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root hair

Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Frank Hochholdinger, Caroline Marcon, Jutta A Baldauf, Peng Yu, Felix P Frey
Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Bin Du, You-Quan Ding, Xia Xiao, Hong-Yi Ren, Bing-Yin Su, Jian-Guo Qi
BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific and MHCII-restricted CD4+ αβ T cells have been shown or suggested to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries. However, it is still largely unknown where these T cells infiltrate along the somatosensory pathways transmitting mechanical allodynia to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after nerve injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the definite neuroimmune interface for these T cells to initiate the development of chronic mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injuries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eliana Marzol, Cecilia Borassi, Mauro Bringas, Ana Sede, Diana Rosa Rodríguez Garcia, Luciana Capece, Jose M Estevez
Extensins (EXTs) are highly repetitive plant O-glycoproteins that require several post-translational modifications (PTMs) to become functional in plant cell walls. First, they are hydroxylated on contiguous proline residues; then, they are O-glycosylated on hydroxyproline (Hyp) and serine. After secretion into the apoplast, O-glycosylated EXTs form a tridimensional network organized by inter- and intra-Tyr linkages. Recent studies have made significant progress in the identification of the enzymatic machinery required to process EXTs, which includes prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), glycosyltransferases (GTs), papain-type cysteine-endopeptidases (CEPs), and peroxidases (PERs)...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Plant
Joseph Donfack, Hilda S Castillo
It is generally accepted within the forensic trace evidence community that a postmortem root band (PMRB) can appear in the root of hairs attached to remains during decomposition. Presently, the specific sequences of events and/or exact molecular signals that lead to the formation of a PMRB are not well understood. The published literature addressing the abiotic and biotic factors that correlate with the formation of PMRBs is reviewed and a conceptual model for the formation of PMRBs is proposed.
March 12, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Bansh N Singh, Padmanabh Dwivedi, Birinchi K Sarma, Gopal S Singh, Harikesh B Singh
Trichoderma spp., are saprophytic fungi that can improve plant growth through increased nutrient acquisition and change in the root architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that Trichoderma asperellum T42 mediate enhancement in host biomass, total nitrogen content, nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in tobacco. T42 inoculation enhanced lateral root, root hair length, root hair density and root/shoot dry mass in tobacco under deprived nutrients condition. Interestingly, these growth attributes were further elevated in presence of T42 and supplementation of NO3 - and NH4 + nutrients to tobacco at 40 and 70 days, particularly in NO3 - supplementation, whereas no significant increment was observed in nia30 mutant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jorge E Salazar-Henao, Girish Mokkapati, Eunice Han Xian Khor, Yi-Chia Chou, Wann-Neng Jane, Wolfgang Schmidt
The root epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana has been established as a model system for elucidating the mechanisms which govern the spatial patterningAbstract and morphogenesis of plant cells. Investigations into root hairs focus on various aspects of the biology of epidermal cells, using methods specifically developed to dissect the biological question under study. Despite the large number of studies related to epidermal cell differentiation, a survey of methods to analyze the phenotypic readout resulting from environmental conditions or the genetic background of the plant has not been provided so far...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Mei Jin, Junyan Zhang, Mingxing Chu, Jun Piao, Jing-Ai Piao, Fengqin Zhao
Objective: The study investigated the biological functions and mechanisms for controlling cashmere growth of Liaoning cashmere goat by OCIAD2 and DCN genes. Methods: cDNA library of Liaoning cashmere goat was constructed in early stages. OCIAD2 and DCN genes related to cashmere growth were identified by homology analysis comparison. The expression location of OCIAD2 and DCN genes in primary and secondary hair follicles was performed using in situ hybridization. The expression of OCIAD2 and DCN genes in primary and secondary hair follicles was performed using real-time PCR ...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Adam M Saffer, Vivian F Irish
Rhamnose is required in Arabidopsis thaliana for synthesizing pectic polysaccharides and glycosylating flavonols. RHAMNOSE BIOSYNTHESIS1 (RHM1) encodes a UDP-l-rhamnose synthase, and rhm1 mutants exhibit many developmental defects, including short root hairs, hyponastic cotyledons, and left-handed helically twisted petals and roots. It has been proposed that the hyponastic cotyledons observed in rhm1 mutants are a consequence of abnormal flavonol glycosylation, while the root hair defect is flavonol-independent...
March 5, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Anna Papierniak, Katarzyna Kozak, Maria Kendziorek, Anna Barabasz, Małgorzata Palusińska, Jerzy Tiuryn, Bohdan Paterczyk, Lorraine E Williams, Danuta M Antosiewicz
Tobacco has frequently been suggested as a candidate plant species for use in phytoremediation of metal contaminated soil but knowledge on the regulation of its metal-homeostasis is still in the infancy. To identify new tobacco metal transport genes that are involved in Zn homeostasis a bioinformatics study using the tobacco genome information together with expression analysis was performed. Ten new tobacco metal transport genes from the ZIP, NRAMP, MTP, and MRP/ABCC families were identified with expression levels in leaves that were modified by exposure to Zn excess...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wendy Cajero Sánchez, Berenice García-Ponce, María de la Paz Sánchez, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla, Adriana Garay-Arroyo
The Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) root has become a useful model for studying how organ morphogenesis emerge from the coordination and balance of cell proliferation and differentiation, as both processes may be observed and quantified in the root at different stages of development. Hence, being able to objectively identify and delimit the different stages of root development has been very important. Up to now, three different zones along the longitudinal axis of the primary root of Arabidopsis, have been identified: the root apical meristematic zone (RAM) with two domains [the proliferative (PD) and the transition domain (TD)], the elongation zone (EZ) and the maturation zone (MZ)...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Tianzhi Chen, Bingling Zhao, Yu Liu, Ruiwei Wang, Yujing Yang, Linpei Yang, Changsheng Dong
BACKGROUND: Although the impact of the microphthalamia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) signaling pathway on melanocytes progression has been extensively studied, the specific molecular mechanisms behind MITF-M-enhanced melanin production in melanocytes still need to be clarified. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the levels of Mitf-M in skin tissues of different coat mice in order to further reveal the relationship between Mitf-M and skin pigmentation. To address the function of Mitf-M on melanogenesis, we have used an overexpression system and combined morphological and biochemical methods to investigate its localization in different coat color mice and pigmentation-related genes' expression in mouse melanocytes...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Suryatapa Ghosh Jha, Emily R Larson, Jordan Humble, David S Domozych, David S Barrington, Mary L Tierney
The large retromer complex participates in diverse endosomal trafficking pathways and is essential for plant developmental programs including cell polarity, programmed cell death, and shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. Here we demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved VPS26 protein (VPS26C; At1G48550) functions in a complex with VPS35A and VPS29 necessary for root hair growth in Arabidopsis. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation showed that VPS26C forms a complex with VPS35A in the presence of VPS29 and this is supported by genetic studies showing that vps29 and vps35a mutants exhibit altered root hair growth...
March 1, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yan Jin, Jun-Na Yao, Xiao-Guang Ge, Zhi-Jie Zhang, Rao-Rao Li, Xue-Feng Feng, Jin-Min Shi
The purpose of this article is to identify Daphne genkwa and its adulterants, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, according to the morphological and microstructure characteristics of their stem and foliage. The root of D.genkwa was studied simultaneously. The results indicated that the crude drug and processed pieces of Genkwa Ramulus were mainly composed of stems and branches where obvious opposite petiole scars and branch marks were able to be seen on their nodes. Otherwise, foliage or peduncles generally couldn't be found...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Lucía Arenas-Alfonseca, Cecilia Gotor, Luis C Romero, Irene García
In Arabidopsis thaliana, cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. In roots, CAS-C1 activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1 locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation, as shown by observing the fluorescence in plants transformed with the translational construct ProC1:CASC1-GFP, containing the complete CAS-C1 gene fused to GFP...
February 27, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sébastjen Schoenaers, Daria Balcerowicz, Gordon Breen, Kristine Hill, Malgorzata Zdanio, Grégory Mouille, Tara J Holman, Jaesung Oh, Michael H Wilson, Natalia Nikonorova, Lam Dai Vu, Ive De Smet, Ranjan Swarup, Winnok H De Vos, Isabel Pintelon, Dirk Adriaensen, Claire Grierson, Malcolm J Bennett, Kris Vissenberg
Root hairs facilitate a plant's ability to acquire soil anchorage and nutrients. Root hair growth is regulated by the plant hormone auxin and dependent on localized synthesis, secretion, and modification of the root hair tip cell wall. However, the exact cell wall regulators in root hairs controlled by auxin have yet to be determined. In this study, we describe the characterization of ERULUS (ERU), an auxin-induced Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase, whose expression is directly regulated by ARF7 and ARF19 transcription factors...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R Baerson, Mei Wang, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Agnes M Rimando, Xiaoqiang Wang, N P Dhammika Nanayakkara, Brice P Noonan, Michael E Fromm, Franck E Dayan, Ikhlas A Khan, Stephen O Duke
Sorgoleone, a major component of the hydrophobic root exudates of Sorghum spp., is probably responsible for many of the allelopathic properties attributed to members of this genus. Much of the biosynthetic pathway for this compound has been elucidated, with the exception of the enzyme responsible for the catalysis of the addition of two hydroxyl groups to the resorcinol ring. A library prepared from isolated Sorghum bicolor root hair cells was first mined for P450-like sequences, which were then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to identify those preferentially expressed in root hairs...
February 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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