
#7
Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Bo Jiang, Houjun He, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Dawei Yang, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E Sealy, Munir Iqbal, Yongqing Li
Glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is essential for attachment and penetration of cells during infection and is a major target for neutralizing antibodies during an adaptive immune response. Currently there are no recombinant antibodies capable of binding gD epitopes for use in treating BoHV-1 infection. In this study, a bovine scFv gene derived from a hybridoma secreting monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against the amino acid motif MEESKGYEPP of gD was expressed in E. coli. Molecular modeling, western blot and ELISA analysis showed that this scFv had a high affinity for BoHV-1 gD, with a Kd of 161...
December 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062078/design-and-evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-a-biomimetic-particulate-formulation-of-viral-antigens
#8
Victor Riitho, Adam A Walters, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Benjamin Lamp, Till Rümenapf, Thomas Krey, Felix A Rey, Ernesto Oviedo-Orta, Graham R Stewart, Nicolas Locker, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
Subunit viral vaccines are typically not as efficient as live attenuated or inactivated vaccines at inducing protective immune responses. This paper describes an alternative 'biomimetic' technology; whereby viral antigens were formulated around a polymeric shell in a rationally arranged fashion with a surface glycoprotein coated on to the surface and non-structural antigen and adjuvant encapsulated. We evaluated this model using BVDV E2 and NS3 proteins formulated in poly-(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles adjuvanted with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C) as an adjuvant (Vaccine-NP)...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051495/the-%C3%AE-20-%C3%AE-21-of-gp120-is-a-regulatory-switch-for-hiv-1-env-conformational-transitions
#9
Alon Herschhorn, Christopher Gu, Francesca Moraca, Xiaochu Ma, Mark Farrell, Amos B Smith, Marie Pancera, Peter D Kwong, Arne Schön, Ernesto Freire, Cameron Abrams, Scott C Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Joseph G Sodroski
The entry of HIV-1 into target cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env). Binding to the CD4 receptor triggers a cascade of conformational changes in distant domains that move Env from a functionally "closed" State 1 to more "open" conformations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric regulation of these transitions are still elusive. Here, we develop chemical probes that block CD4-induced conformational changes in Env and use them to identify a potential control switch for Env structural rearrangements...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038280/targeting-human-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells-by-redirecting-t-cells-using-an-anti-cd3-anti-gb-bispecific-antibody
#10
Weixu Meng, Aimin Tang, Xiaohua Ye, Xun Gui, Leike Li, Xuejun Fan, Robbie D Schultz, Daniel C Freed, Sha Ha, Dai Wang, Ningyan Zhang, Tong-Ming Fu, Zhiqiang An
Host immune response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is effective against HCMV reactivation from latency although not sufficient to clear the virus. T cells are primarily responsible for control of the viral reactivation. When host immune system is compromised, as in transplant recipients with immunosuppression, HCMV reactivation and progressive infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Adoptive T cell therapy is effective for control of HCMV infection in transplant recipients. However, it is a highly personalized therapeutic regimen, and difficult to implement in routine clinical practice...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035787/identification-of-n-linked-glycosylation-sites-in-the-spike-protein-and-their-functional-impact-on-the-replication-and-infectivity-of-coronavirus-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-cell-culture
#11
Jie Zheng, Yoshiyuki Yamada, To Sing Fung, Mei Huang, Raymond Chia, Ding Xiang Liu
Spike (S) glycoprotein on the viral envelope is the main determinant of infectivity. The S protein of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) contains 29 putative asparagine(N)-linked glycosylation sites. These post-translational modifications may assist in protein folding and play important roles in the functionality of S protein. In this study, we used bioinformatics tools to predict N-linked glycosylation sites and to analyze their distribution in IBV strains and variants. Among these sites, 8 sites were confirmed in the S protein extracted from partially purified virus particles by proteomics approaches...
October 13, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031163/ebola-virus-requires-phosphatidylinositol-3-5-bisphosphate-production-for-efficient-viral-entry
#12
Shirley Qiu, Anders Leung, Yuxia Bo, Robert A Kozak, Sai Priya Anand, Corina Warkentin, Fabiola D R Salambanga, Jennifer Cui, Gary Kobinger, Darwyn Kobasa, Marceline Côté
For entry, Ebola virus (EBOV) requires the interaction of its viral glycoprotein with the cellular protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) which resides in late endosomes and lysosomes. How EBOV is trafficked and delivered to NPC1 and whether this is positively regulated during entry remain unclear. Here, we show that the PIKfyve-ArPIKfyve-Sac3 cellular complex, which is involved in the metabolism of phosphatidylinositol (3,5) bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2), is critical for EBOV infection. Although the expression of all subunits of the complex was required for efficient entry, PIKfyve kinase activity was specifically critical for entry by all pathogenic filoviruses...
October 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963576/development-and-evaluation-of-a-simple-and-effective-rt-qpcr-inhibitory-assay-for-detection-of-the-efficacy-of-compounds-towards-hiv-reverse-transcriptase
#13
Francesca Marino-Merlo, Caterina Frezza, Emanuela Papaianni, Elena Valletta, Antonio Mastino, Beatrice Macchi
Assessing the actual efficacy of compounds to directly inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) activity is a main goal in preclinical antiretroviral studies. Our previous studies demonstrated that the effects of inhibitor compounds towards HIV-RT could be efficiently assessed through a simple cell-free assay based on conventional reverse transcription PCR. In the present study, we describe a modified variant of our assay, termed RT real-time quantitative PCR inhibitory assay (RT-qPCR-IA), in which the ability of compounds to restrict the complementary DNA (cDNA) generation by HIV-RT using a specific RNA template is performed by the real-time technique, in order to improve both accuracy and sensitivity of the method...
September 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#14
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses along with other emerging influenza viruses continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enable the evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905885/long-term-correction-of-hemophilia-a-mice-following-lentiviral-mediated-delivery-of-an-optimized-canine-factor-viii-gene
#15
J M Staber, M J Pollpeter, C-G Anderson, M Burrascano, A L Cooney, P L Sinn, D T Rutkowski, W C Raschke, P B McCray
Current therapies for hemophilia A include frequent prophylactic or on-demand intravenous factor treatments which are costly, inconvenient and may lead to inhibitor formation. Viral vector delivery of factor VIII (FVIII) cDNA has the potential to alleviate the debilitating clotting defects. Lentiviral-based vectors delivered to murine models of hemophilia A mediate phenotypic correction. However, a limitation of lentiviral-mediated FVIII delivery is inefficient transduction of target cells. Here, we engineer a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) -based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoprotein to mediate efficient gene transfer to mouse hepatocytes...
September 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878084/human-herpesvirus-8-interleukin-6-interacts-with-calnexin-cycle-components-and-promotes-protein-folding
#16
Daming Chen, Qiwang Xiang, John Nicholas
Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835504/attenuated-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-1-expressing-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-f-glycoprotein-from-an-added-gene-effects-of-prefusion-stabilization-and-packaging-of-rsv-f
#17
Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Joan Ngwuta, Xueqiao Liu, Sonja Surman, Matthias Lingemann, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the prefusion (pre-F) conformation by previously described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808690/the-hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion-glycoprotein-is-a-primary-determinant-of-the-exceptional-thermal-and-acid-stability-of-influenza-d-virus
#18
Jieshi Yu, Busha Hika, Runxia Liu, Zizhang Sheng, Ben M Hause, Feng Li, Dan Wang
Influenza D virus (IDV) is unique among four types of influenza viruses in that it utilizes cattle as a primary reservoir. The thermal and acid stability of IDV were examined and directly compared with those of influenza A virus (IAV), influenza B virus (IBV), and influenza C virus (ICV). The results of our experiments demonstrated that only IDV had a high residual infectivity (~2.5 log units of 50% tissue culture infective dose [TCID50]/ml) after a 60-min exposure to 53°C in solution at a neutral pH, and remarkably, IDV retained this infectivity even after exposure to 53°C for 120 min...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721397/hivis-dna-or-hivisopt-dna-priming-followed-by-cmdr-vaccinia-based-boosts-induce-both-humoral-and-cellular-murine-immune-responses-to-hiv
#19
J Hinkula, S Petkov, K Ljungberg, D Hallengärd, A Bråve, M Isaguliants, T Falkeborn, S Sharma, V Liakina, M Robb, M Eller, B Moss, G Biberfeld, E Sandström, C Nilsson, K Markland, P Blomberg, B Wahren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a more effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine it is important optimize the components, improve Envelope glycoprotein immunogenicity as well as to explore prime-boost immunization schedules. It is also valuable to include several HIV-1 subtype antigens representing the world-wide epidemic. METHODS: HIVIS-DNA plasmids which include Env genes of subtypes A, B and C together with Gag subtypes A and B and RTmut/Rev of subtype B were modified as follows: the Envelope sequences were shortened, codon optimized, provided with an FT4 sequence and an immunodominant region mutated...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714909/the-interplay-between-the-host-receptor-and-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#20
REVIEW
Lauren Byrd-Leotis, Richard D Cummings, David A Steinhauer
The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza A virus are responsible for the surface interactions of the virion with the host. Entry of the virus is mediated by functions of the HA: binding to cellular receptors and facilitating fusion of the virion membrane with the endosomal membrane. The HA structure contains receptor binding sites in the globular membrane distal head domains of the trimer, and the fusion machinery resides in the stem region. These sites have specific characteristics associated with subtype and host, and the differences often define species barriers...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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