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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919863/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-is-slower-in-swimming-than-arm-cranking-and-cycling-during-heavy-intensity
#1
Ana Sousa, Fabio Borrani, Ferran A Rodríguez, Grégoire P Millet
Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics has been reported to be influenced by the activity mode. However, only few studies have compared [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics between activities in the same subjects in which they were equally trained. Therefore, this study compared the [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics response to swimming, arm cranking, and cycling within the same group of subjects within the heavy exercise intensity domain. Ten trained male triathletes (age 23.2 ± 4.5 years; height 180.8 ± 8...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900401/development-and-testing-of-a-novel-arm-cranking-powered-watercraft
#2
Thomas Fuglsang, Johnny Padulo, Massimo Spoladore, Michele Dalla Piazza, Luca P Ardigò
There is a lack of human-powered watercrafts for people with lower-body disabilities. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop a watercraft for disabled people and investigate the metabolic cost and efficiency when pedaling. The watercraft was designed by combining parts of a waterbike and a handbike. Nine able-bodied subjects pedaled the watercraft at different speeds on a lake to provide steady-state metabolic measurements, and a deceleration test was performed to measure the hydrodynamic resistance of the watercraft...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813880/series-elastic-actuation-of-an-elbow-rehabilitation-exoskeleton-with-axis-misalignment-adaptation
#3
Kuan-Yi Wu, Yin-Yu Su, Ying-Lung Yu, Kuei-You Lin, Chao-Chieh Lan
Powered exoskeletons can facilitate rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities. Designs using rotary motors usually result in bulky exoskeletons to reduce the problem of moving inertia. This paper presents a new linearly actuated elbow exoskeleton that consists of a slider crank mechanism and a linear motor. The linear motor is placed beside the upper arm and closer to shoulder joint. Thus better inertia properties can be achieved while lightweight and compactness are maintained. A passive joint is introduced to compensate for the exoskeleton-elbow misalignment and intersubject size variation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800004/sport-specific-repeated-sprint-training-improves-punching-ability-and-upper-body-aerobic-power-in-experienced-amateur-boxers
#4
Sigitas Kamandulis, Vidas Bruzas, Pranas Mockus, Alvydas Stasiulis, Audrius Snieckus, Tomas Venckunas
High-intensity interval training improves endurance and performance, but it is unclear whether sprint-type upper-body interval training is similarly effective. This study explored the effects of 4-week sport-specific sprint interval training on punch characteristics and endurance capacity in boxers. Experienced male amateur boxers (n = 18) participated in this 4-week training study, and were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (n = 9 per group). Both groups completed standard low-intensity training...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790922/exercise-preserves-lean-mass-and-performance-during-severe-energy-deficit-the-role-of-exercise-volume-and-dietary-protein-content
#5
Jose A L Calbet, Jesús G Ponce-González, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Alfredo Santana, David Morales-Alamo, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753161/impact-of-exercise-on-cardiometabolic-component-risks-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans
#6
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Dylan Thompson, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology, characterised by low levels of habitual physical activity and an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to assess the impact of a moderate-intensity upper-body exercise training intervention on, biomarkers of cardiometabolic component risks, adipose tissue metabolism and cardiorespiratory fitness in persons with SCI. METHODS: Twenty-one inactive men and women with chronic (>1 year) SCI (all paraplegic injuries), aged 47 ± 8 years (mean ± S...
July 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729389/severe-energy-deficit-up-regulates-leptin-receptors-leptin-signaling-and-ptp1b-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Alfredo Santana, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Jose A L Calbet
In obesity, leptin receptors (OBR) and leptin signaling in skeletal muscle are down-regulated. To determine whether OBR and leptin signaling are up-regulated with a severe energy deficit fifteen overweight men were assessed before (PRE), after 4 days of caloric restriction (3.2 Kcal/kg BW/day) in combination with prolonged exercise (CRE) (8h walking + 45min single-arm cranking/day) to induce an energy deficit of ~5500 Kcal/d, and following 3 days of control diet (isoenergetic) and reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the diet consisted solely of whey protein (n=8) or sucrose (n=7) (0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#8
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637143/validity-and-reliability-of-an-activity-monitor-to-quantify-arm-movements-and-activity-in-adults-following-distal-radius-fracture
#9
Andrea M Bruder, Jodie A McClelland, Nora Shields, Karen J Dodd, Raphael Hau, Alexander T M van de Water, Nicholas F Taylor
PURPOSE: To examine the validity and reliability of an activity monitor to estimate upper limb activity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults after distal radial fracture were recruited. 15 adults performed five upper limb activities during two testing sessions, one week apart to investigate criterion validity against the criterion reference of three-dimensional motion analysis, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability. 17 adults in two therapy groups wore monitors for three consecutive days at baseline and six weeks post-intervention...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630580/the-effect-of-upper-body-anaerobic-pre-loading-on-2000-m-ergometer-rowing-performance-in-college-level-male-rowers
#10
Priit Purge, Peter Hofmann, Rait Merisaar, Alexander Mueller, Gerhard Tschakert, Jarek Mäestu, Jaak Jürimäe
Elevated blood lactate has been shown to influence subsequent anaerobic exercise due to an inhibition of glycolysis. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the influence of a short and high-intensity anaerobic arm crank pre-load exercise (HIE) added to a low-intensity warm-up on cardio-respiratory and metabolic responses on a subsequent all out rowing exercise. Nine well-trained college level male rowers (24.6 ± 7.1 yrs; 1.87 ± 0.07 m; 88.9 ± 9.8 kg; 18.5 ± 3.7% body fat) volunteered to participate in the study...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570491/effects-of-a-6-week-upper-extremity-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training-on-oxygen-uptake-peak-power-output-and-total-exercise-time
#11
Nicole Pinto, James W Salassi, Ayla Donlin, Jan Schroeder, Ralph Rozenek
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of upper extremity (UE) high intensity interval training (HIIT) to UE continuous training (CT) when training at a similar intensity. 20 participants (mean age = 23 ± 3 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT (n = 10) or CT (n = 10) group. Participants completed a graded exercise test utilizing arm cranking prior to and following 6 wks (2 sessions · wk-1) of UE training. During sessions, HIIT performed 10 repetitions of 60 s of work at 92.3 ± 1.0% of the arm HRpeak (%aHRpeak) and 60 s of passive recovery (%aHRpeak = 73...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410868/quantifying-cardiorespiratory-responses-resulting-from-speed-and-slope-increments-during-motorized-treadmill-propulsion-among-manual-wheelchair-users
#12
Cindy Gauthier, Murielle Grangeon, Ludivine Ananos, Rachel Brosseau, Dany H Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment and training among manual wheelchair (MW) users are predominantly done with an arm-crank ergometer. However, arm-crank ergometer biomechanics differ substantially from MW propulsion biomechanics. This study aimed to quantify cardiorespiratory responses resulting from speed and slope increments during MW propulsion on a motorized treadmill and to calculate a predictive equation based on speed and slope for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in MW users...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381448/central-command-increases-muscular-oxygenation-of-the-non-exercising-arm-at-the-early-period-of-voluntary-one-armed-cranking
#13
Kei Ishii, Kanji Matsukawa, Ryota Asahara, Nan Liang, Kana Endo, Mitsuhiro Idesako, Kensuke Michioka, Yu Sasaki, Hironobu Hamada, Kaori Yamashita, Tae Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Kataoka, Makoto Takahashi
This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378071/can-intervals-enhance-the-inflammatory-response-and-enjoyment-in-upper-body-exercise
#14
Sven P Hoekstra, Nicolette C Bishop, Christof A Leicht
PURPOSE: To investigate the inflammatory and perceptual responses to three different forms of upper-body exercise. METHODS: Twelve recreationally active, able-bodied males performed three work-matched arm-crank sessions in a randomised order: 30 min moderate-intensity continuous (CON), 30 min moderate-intensity with changes in cadence (CAD) and 20 min high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Blood samples were taken pre, post and 2-h post-exercise to determine plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ra...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350415/anaerobic-exercise-testing-in-rehabilitation-a-systematic-review-of-available-tests-and-protocols
#15
REVIEW
Leonie A Krops, Trijntje Albada, Lucas H V van der Woude, Juha M Hijmans, Rienk Dekker
OBJECTIVE: Anaerobic capacity assessment in rehabilitation has received increasing scientific attention in recent years. However, anaerobic capacity is not tested consistently in clinical rehabilitation practice. This study reviews tests and protocols for anaerobic capacity in adults with various disabilities (spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, cerebral vascular accident, lower-limb amputation(s)) and (able-bodied) wheelchair users. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288012/influence-of-upper-body-exercise-on-the-fatigability-of-human-respiratory-muscles
#16
Nicholas B Tiller, Ian G Campbell, Lee M Romer
PURPOSE: Diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to contractile fatigue in response to high-intensity, whole-body exercise. This study assessed whether the ventilatory and mechanical loads imposed by high-intensity, upper-body exercise would be sufficient to elicit respiratory muscle fatigue. METHODS: Seven healthy men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yr, peak O2 uptake [V˙O2peak] = 31.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg·min) performed asynchronous arm-crank exercise to exhaustion at work rates equivalent to 30% (heavy) and 60% (severe) of the difference between gas exchange threshold and V˙O2peak...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286201/arm-cranking-exercise-training-reduces-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Masahiro Horiuchi, Koichi Okita
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of arm-cranking exercise training on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a risk factor of deep vein thrombosis, along with general physical parameters such as, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and hemodynamics, in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and control. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. INTERVENTION: Community-based supervised intervention. PARTICIPANTS: Nine individuals with SCI volunteered for this study...
March 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282757/increasing-heat-storage-by-wearing-extra-clothing-during-upper-body-exercise-up-regulates-heat-shock-protein-70-but-does-not-modify-the-cytokine-response
#18
Christof A Leicht, Aris Papanagopoulos, Sam Haghighat, Steve H Faulkner
Plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations rise during heat stress, which can independently induce cytokine production. Upper body exercise normally results in modest body temperature elevations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of additional clothing on the body temperature, cytokine and HSP70 responses during this exercise modality. Thirteen males performed 45-min constant-load arm cranking at 63% maximum aerobic power (62 ± 7%V̇O2peak) in either a non-permeable whole-body suit (intervention, INT) or shorts and T-shirt (control, CON)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277406/comparable-neutrophil-responses-for-arm-and-intensity-matched-leg-exercise
#19
Christof A Leicht, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Nicolette C Bishop
INTRODUCTION: Arm exercise is performed at lower absolute intensities than lower body exercise. This may impact on intensity-dependent neutrophil responses, and it is unknown whether individuals restricted to arm exercise experience the same changes in the neutrophil response as found for lower body exercise. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the importance of exercise modality and relative exercise intensity on the neutrophil response. METHODS: Twelve moderately trained men performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak arms) and cycling (V˙O2peak legs): 1) arm cranking exercise at 60% V˙O2peak arms, 2) moderate cycling at 60% V˙O2peak legs, and 3) easy cycling at 60% V˙O2peak arms...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268718/a-new-crank-arm-based-load-cell-with-built-in-conditioning-circuit-and-strain-gages-to-measure-the-components-of-the-force-applied-by-a-cyclist
#20
Andre V Pigatto, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot
This report describes the development of a force platform based on instrumented load cells with built-in conditioning circuit and strain gages to measure and acquire the components of the force that is applied to the bike crank arm during pedaling in real conditions, and save them on a SD Card. To accomplish that, a complete new crank arm 3D solid model was developed in the SolidWorks, with dimensions equivalent to a commercial crank set and compatible with a conventional road bike, but with a compartment to support all the electronics necessary to measure 3 components of the force applied to the pedal during pedaling...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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