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Faqian Sun, KeKe Xiao, Wenyu Zhu, Nipuna Withanage, Yan Zhou
In this study, nitrite was added into sludge during freezing process to evaluate its role in waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and effect on sludge dewatering characteristics. The results showed that the introduction of 100 mg L-1 of nitrite could increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 29.5 to 48.8 mg DOC g-1 VSS under freezing conditions. More DOC was released with the increase of nitrite concentration. Freezing temperature, or freezing speed, also played a role in sludge solubilization...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
Eva Navrátilová, Eva Tihlaříková, Vilém Neděla, Pavla Rovnaníková, Jaroslav Pavlík
In the study of lime as the basic component of historical mortars and plasters, four lime putties prepared from various kinds of lime of various granulometry and by various ways of preparation were evaluated. The rheological properties and micro-morphologic changes, growing of calcite crystals, and rate of carbonation were monitored. The lime putty prepared from lump lime achieves the best rheological properties, yield stress 214.7 Pa and plastic viscosity 2.6 Pa·s. The suitability of this lime putty was checked by testing the development of calcium hydroxide and calcite crystals using scanning electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Esther S Bochmann, Kristina E Steffens, Andreas Gryczke, Karl G Wagner
Simulation of HME processes is a valuable tool for increased process understanding and ease of scale-up. However, the experimental determination of all required input parameters is tedious, namely the melt rheology of the amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) in question. Hence, a procedure to simplify the application of hot-melt extrusion (HME) simulation for forming amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) is presented. The commercial 1D simulation software Ludovic® was used to conduct (i) simulations using a full experimental data set of all input variables including melt rheology and (ii) simulations using model-based melt viscosity data based on the ASDs glass transition and the physical properties of polymeric matrix only...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Monica Primacella, Tong Wang, Nuria C Acevedo
Yolk gelation upon 5-week freezing-thawing was studied in 4 recombined yolk systems containing different plasma and granule proportions. Fractionation for mass distribution, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for protein distribution and rheological properties were explored. Results indicate that both plasma and granule components including LDL, HDL, and α-livetin proteins, contributed to gelation. Protein aggregation was reflected through large mass increase in granule fraction and appearance of a floating LDL layer upon fractionation of gelled yolk systems...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingteng Zhang, Divya Bahadur, Eric M Dufresne, Pawel Grybos, Piotr Kmon, Robert L Leheny, Piotr Maj, Suresh Narayanan, Robert Szczygiel, Subramanian Ramakrishnan, Alec Sandy
We have examined the formation and dissolution of gels composed of intermediate volume-fraction nanoparticles with temperature-dependent short-range attractions using small-angle x-ray scattering, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and rheology to obtain nanoscale and macroscale sensitivity to structure and dynamics. Gel formation after temperature quenches to the vicinity of the rheologically determined gel temperature, T_{gel}, was characterized via the slowdown of dynamics and changes in microstructure observed in the intensity autocorrelation functions and structure factor, respectively, as a function of quench depth (ΔT=T_{quench}-T_{gel}), wave vector, and formation time t_{f}...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M Foglino, A N Morozov, O Henrich, D Marenduzzo
We study the rheology of a suspension of soft deformable droplets subjected to a pressure-driven flow. Through computer simulations, we measure the apparent viscosity as a function of droplet concentration and pressure gradient, and provide evidence of a discontinuous shear thinning behavior, which occurs at a concentration-dependent value of the forcing. We further show that this response is associated with a nonequilibrium transition between a "hard" (or less deformable) phase, which is nearly jammed and flows very slowly, and a "soft" (or more deformable) phase, which flows much more easily...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Hong-Mei Li, Jian-Hui Sun, Li-Ping Kang, Hai-Ru Huo, Xiao-Qin Li, Yuan-Yuan Huang, Min Chen, Lu-Qi Huang
Paris is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and its resource is in shortage, a variety of related plants are acquired as Paris. This study compared pharmacological activity in anti-inflammatory and hemostatic and blood rheology of P. vietnamensis with pharmacopoeial Paridis Rhizoma to expand its range of Paris medicinal resources and protect wild resources of Paris and meet market demand. The experimental study showed that P. vietnamensis and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis had anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effect and improved blood rheolog...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
C M Romero, P V Martorell, A Gómez López, C G Nieto Peñalver, S Chaves, M Mechetti
Biocatalysis for industrial application is based on the use of enzymes to perform complex transformations. However, these systems have some disadvantage related to the costs of the biocatalyst. In this work, an alternative strategy for producing green immobilized biocatalysts based on biofilm was developed.A study of the rheological behavior of the biofilm from Bacillus sp. Mcn4, as well as the determination of its composition, was carried out. The dynamic rheological measurements, viscosity (G") and elasticity (G') module, showed that the biofilm presents appreciable elastic components, which is a recognized property for enzymes immobilization...
November 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
V V Masljakov, O A Suhanova, V G Barsukov, K G Kurkin, S A Suhanov
The purpose: research objective: to study influence of electromagnetic oscillations of millimetric range on rheological properties of blood at patients with chipped and cut wounds of a breast for the purpose of their correction. Methods. For the solution of a research objective we have carried out studying of changes of rheological properties of blood at the 22nd patient with the getting chipped and cut wounds of a breast without internal injury during the next postoperative period. All patient has executed primary surgical processing and drainage of a pleural cavity...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Reid A Peterson, Edgar C Buck, Jaehun Chun, Richard C Daniel, Daniel L Herting, Eugene S Ilton, Gregg J Lumetta, Sue B Clark
This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Guillaume Chatté, Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Guylaine Ducouret, François Lequeux, Nicolas Lenoir, Guillaume Ovarlez, Annie Colin
We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
Stephanie M Kirby, Shelley L Anna, Lynn M Walker
Mixed nanoparticle-surfactant systems are effective foam stabilizing agents, but the lack of colloidal stability of the bulk dispersions makes interfacial characterization challenging. This study investigates the adsorption of CnTAB/SiO2 complexes at air/water interfaces through surface tension and interfacial rheology measurements. The effects of surfactant tail length, ionic strength, and interfacial processing on the surface properties are measured utilizing a bulk reservoir exchange methodology to avoid bulk destabilization...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
Hongbo Yuan, Jialiang Xu, Eliane P van Dam, Giulia Giubertoni, Yves L A Rezus, Roel Hammink, Huib J Bakker, Yong Zhan, Alan E Rowan, Chengfen Xing, Paul H J Kouwer
Enhancing the thermal stability of proteins is an important task for protein engineering. There are several ways to increase the thermal stability of proteins in biology, such as greater hydrophobic interactions, increased helical content, decreased occurrence of thermolabile residues, or stable hydrogen bonds. Here, we describe a well-defined polymer based on β-helical polyisocyanotripeptides (TriPIC) that uses biological approaches, including hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions for its exceptional thermal stability in aqueous solutions...
November 28, 2017: Macromolecules
Troels Røn, Navin J Patil, Fatemeh Ajalloueian, Sankaranarayanan Rishikesan, Bruno Zappone, Ioannis S Chronakis, Seunghwan Lee
Mucus is a viscous slime that plays a vital role in protecting and lubricating biological tissues, in particular, soft epithelium interfaces such as in the stomach, intestines, and esophagus. Previous attempts to generate mucus models that mimick or simulate its characteristics have been predominantly focused on the rheological properties. This study investigates both rheological and tribological shear properties of thin films of gastric mucus from a porcine source and its mimics at compliant soft interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Biointerphases
Danielle L Leiske, Christopher I Leiske, Daniel R Leiske, Michael F Toney, Michelle Senchyna, Howard A Ketelson, David L Meadows, Gerald G Fuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Shagufta Khan, Sonali Warade, Dilesh J Singhavi
PURPOSE: Conventional topical delivery in hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis is associated with low drug bioavailability due to rapid precorneal clearance. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to enhance ocular bioavailability of tobramycin sulfate by formulating drug-loaded microparticles dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel. METHODS: Microparticles prepared by emulsion-ionic gelation technique were characterized for drug loading, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Atiđa Selmani, Antonio Tavera-Vazquez, Cristina Garza, Rolando C Castillo
We present the detailed rheological changes that occur when small quantities of single-wall carbon nanotubes are dispersed in a polyacrylic acid water solution, around the overlap polymer concentration, up to the gel point. Here, pH is used to tune the gel formation. Suspensions of nanotubes at pH ≤ 5 are exfoliated and dispersed by the polymer. Contacts between the nanotubes are mainly through polymer entangling, and the suspension is viscoelastic. At pH > 5, the polymer is charged, and the solution is not so good solvent for the nanotubes anymore...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xiaobin Huang, Yong Hou, Leilei Zhong, Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Marcel Karperien, Wei Chen
We investigated the effects of different oxygen tension (21% and 2.5% O2) on the chondrogenesis of different cell systems cultured in pH-degradable PVA hydrogels including human articular chondrocytes (hACs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their co-cultures with a hAC/hMSC ratio of 20/80. These hydrogels were prepared with vinyl ether acrylate-functionalized PVA (PVA-VEA) and thiolated PVA-VEA (PVA-VEA-SH) via Michael-type addition reaction. The rheology tests determined the gelation of the hydrogels was controlled within 2-7 min dependent on the polymer concentrations...
December 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Anupam A K Das, Timothy S Dunstan, Simeon D Stoyanov, Pierre Starck, Vesselin N Paunov
We demonstrate that stimulus-responsive capillary-structured materials can be formed from hydrophobized calcium carbonate particles suspended in a non-polar phase (silicone oil) and bridged by very small amounts of a hydrogel as the secondary aqueous phase. Inclusion of thermally responsive polymers into the aqueous phase yielded a capillary-structured suspension whose rheology is controlled by a change in temperature and can increase its complex modulus by several orders of magnitude because of the gelation of the capillary bridges between the solid particles...
December 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthew M Durban, Jeremy M Lenhardt, Amanda S Wu, Ward Small, Taylor M Bryson, Lemuel Perez-Perez, Du T Nguyen, Stuart Gammon, James E Smay, Eric B Duoss, James P Lewicki, Thomas S Wilson
Silicone elastomers have broad versatility within a variety of potential advanced materials applications, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and metamaterials. A series of custom 3D printable silicone inks with tunable stiffness is developed, formulated, and characterized. The silicone inks exhibit excellent rheological behavior for 3D printing, as observed from the printing of porous structures with controlled architectures. Herein, the capability to tune the stiffness of printable silicone materials via careful control over the chemistry, network formation, and crosslink density of the ink formulations in order to overcome the challenging interplay between ink development, post-processing, material properties, and performance is demonstrated...
December 6, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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