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Diffusion MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909586/fractal-dimension-brain-morphometry-a-novel-approach-to-quantify-white-matter-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909182/diffuse-axonal-injury-dai-in-moderate-to-severe-head-injured-patients-pure-dai-vs-non-pure-dai
#2
Moinay Kim, Jae Sung Ahn, Wonhyoung Park, Suk Kyung Hong, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sung Woo Roh, Seungjoo Lee
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is known to be associated with poor outcome. DAI often associates with other intracranial injuries but their distinct features have not been established. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared clinical outcomes between pure and non-pure DAI patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total of 1047 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients visited our institute between 2011 and 2017. Age ranged between 15-85 years old and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score less than 13 were included...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908936/white-matter-connectivity-between-occipital-and-temporal-regions-involved-in-face-and-voice-processing-in-hearing-and-early-deaf-individuals
#3
Stefania Benetti, Lisa Novello, Chiara Maffei, Giuseppe Rabini, Jorge Jovicich, Olivier Collignon
Neuroplasticity following sensory deprivation has long inspired neuroscience research in the quest of understanding how sensory experience and genetics interact in developing the brain functional and structural architecture. Many studies have shown that sensory deprivation can lead to cross-modal functional recruitment of sensory deprived cortices. Little is known however about how structural reorganization may support these functional changes. In this study, we examined early deaf, hearing signer and hearing non-signer individuals using diffusion MRI to evaluate the potential structural connectivity linked to the functional recruitment of the temporal voice area by face stimuli in deaf individuals...
June 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908348/accuracy-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques-for-parotid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ying-Ying Liang, Fan Xu, Yuan Guo, Jin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the added benefit of combining different MRI techniques for preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors when compared to conventional MRI and advanced MRI techniques alone with meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive PubMed electronic database search was performed for original diagnostic studies up to July 2017. The methodologic quality of each study was evaluated by two independent reviewers who used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908220/an-automated-multiparametric-mri-quantitative-imaging-prostate-habitat-risk-scoring-system-for-defining-external-beam-radiotherapy-boost-volumes
#5
Radka Stoyanova, Felix Chinea, Deukwoo Kwon, Isildinha M Reis, Yohann Tschudi, Nestor A Parra, Adrian L Breto, Kyle R Padgett, Alan Dal Pra, Matthew C Abramowitz, Oleksandr N Kryvenko, Sanoj Punnen, Alan Pollack
PURPOSE: To develop a prostate tumor habitat risk scoring (HRS) system based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) referenced to prostatectomy Gleason Score (GS) for automatic delineation of Gross Tumor Volumes (GTVs). A workflow for integration of HRS into radiotherapy (RT) boost volume dose escalation was developed in the framework of a Phase II randomized clinical trial (BLaStM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An automated quantitative mpMRI based 10 point pixel by pixel method was optimized to prostatectomy GSs and volumes using referenced Dynamic Contrast Enhanced and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient sequences...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906284/multi-parametric-quantitative-mri-reveals-three-different-white-matter-subtypes
#6
Jack R Foucher, Olivier Mainberger, Julien Lamy, Mathieu D Santin, Alexandre Vignaud, Mathilde M Roser, Paulo L de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows slight spatial variations in brain white matter (WM). We used quantitative multi-parametric MRI to evaluate in what respect these inhomogeneities could correspond to WM subtypes with specific characteristics and spatial distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six controls (12 women, 38 ±9 Y) took part in a 60-min session on a 3T scanner measuring 7 parameters: R1 and R2, diffusion tensor imaging which allowed to measure Axial and Radial Diffusivity (AD, RD), magnetization transfer imaging which enabled to compute the Macromolecular Proton Fraction (MPF), and a susceptibility-weighted sequence which permitted to quantify R2* and magnetic susceptibility (χm)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905844/robotic-assisted-mri-guided-interventional-interstitial-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-ablation-in-a-swine-model
#7
Jacquelyn MacDonell, Niravkumar Patel, Gregory Fischer, E Clif Burdette, Jiang Qian, Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Goutam Ghoshal, Tamas Heffter, Emery Williams, Matthew Gounis, Robert King, Juliette Thibodeau, Gene Bogdanov, Olivia W Brooks, Erin Langan, Roy Hwang, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Ablative lesions are current treatments for epilepsy and brain tumors. Interstitial magnetic resonance (MR) guided focused ultrasound (iMRgFUS) may be an alternate ablation technique which limits thermal tissue charring as compared to laser therapy (LITT) and can produce larger ablation patterns nearer the surface than transcranial MR guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS). OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with interstitial focused ultrasound (iFUS) ablations in swine, using MR-guided robotically assisted (MRgRA) delivery...
June 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905159/atypical-postictal-transient-subcortical-t2-hypointensity-in-a-newly-diagnosed-diabetic-patient-with-seizures
#8
Matteo Paoletti, Ana Bacila, Anna Pichiecchio, Lisa Maria Farina, Elisa Rognone, Riccardo Cremascoli, Simona Fanucchi, Raffaele Manni, Stefano Bastianello
Common postictal MRI findings include transient cortical T2 hyperintensity, restricted diffusion, and gyral and/or adjacent leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. In certain uncommon pathological conditions, other signal abnormalities can be present, suggesting a different underlying pathogenic mechanism. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2, presenting with new-onset visual and auditory hallucinations, "absence" seizures, and repeated peaks of hyperglycaemia without hyperketonaemia or increased serum osmolarity...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904242/noninvasive-imaging-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-diagnosis-to-prognosis
#9
REVIEW
Han-Yu Jiang, Jie Chen, Chun-Chao Xia, Li-Kun Cao, Ting Duan, Bin Song
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and a major public health problem worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process at molecular, cellular, and histologic levels with key alterations that can be revealed by noninvasive imaging modalities. Therefore, imaging techniques play pivotal roles in the detection, characterization, staging, surveillance, and prognosis evaluation of HCC. Currently, ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for screening and surveillance purposes...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903441/conventional-mri
#10
Filippo Arrigoni, Sonia Calloni, Thierry A G M Huisman, Luisa Chiapparini
Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a detailed noninvasive visualization/examination of posterior fossa structures and represents a fundamental step in the diagnostic workup of many cerebellar disorders. In the first part of this chapter methodologic issues, like the correct choice of hardware (magnets, coils), pro and cons of the different MRI sequences, and patient management during the examination are discussed. In the second part, the MRI anatomy of the cerebellum, as noted on the various conventional MRI sequences, as well as a detailed description of cerebellar maturational processes from birth to childhood and into adulthood, are reported...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902075/the-diagnostic-value-of-combining-conventional-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-for-salivary-gland-tumors
#11
Ning Zheng, Rui Li, Wenjuan Liu, Shuo Shao, Shan Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic value of combining conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in salivary gland tumors. METHODS: Forty-five patients with salivary gland tumors were evaluated with conventional MRI, DWI and DCE-MRI prior to surgery and confirmed by pathologic findings. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated from DWI that was obtained with a factor of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . A time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained from DCE-MRI...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901639/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-after-blood-transfusion-presents-callosal-disconnection-syndrome-a-case-report
#12
Xinxin Ma, Wen Su, Haibo Chen
RATIONALE: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a reversible condition with an excellent prognosis in most patients. The clinical features include altered states of consciousness, delirium, headache, and seizures, but no callosal disconnection syndromes have been described in RESLES. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented a 57-year-old patient with alien hand syndrome, autotopagnosia, gait disorders, and left ideomotor apraxia after blood transfusion. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a few regions with high signal intensity in the genu, body, and splenium of the right corpus callosum on diffusion weighted images...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901574/paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-associated-with-cerebellar-hypermetabolism-case-report
#13
Ammar Taha Abdullah Abdulaziz, Xiao Qing Yu, Le Zhang, Xin Yue Jiang, Dong Zhou, Jin Mei Li
RATIONALE: Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is an immune-mediated neurological deficit affecting the cerebellum. Anti-Yo antibody positive PCD is a rare occurrence most likely associated with gynecologic or breast malignancies. The identification of the underlying tumor is a diagnostic challenge in many of these patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 68-year-old woman with acute symptoms of PCD as a first sign of underlying occult malignancy. Further investigation revealed a positive anti-Yo antibody...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900085/target-volume-delineation-using-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-mr-guided-radiotherapy-a-case-series-of-laryngeal-cancer-validated-by-pathology
#14
Hans Ligtenberg, Tim Schakel, Jan Willem Dankbaar, Lilian N Ruiter, Boris Peltenburg, Stefan M Willems, Nicolien Kasperts, Chris H J Terhaard, Cornelis P J Raaijmakers, Marielle E P Philippens
In radiotherapy treatment planning, tumor delineation based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique. MR-only-based target definition becomes important with the recent development of MRI integrated radiotherapy treatment modalities. In this case series, DWI-based gross tumor volume (GTV) was validated using pathology and compared with a clinical GTV based on computed tomography (CT) imaging and MRI. This case series includes three patients with a laryngeal tumor...
April 11, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899853/diffusion-weighted-mri-in-the-evaluation-of-the-thyroid-nodule-comparison-between-integrated-shimming-epi-and-conventional-3d-shimming-epi-techniques
#15
Luguang Chen, Peipei Sun, Qiang Hao, Wei Yin, Bing Xu, Chao Ma, Alto Stemmer, Caixia Fu, Minjie Wang, Jianping Lu
This study aimed to evaluate whether a prototype echo planar imaging sequence with integrated-shimming (iShim-EPI) can improve image quality in the thyroid gland in comparison to 3D-volume shimming echo planar imaging (3D-Shim-EPI), and to compare ADC values derived from iShim-EPI with those of 3D-Shim-EPI. Twenty-one patients with thyroid disease were enrolled and underwent axial DWIs with iShim-EPI and 3D-Shim-EPI using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner in this prospective study. Both sets of DWI images were evaluated by two independent observers who identified susceptibility and ghost artifacts and evaluated the images' capacity to detect thyroid nodules using quantitative scores...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899773/phenylketonuria-our-experience-in-nine-years-at-a-tertiary-level-referral-institute
#16
Sadanandvalli R Chandra, Rita Christopher, Mane M Daryappa, Rashmi Devaraj
Introduction: Phenyl ketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting in excessive phenyl alanine levels in blood resulting in a spectrum of neurological defects. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively went through the records of patients diagnosed as Phenyl ketonuria in the last nine years in our team and patients who's data could be accessed were analyzed in detail. Details of laboratory tests, imaging clinical features, course were recorded. Observation: A total of 32 patients were identified in nine years of which data was available only for 15 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899170/development-of-a-surface-marker-for-fractional-anisotropy-maps-using-wood-in-a-phantom-study
#17
Masashi Suzuki, Atsushi Senoo, Mamoru Niitsu
PURPOSE: To improve imaging, a reliable setup method is critical for the accurate localization of lesions and surface markers. Because an anisotropic marker has not yet been validated for MRI, direct localization of surface markers is not yet feasible in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps. This study aimed to develop an anisotropic surface marker using wood for an FA map and to determine whether a wood marker is useful for various sequences. METHODS: Wood infiltrated with water was used to develop an anisotropic surface marker...
June 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897555/linked-4-way-multimodal-brain-differences-in-schizophrenia-in-a-large-chinese-han-population
#18
Shengfeng Liu, Haiying Wang, Ming Song, Luxian Lv, Yue Cui, Yong Liu, Lingzhong Fan, Nianming Zuo, Kaibin Xu, Yuhui Du, Qingbao Yu, Na Luo, Shile Qi, Jian Yang, Sangma Xie, Jian Li, Jun Chen, Yunchun Chen, Huaning Wang, Hua Guo, Ping Wan, Yongfeng Yang, Peng Li, Lin Lu, Hao Yan, Jun Yan, Huiling Wang, Hongxing Zhang, Dai Zhang, Vince D Calhoun, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui
Multimodal fusion has been regarded as a promising tool to discover covarying patterns of multiple imaging types impaired in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia (SZ). In this article, we aim to investigate the covarying abnormalities underlying SZ in a large Chinese Han population (307 SZs, 298 healthy controls [HCs]). Four types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) from resting-state functional MRI, gray matter volume (GM) from structural MRI, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion MRI, and functional network connectivity (FNC) resulted from group independent component analysis, were jointly analyzed by a data-driven multivariate fusion method...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897043/early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-myoclonic-seizures-related-to-9q33-3-q34-11-deletion-involving-stxbp1-and-sptan1-genes
#19
Akilandeswari Aravindhan, Kinal Shah, Jayoung Pak, Aravindhan Veerapandiyan
We describe a 10-month-old boy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy who was found to have a hemizygous deletion in 9q33.3-q34.11 involving STXBP1 and SPTAN1 genes. He presented at the age of 2.5 months with frequent upper extremity myoclonus, hypotonia, and facial dysmorphisms. Interictal EEG showed multifocal polyspike and wave during wakefulness and sleep. Ictal EEG revealed low-amplitude generalized sharp slow activity, followed by diffuse attenuation. Metabolic testing was unrevealing. Brain MRI showed thinning of the corpus callosum with an absence of rostrum...
June 12, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896520/a-comprehensive-diffusion-mri-dataset-acquired-on-the-mgh-connectome-scanner-in-a-biomimetic-brain-phantom
#20
Qiuyun Fan, Aapo Nummenmaa, Barbara Wichtmann, Thomas Witzel, Choukri Mekkaoui, Walter Schneider, Lawrence L Wald, Susie Y Huang
We provide a comprehensive diffusion MRI dataset acquired with a novel biomimetic phantom mimicking human white matter. The fiber substrates in the diffusion phantom were constructed from hollow textile axons ("taxons") with an inner diameter of 11.8±1.2 µm and outer diameter of 33.5±2.3 µm. Data were acquired on the 3 T CONNECTOM MRI scanner with multiple diffusion times and multiple q-values per diffusion time, which is a dedicated acquisition for validation of microstructural imaging methods, such as compartment size and volume fraction mapping...
June 2018: Data in Brief
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