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Davis A Forman, Mark Richards, Garrick N Forman, Michael W R Holmes, Kevin E Power
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of neutral and pronated handgrip positions on corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii during arm cycling. Corticospinal and spinal excitability were assessed using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cervicomedullary-evoked potentials (CMEPs) elicited via transmastoid electrical stimulation (TMES), respectively. Participants were seated upright in front on arm cycle ergometer. Responses were recorded from the biceps brachii at two different crank positions (6 and 12 o'clock positions relative to a clock face) while arm cycling with neutral and pronated handgrip positions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Halil Akkurt, Hale Uzumcugil Karapolat, Yesim Kirazli, Timur Kose
BACKGROUND: Immobility and secondary complications, including cardiopulmonary disease, pressure ulcers, and pain, occur in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). These patients also have difficulty coping with the strain of daily activities. Thus, it is important for SCI patients to engage in aerobic exercise in order to be able to cope adequately with the strain of activities and SCI-related complications. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm aerobic exercise on the parameters of cardiopulmonary function, quality of life, degree of disability, psychological state, and metabolic syndrome...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Manon At Bloemen, Tim Takken, Frank Jg Backx, Marleen Vos, Cas Ljj Kruitwagen, Janke F de Groot
OBJECTIVE: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). DESIGN: Clinimetric study SETTING: Rehabilitation centers, SB outpatient services, private practices PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 53 children (5-19 years, 32 boys / 21 girls) with SB who use a manual wheelchair...
September 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Saeed Davoudabadi Farahani, Mikhail Svinin, Michael Skipper Andersen, Mark de Zee, John Rasmussen
This paper deals with the analysis of human arm movement in a crank-rotation task that is an example of environmentally constrained movements. Opening a door, rotating a steering wheel, and pushing a carriage are other typical examples of movements where the physical constraints, imposed on the hand position/orientation, influence the joint angles of the shoulder and the elbow. To predict kinematic and kinetic patterns for human arm movement in crank-rotation tasks, we use an optimization-based technique. The method enables dynamic prediction of closed-chain movements and force exertion using inverse dynamics musculoskeletal simulation...
June 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, James E Turner, Dylan Thompson, James L J Bilzon
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology that can lead to an increase in sedentary behaviours and deleterious changes in body composition. Consequently, individuals with SCI are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus. While the role of physical activity on the reduction of chronic disease risk is well documented in non-disabled individuals the evidence is less conclusive for persons with SCI. The aim of this methodological paper is to outline the design of a study that will assess the role of a home-based exercise intervention on biomarkers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in persons with SCI: the HOMEX-SCI study...
2016: Trials
Mathieu Menard, Mathieu Domalain, Arnaud Decatoire, Patrick Lacouture
Besides its regulation by Union Cycliste Internationale, the evidence relating saddle setback to pedalling performance remains inconclusive. This study investigates the influence of saddle setback on pedalling effectiveness through two indexes: an index of pedalling force effectiveness and an index of pedalling work effectiveness. Eleven cyclists were assessed six saddle setback conditions while pedalling at a steady power output of 200 W and cadence of 90 rpm. A force sensor was integrated within the seat post to compute the centre of pressure on the saddle...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Tom Tørhaug, Berit Brurok, Jan Hoff, Jan Helgerud, Gunnar Leivseth
Objective. To study whether values for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and work economy (WE) at a standardized workload are different when tested by arm crank ergometry (ACE) and wheelchair ergometry (WCE). Methods. Twelve paraplegic men with spinal cord injury (SCI) in stable neurological condition participated in this cross-sectional repeated-measures study. We determined VO2peak and peak power output (POpeak) values during ACE and WCE in a work-matched protocol. Work economy was tested at a standardized workload of 30 Watts (W) for both ACE and WCE...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: was to investigate the effect of short-term period, moderate intensity and high volume endurance training on physiological variables in elite wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Eight wheelchair basketball players were examined. The subjects participated in a two-week intervention program of mainly two training types: wheelchair basketball and wheelchair driving endurance training. The subjects performed the continuously increasing cycling exercise (CCE) at the constant 60 rpm arm cranking speed at the beginning of the program and after two weeks of the program...
March 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
James G Wrightson, Rosie Twomey, Nicholas J Smeeton
PURPOSE: Observation of a model performing fast exercise improves simultaneous exercise performance; however, the precise mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the speed of the observed exercise influenced both upper body exercise performance and the activation of a cortical action observation network (AON). METHOD: In Experiment 1, 10 participants completed a 5 km time trial on an arm-crank ergometer whilst observing a blank screen (no-video) and a model performing exercise at both a typical (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joelle Leonie Flueck, Martina Lienert, Fabienne Schaufelberger, Jörg Krebs, Claudio Perret
The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation on 3-min all-out arm crank exercise performance in paraplegic (P) and tetraplegic (T) compared with able-bodied (AB) participants. A placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind study design was chosen to investigate the differences between caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLC). In total, 34 healthy, trained participants were tested. Seventeen were AB (median [minimum; maximum] VO2peak: 33.9 mL/min/kg [23.6; 57.6]), 10 were P (VO2peak: 34...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jolanta Marszalek, Bartosz Molik, Miguel Angel Gomez, Kęstutis Skučas, Judit Lencse-Mucha, Witold Rekowski, Vaida Pokvytyte, Izabela Rutkowska, Kalina Kaźmierska-Kowalewska
The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense...
November 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
Christopher R Harnish, Jonathan A Daniels, Deborah Caruso
Objective To review the outcome of 12 weeks of periodized, high-intensity interval training (HIT) in a man with chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A 42-year-old man (180 cm tall, 68.4 kg and 32.0% Fat) with a C8/T1 motor complete SCI took part in 12 weeks of 3 days per week arm crank ergometry (ACE) interval training. Training consisted of a combination of HIT that included three times 5  min at ∼70% Peak Power (WPeak) and 5  min recovery (HIT5); four times 2.5  min at ∼85% WPeak and 5  min recovery (HIT2...
January 18, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Christof A Leicht, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Nicolette C Bishop
INTRODUCTION: The amount of active muscle mass can influence the acute inflammatory response to exercise, associated with reduced risk for chronic disease. This may affect those restricted to upper body exercise, for example, due to injury or disability. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory responses for arm exercise and intensity-matched leg exercise. METHODS: Twelve male individuals performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak A) and cycling (V˙O2peak C): 1) arm cranking exercise at 60% V˙O2peak A, 2) moderate cycling at 60% V˙O2peak C, and 3) easy cycling at 60% V˙O2peak A...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Valle-Casas Omar, Dalazen Rafael, Cene Vinicius, Balbinot Alexandre
Developing of instrumentation systems for sport medicine is a promising area, that's why this research evaluates the design of a new instrumented crank arm prototype for a race bicycle projecting an experiment for indoor - outdoor comparison. This study investigated the viability of an instrumentation 3D load cell for force measurement crank, implementing a design of experiment. A Complete factorial design experiment was developed for data validation, with an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) throwing significant results for controlled factors with response variables rms, mean and variance...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
M A Johnson, G R Sharpe, N C Williams, R Hannah
This study examined the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise tolerance and associated changes in neuromuscular function and perceptual responses. Eight men performed three fixed work-rate (85% peak power) cycling tests: 1) to the limit of tolerance (CYC); 2) to the limit of tolerance after prior high-intensity arm-cranking exercise (ARM-CYC); and 3) without prior exercise and for an equal duration as ARM-CYC (ISOTIME). Peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force during supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Thomas A Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Christof A Leicht, Nicolette C Bishop
This original study investigated the effect of submaximal exercise intensity and volume of contracting muscle mass on plasma inflammation-mediating cytokine and perceived exertional responses to acute arm-crank ergometry (ACE). Twelve recreationally active but upper limb untrained males performed 30 min of (i) low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) ACE (LOW); (ii) moderate-intensity (60% peak oxygen uptake) ACE (MOD); and (iii) concurrent low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) ACE plus lower limb cycle ergometry to match total power output in MOD (HYB)...
August 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Joelle Leonie Flueck, Martina Liener, Fabienne Schaufelberger, Jörg Krebs, Claudio Perret
The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation on 3-min all-out arm crank exercise performance in paraplegic (P) and tetraplegic (T) compared with able-bodied (AB) participants. A placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind study design was chosen to investigate the differences between caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLC). In total, 34 healthy, trained participants were tested. Seventeen were AB (median [minimum; maximum] VO2peak: 33.9 mL/min/kg [23.6; 57.6]), 10 were P (VO2peak: 34...
December 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Carl J Ade, Ryan M Broxterman, Jesse C Craig, Susanna J Schlup, Samuel L Wilcox, Thomas J Barstow
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise capacity provides information regarding cardiorespiratory health and physical capacity. However, in many populations the ability to measure whole-body or leg aerobic exercise capacity is limited due to physical disability or lack of appropriate equipment. Clinically there is a need to evaluate aerobic capacity in individuals who cannot use their legs for locomotion. In astronauts the habitable space for exercise testing in the next generation of space exploration systems may be restricted and may not support the traditional lower body testing...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
J L Flueck, M Lienert, F Schaufelberger, C Perret
The 3-min all-out test is a well-established exercise test developed for cycling ergometry. However, no such test exists in arm cranking. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of a 3-min all-out exercise test on an arm crank ergometer. 21 healthy participants (9 male and 12 female, age 34±11 years, body mass 69.6±11.1 kg and height 175.5±6.9 cm) twice performed a 3-min all-out exercise test on an arm crank ergometer separated by 7 days. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), fatigue index (FI), time to peak (TTP) and total work (TW) were assessed to detect test-retest reliability...
October 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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