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Diffusion MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054920/csf-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-white-matter-damage-a-new-perspective-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Anna M Pietroboni, Marta Scarioni, Tiziana Carandini, Paola Basilico, Marcello Cadioli, Giovanni Giulietti, Andrea Arighi, Michela Caprioli, Laura Serra, Clara Sina, Chiara Fenoglio, Laura Ghezzi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Milena A De Riz, Alberto Calvi, Fabio Triulzi, Marco Bozzali, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti
OBJECTIVE: To assess the connection between amyloid pathology and white matter (WM) macrostructural and microstructural damage in demented patients compared with controls. METHODS: Eighty-five participants were recruited: 65 with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment and 20 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) levels were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from all patients and five controls...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054448/brain-ischemia-ct-and-mri-techniques-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Pedro Vilela, Howard A Rowley
Imaging plays a central role for intravenous and intra-arterial arterial ischemic stroke treatment patient selection. Computed tomography (CT) / CT angiography or magnetic resonance (MR) / MR angiography imaging are used to exclude stroke mimics and haemorrhage, to determine the cause and mechanism of stroke, to define the extension of brain infarct and to identify the arterial occlusion. Imaging may identify the patients that will be benefit more from revascularization therapies independently of the conventional therapeutic time window allowing individualized treatment decisions and improving individual patient outcome...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054427/common-brain-networks-for-distinct-deficits-in-visual-neglect-a-combined-structural-and-tractography-mri-approach
#3
Monica N Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054037/director-field-analysis-dfa-exploring-local-white-matter-geometric-structure-in-diffusion-mri
#4
Jian Cheng, Peter J Basser
In Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) or High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI), a tensor field or a spherical function field (e.g., an orientation distribution function field), can be estimated from measured diffusion weighted images. In this paper, inspired by the microscopic theoretical treatment of phases in liquid crystals, we introduce a novel mathematical framework, called Director Field Analysis (DFA), to study local geometric structural information of white matter based on the reconstructed tensor field or spherical function field: (1) We propose a set of mathematical tools to process general director data, which consists of dyadic tensors that have orientations but no direction...
October 11, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#5
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052799/treatment-and-outcome-of-subdural-hematoma-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-a-report-of-35-cases
#6
Enrico Ferrante, Fabio Rubino, Federica Beretta, Caroline Regna-Gladin, M Mirko Ferrante
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is characterized by orthostatic headache, low CSF pressure and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement on brain MRI. SIH results from spontaneous CSF leakage leading to brain sag. Sometimes, tearing of bridging veins may produce subdural hematomas (SDHs). Patients with SDH were identified retrospectively from 212 consecutive SIH patients. Data were collected on demographics, clinical courses, neuroimaging findings, treatment and outcome of SDH. Thirty-five patients (16%), (6 women, 29 men; aged 33-68; mean, 50 years) with SDH were recruited...
October 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051996/diffusion-weighted-mri-stroke-volume-following-recanalization-treatment-is-threshold-dependent
#7
Rani Gupta Sah, Christopher D d'Esterre, Michael D Hill, Moiz Hafeez, Sana Tariq, Nils D Forkert, Andrew M Demchuk, Mayank Goyal, Philip A Barber
PURPOSE: Infarct lesion segmentation has been problematic as there are a wide range of relative and absolute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds that have been used for this purpose. We examined differences of stroke lesion volume and evolution evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the immediate post-treatment phase (<5 h) and at 24 h. METHODS: In this study 33 acute ischemic stroke patients were imaged with MRI <5 h and 24 h post-reperfusion treatment...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051040/on-the-potential-role-of-mri-biomarkers-of-copd-to-guide-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction
#8
Colin J Adams, Dante P I Capaldi, Robert Di Cesare, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe emphysema and poor quality of life, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) may be considered and guided based on lobar emphysema severity. In particular, x-ray computed tomography (CT) emphysema measurements are used to identify the most diseased and the second-most diseased lobes as BLVR targets. Inhaled gas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also provides chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) biomarkers of lobar emphysema and ventilation abnormalities...
October 16, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050345/differential-diagnosis-of-hemangiomas-from-spinal-osteolytic-metastases-using-3-0-t-mri-comparison-of-t1-weighted-imaging-chemical-shift-imaging-diffusion-weighted-and-contrast-enhanced-imaging
#9
Yan-Jie Shi, Xiao-Ting Li, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Yu-Liang Liu, Lei Tang, Ying-Shi Sun
The retrospective study investigated accuracy of quantitative evaluation of T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) with and without fat suppression (FS), chemical-shift, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and enhanced imaging at 3.0 T MRI for distinguishing spinal hemangiomas from metastases. 27 patients with 33 spinal hemangiomas (15 atypical hemangiomas) and 26 patients with 71 metastases were recruited. T1WI, FS T1WI, in- and out-phase, DWI and enhanced T1WI were acquired. Signal intensities (SIs) of lesions were obtained...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050239/application-of-in-vivo-imaging-techniques-to-monitor-therapeutic-efficiency-of-plx4720-in-an-experimental-model-of-microsatellite-instable-colorectal-cancer
#10
Sarah Rohde, Tobias Lindner, Stefan Polei, Jan Stenzel, Luise Borufka, Sophie Achilles, Eric Hartmann, Falko Lange, Claudia Maletzki, Michael Linnebacher, Änne Glass, Sarah Marie Schwarzenböck, Jens Kurth, Alexander Hohn, Brigitte Vollmar, Bernd Joachim Krause, Robert Jaster
OBJECTIVES: Patient-derived tumor cell lines are a powerful tool to analyze the sensitivity of individual tumors to specific therapies in mice. An essential prerequisite for such an approach are reliable quantitative techniques to monitor tumor progression in vivo. METHODS: We have employed HROC24 cells, grown heterotopically in NMRI Foxn1(nu) mice, as a model of microsatellite instable colorectal cancer to investigate the therapeutic efficiencies of 5'-fluorouracil (5'-FU) and the mutant BRAF inhibitor PLX4720, a vemurafenib analogue, by three independent methods: external measurement by caliper, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050160/-value-of-mdixon-quant-sequence-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-quantitatively-diagnosing-the-sacroiliitis-stages
#11
Y Y An, H X Li, Y Zhan, X W Lei
Objective: To evaluate the value of mDIXON-Quant sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in quantitative diagnosing of the sacroiliitis stages in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Based on the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (BASDAI) and laboratory parameters, a total of 51 patients were diagnosed with AS. They were divided into two groups as early active group (n=20) and chronic active group (n=31), and at the same time, 25 healthy people from Tianjin were included as control group...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050159/-value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-differentiating-sellar-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-from-raniopharyngioma
#12
Y F Guo, J L Cheng, Y Zhang, C Y Zhang, W J Wang
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient(ADC) values in the differentiation of sellar malignant germ cell tumors and raniopharyngioma. Methods: This retrospective study included 36 patients(14 cases of malignant germ cell tumor and 22 patients with raniopharyngioma) with histopathologically-confirmed sellar tumors from January 2013 to April 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University.All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI before the treatment...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050119/-feasibility-of-domestic-18-f-dopa-pet-ct-scanning-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-lesions-in-children-with-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia
#13
M Y Zhang, J J Ge, Z Pei, K R Dong, L Chen, X Wang, Z W Zhang, X J Li, L Xi, R Q Cheng, G P Lu, Y H Guan, F H Luo
Objective: To study the feasibility of (18)F-fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/Computed tomography ((18)F-DOPA PET/CT) scanning in the localization and differential diagnosing of focal versus diffuse form of pancreas lesions in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH). Method: Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with HH between January, 2016 and February, 2017 in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University using an integrated clinical and biochemical diagnostic protocol, domestic (18)F-DOPA PET/CT imaging technique were applied after MRI and ultrasound failed to detect pancreas lesions...
October 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049144/the-etiology-of-neuronal-development-in-craniosynostosis-a-working-hypothesis
#14
Eric D Brooks, Joel S Beckett, Jenny Yang, Andrew T Timberlake, Alexander H Sun, Carolyn Chuang, John A Persing
Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial conditions treated by neurologic and plastic surgeons. In addition to disfigurement, children with craniosynostosis experience significant cognitive dysfunction later in life. Surgery is performed in infancy to correct skull deformity; however, the field is at a crossroads regarding the best approach for correction. Since the cause of brain dysfunction in these patients has remained uncertain, the role and type of surgery might have in attenuating the later-observed cognitive deficits through impact on the brain has been unclear...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047975/breast-density-quantification-using-structured-light-based-diffuse-optical-tomography-simulations
#15
Jessica Ruiz, Farouk Nouizi, Jaedu Cho, Jie Zheng, Yifan Li, Jeon-Hor Chen, Min-Ying Su, Gultekin Gulsen
We present the feasibility of structured-light-based diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to quantify the breast density with an extensive simulation study. This study is performed on multiple numerical breast phantoms built from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. These phantoms represent realistic tissue morphologies and are given typical breast optical properties. First, synthetic data are simulated at five wavelengths using our structured-light-based DOT forward problem. Afterwards, the inverse problem is solved to obtain the absorption images and subsequently the chromophore concentration maps...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047121/in-vivo-tracking-of-the-tropism-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-malignant-gliomas-using-reporter-gene-based-mr-imaging
#16
Minghui Cao, Jiaji Mao, Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Fang Zhang, Bingling Lin, Meiwei Chen, Chushan Zheng, Xiang Zhang, Jun Shen
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising cellular vehicle for gene therapy of malignant gliomas due to their property of tumor tropism. However, MSCs may show bidirectional and divergent effects on tumor growth. Therefore, a robust surveillance system with a capacity for noninvasive monitoring of the homing, distribution and fate of stem cells in vivo is highly desired for developing stem cell-based gene therapies for tumors. In this study, we used ferritin gene-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track the tumor tropism of MSCs in a rat orthotopic xenograft model of malignant glioma...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046903/fod-restoration-for-enhanced-mapping-of-white-matter-lesion-connectivity
#17
Wei Sun, Lilyana Amezcua, Yonggang Shi
To achieve improved understanding of white matter (WM) lesions and their effect on brain functions, it is important to obtain a comprehensive map of their connectivity. However, changes of the cellular environment in WM lesions attenuate diffusion MRI (dMRI) signals and make the robust estimation of fiber orientation distributions (FODs) difficult. In this work, we integrate techniques from image inpainting and compartment modeling to develop a novel method for enhancing FOD estimation in WM lesions from multi-shell dMRI, which is becoming increasingly popular with the success of the Human Connectome Project (HCP)...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045185/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-values-of-prostate-cancer-comparison-of-2d-and-3d-rois
#18
Tsutomu Tamada, Chenchan Huang, Justin M Ream, Myles Taffel, Samir S Taneja, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the reproducibility and diagnostic performance of 2D and 3D ROIs for prostate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 56 patients with prostate cancer undergoing 3-T MRI including DWI (b = 50 and 1000 s/mm(2)) before radical prostatectomy. Histologic findings from prostatectomy specimens were reviewed to denote each patient's dominant tumor and a benign region with visually decreased ADC...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044908/tumor-radiomic-heterogeneity-multiparametric-functional-imaging-to-characterize-variability-and-predict-response-following-cervical-cancer-radiation-therapy
#19
Stephen R Bowen, William T C Yuh, Daniel S Hippe, Wei Wu, Savannah C Partridge, Saba Elias, Guang Jia, Zhibin Huang, George A Sandison, Dennis Nelson, Michael V Knopp, Simon S Lo, Paul E Kinahan, Nina A Mayr
BACKGROUND: Robust approaches to quantify tumor heterogeneity are needed to provide early decision support for precise individualized therapy. PURPOSE: To conduct a technical exploration of longitudinal changes in tumor heterogeneity patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT), and their association to radiation therapy (RT) response in cervical cancer...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044896/support-vector-machine-for-breast-cancer-classification-using-diffusion-weighted-mri-histogram-features-preliminary-study
#20
Igor Vidić, Liv Egnell, Neil P Jerome, Jose R Teruel, Torill E Sjøbakk, Agnes Østlie, Hans E Fjøsne, Tone F Bathen, Pål Erik Goa
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is currently one of the fastest developing MRI-based techniques in oncology. Histogram properties from model fitting of DWI are useful features for differentiation of lesions, and classification can potentially be improved by machine learning. PURPOSE: To evaluate classification of malignant and benign tumors and breast cancer subtypes using support vector machine (SVM). STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Fifty-one patients with benign (n = 23) and malignant (n = 28) breast tumors (26 ER+, whereof six were HER2+)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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