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Jobbe P L Leenen, Judith E K R Hentzen, Henrietta D L Ockhuijsen
It has been a standard practice to perform mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) prior to colorectal surgery to reduce the risk of colorectal anastomotic leakages (CAL). The latest Cochrane systematic review suggests there is no benefit for MBP in terms of decreasing CAL, but new studies have been published. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to update current evidence for the effectiveness of preoperative MBP on CAL in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL and CINAHL were searched from 2010 to March 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared the effects of MBP in colorectal surgery on anastomotic leakages...
March 21, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Will Davies
The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) symposium brings together representatives from academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, technology companies and charitable organisations from across the globe for an annual summit, discussing ongoing research and the latest developments in precision medicine. Now, in its seventh year, the aims of the WIN consortium's annual meeting, to foster communication and collaboration between members and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients are presented in open dialogue to encourage debate and discussion...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
Matteo Capobussi, Rita Banzi, Lorenzo Moja, Stefanos Bonovas, Marien González-Lorenzo, Elisa Giulia Liberati, Hernan Polo Friz, Oriana Nanni, Massimo Mangia, Francesca Ruggiero
INTRODUCTION: One of the aims of Evidence-Based Medicine is to improve quality and appropriateness of care by the expedition of the knowledge transfer process. Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) are computer programs that provide alerts to the prescribing doctor directly at the moment of medical examination. In fact, alerts are integrated within the single patient electronic health record. CDSS based on the best available and updated evidence and guidelines may be an efficient tool to facilitate the transfer of the latest results from clinical research directly at the bedside, thus supporting decision-making...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Richard Schilsky, Will Davies
The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Kiran Nistala, Lucy R Wedderburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This update on childhood idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) reviews recent progress in the field of translational science and clinical research over the past 12-18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Several new studies, including results from the international genome-wide association study, point to abnormalities of the adaptive immune system in childhood IIMs. Circulating T-follicular helper cells promote plasma cell differentiation and have been found in high levels in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), which may account the frequency of autoantibodies seen in this disease...
November 2013: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
L Fotis, M Xatzipsalti, A Papadopoulou
Εosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinical entity with continuously increasing incidence in children and adults. Diet therapy and corticosteroids are the most important therapeutic interventions currently used, while new therapies are being developed, based on the research of the disease mechanisms. In this review we assess the results of the latest clinical trials on management of patients with EoE, and the advances in the development of novel drug therapies. Hippokratia 2012; 16 (3): 200-204.
July 2012: Hippokratia
Heather E Elphick, George Mallory
BACKGROUND: The most serious complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) relate to respiratory insufficiency. Oxygen supplementation therapy has long been a standard of care for individuals with chronic lung diseases associated with hypoxemia. Physicians commonly prescribe oxygen therapy for people with CF when hypoxemia occurs. However, it is unclear if empiric evidence is available to provide indications for this therapy with its financial costs and often profound impact on lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether oxygen therapy improves the longevity or quality of life of individuals with CF...
July 25, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
K Grummich, K Jensen, O Obst, C M Seiler, M K Diener
BACKGROUND: Every day approximately 75 clinical trials and 11 systematic reviews are published in the health-care intervention and medical field. Due to this growing number of publications it is a challenge for every practicing clinician to keep track with the latest research. The implementation of new and effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions into daily clinical routine may thus be delayed. Conversely, ineffective or even harmful interventions might still be in use. Decision-making in evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires consideration of the most recent high quality evidence...
December 2014: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Jesús Fortún
Increases in the rates of fungal infections, as well as their associated morbidity and mortality has led to a need for additional antifungal agents. The most common serious fungal agents in immunosuppressed and critically ill patients are Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., although other emerging fungi must be considered. Rational, early systemic antifungal treatment should be based on diagnostic imaging techniques and conventional mycological and non-culture-based procedures. While the availability of new therapeutic options is an important advance, antifungal therapy has become increasingly complex...
December 2011: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Jerzy Kruszewski
The following paper reviews the latest news on antihistamines used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. It describes the new results of investigations on clinical application of H3 and H4 receptors in therapy of allergic diseases as well as the effect of emedastine on histamine-induced tissue remodeling. Contemporary clinical research of these drugs fulfills the requirements of placebo-controlled trials, including the comparison with a reference drug, usually cetirizine. The paper discusses efficacy and safety of a new drug--bilastine, and the possibility to improve clinical outcome by combining antihistamine drugs with inhaled glucocorticosteroids and antileukotrienes...
September 2009: Otolaryngologia Polska
William C S Cho
Pivotal presentations from the 100th Annual Meeting 2009 of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) are reviewed in this article, along with discussion of scientific findings and their impact on clinical practices and ongoing clinical trials. Among these presentations, the report on predictive biomarkers for targeted therapies may lead to the possibility of selection of the right drug for the right patient. The results of cancer genomic researches has started to yield surprising insights into the pathogenesis of a range of different cancers, with analyses of somatic copy number alterations, genomic rearrangements and sequence mutations...
July 2009: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Karen Bosma, Vito Fanelli, V Marco Ranieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common, serious condition affecting a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients. Other than low tidal volume ventilation, no specific therapy has improved survival. Understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and lessons to be learned from previous clinical trials is necessary for the development of new therapies and the rational design of studies assessing their efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome occurs in 6-8% of the general intensive care unit population, with a mortality of 32-45%...
April 2005: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Riyadh F Talic, Danny M Rabah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Shock-wave lithotripsy has been the mainstay of urinary-stone treatment over the past 20 years, with three generations of lithotripters now in the market place. Little improvement, however, has been made in the overall efficiency, since the original Dornier HM3 lithotripter. Over the past 5 years much progress has been made in the basic research of shock-wave lithotripsy, with better understanding of the mechanisms involved in stone fragmentation. This progress has led to new modifications in the way shock-wave pulse is generated and delivered...
March 2006: Current Opinion in Urology
C Nye, A Brice
BACKGROUND: The use of mega-vitamin intervention began in the 1950s with the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Pyroxidine (vitamin B6) was first used with children diagnosed with "autism syndrome" when speech and language improvement was observed in some children as a result of large doses of B6. A number of studies attempted to assess the effects of vitamin B6-Magnesium (Mg) was found to reduce undesirable side effects from B6) on characteristics such as verbal communication, non-verbal communication, interpersonal skills, and physiological function, in individuals with autism...
2005: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wahid Wassef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses key issues in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding including patient preparation, sedation, hemostatic techniques, disposition, and recommended pharmacologic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal resuscitation before endoscopy and proper pharmacologic interventions after endoscopy seem to be as crucial to the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding as meticulous hemostatic techniques during the procedure...
November 2004: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
M E Sawaya
It is now known that there are major differences in the systemic and cellular mechanisms that mediate hair loss in women versus men. The severity or degree of hair loss in women with androgenetic alopecia is usually much less than in men. It is usually assumed that the hormonal basis for androgenetic alopecia in women is the same as in men; that is, the same target tissue-active androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, are being produced systemically to aggravate scalp hair follicles, resulting in hair loss...
January 1997: Dermatologic Clinics
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