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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646092/deletion-analysis-of-agd1-reveals-domains-crucial-for-its-plasma-membrane-recruitment-and-function-in-root-hair-polarity
#1
Cheol-Min Yoo, Satoshi Naramoto, J Alan Sparks, Bibi Rafeiza Khan, Jin Nakashima, Hiroo Fukuda, Elison B Blancaflor
AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644898/spatio-temporal-orientation-of-microtubules-controls-conical-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-petals
#2
Huibo Ren, Xie Dang, Xianzhi Cai, Peihang Yu, Yajun Li, Shanshan Zhang, Menghong Liu, Binqing Chen, Deshu Lin
The physiological functions of epidermal cells are largely determined by their diverse morphologies. Most flowering plants have special conical-shaped petal epidermal cells that are thought to influence light capture and reflectance, and provide pollinator grips, but the molecular mechanisms controlling conical cell shape remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a live-confocal imaging approach to quantify geometric parameters of conical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (A.thaliana). Through genetic screens, we identified katanin (KTN1) mutants showing a phenotype of decreased tip sharpening of conical cells...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644769/localization-of-the-caprice-enhancer-of-try-and-cpc1-chimera-protein-in-arabidopsis-root-epidermis
#3
Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Tetsuya Kurata, Takuji Wada
The CAPRICE (CPC) encodes an R3-type MYB transcription factor, which promotes root-hair differentiation. Previously, we showed that the CPC protein moves from the non-hair cell to the neighboring cell and induces root-hair differentiation in Arabidopsis. In addition, we proposed two cell-to-cell movement signal sequences, S1 and S2, in CPC. However, an S1:2xGFP:S2 chimera protein did not move between root epidermal cells. Here, we show that the S1 and S2 sequences do not confer cell-to-cell movement or nuclear localization ability to a GFP protein...
June 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636944/transduction-of-repetitive-mechanical-stimuli-by-piezo1-and-piezo2-ion-channels
#4
Amanda H Lewis, Alisa F Cui, Malcolm F McDonald, Jörg Grandl
Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632917/miniaturization-of-sebaceous-glands-a-novel-histopathological-finding-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-and-pemphigus-foliaceus-of-the-scalp
#5
Marta Sar-Pomian, Joanna Czuwara, Lidia Rudnicka, Malgorzata Olszewska
BACKGROUND: Intraepidermal acantholysis is a characteristic histopathological feature of pemphigus. The histopathology of scalp biopsies in pemphigus has not been widely discussed in the literature, although the scalp is commonly involved in pemphigus. METHODS: A total of 32 consecutive patients with scalp involvement (seventeen with pemphigus vulgaris and fifteen with pemphigus foliaceus) were enrolled into the study. The histopathological examination of scalp biopsies was performed in all patients...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632903/immunohistochemical-dissection-of-cystic-panfolliculoma-focusing-on-the-expression-of-multiple-hair-follicle-lineage-markers-with-an-insight-into-the-pathogenesis
#6
Masahiro Fukuyama, Yohei Sato, Yoshimi Yamazaki, Manabu Ohyama
Panfolliculoma (PF) is a rare benign tumor with signs of differentiation toward all components of the hair follicle (HF). Cystic panfolliculoma (CPF) is a subset of PF with histological similarity to trichofolliculoma making the differential diagnosis difficult in some cases. Immunohistopathological investigations of PF have been reported; however, previous studies focused mostly on the expression profile of the outer root sheath markers. A panel of antibodies was developed and used for the detection of the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK13, CK14, CK15, hair-hard keratin (AE13), and EpCAM within the lesion, supporting the differentiation of all epithelial lineages of the HF and the diagnosis of CPF...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609346/plaque-like-pilar-sheath-acanthoma-histopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-3-unusual-cases
#7
Margarita Jo-Velasco, Araceli Corrales-Rodríguez, Laura Francés-Rodríguez, Victoria Alegría-Landa, Itziar Eraña-Tomás, Arno Rütten, Luis Requena
Pilar sheath acanthoma is an uncommon, benign follicular neoplasm that frequently presents as a solitary lesion. This neoplasm usually appears on the skin around the upper lip of elderly patients. Histopathologically, the neoplasm usually shows a cystic configuration with epithelial lobules resembling to those of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle at the level of the isthmus emanating radially from the cyst wall. We present 3 peculiar cases of a pilar sheath acanthoma showing a plaque-like architecture because the lesions exhibited a horizontal configuration...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603898/getting-to-the-root-of-scales-feather-and-hair-as-deep-as-odontodes
#8
Danielle Dhouailly, Pascal Godefroit, Thomas Martin, Stefan Nonchev, Flavien Caraguel, Olav Oftedal
While every jawed vertebrate, or its recent ancestor, possesses teeth, skin appendages are characteristic of the living clades: skin denticles (odontodes) in chondrichthyians, dermal scales in teleosts, ducted multicellular glands in amphibians, epidermal scales in squamates, feathers in birds, and hair-gland complexes in mammals, all of them showing a dense periodic patterning. While the odontode origin of teleost scales is generally accepted, the origin of both feather and hair is still debated. They appear long before mammals and birds, at least in Jurassic in mammaliaforms and in ornithodires (pterosaurs and dinosaurs), and are contemporary to scales of early squamates...
June 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601433/characterization-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-of-a-reconstructed-human-epidermal-model-from-adult-hair-follicles
#9
Daniel Bacqueville, Carine Jacques, Laure Duprat, Emilien L Jamin, Beatrice Guiraud, Elisabeth Perdu, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Daniel Zalko, Hélène Duplan
In this study, a comprehensive characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) based on gene expression and enzyme functionality was made in a reconstructed skin epidermal model derived from the outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicles (ORS-RHE). The ORS-RHE model XME gene profile was consistent with native human skin. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) consistently reported to be detected in native human skin were also present at the gene level in the ORS-RHE model. The highest Phase I XME gene expression levels were observed for alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases and (carboxyl) esterases...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595803/enhanced-bending-failure-strain-in-biological-glass-fibers-due-to-internal-lamellar-architecture
#10
Michael A Monn, Haneesh Kesari
The remarkable mechanical properties of biological structures, like tooth and bone, are often a consequence of their architecture. The tree ring-like layers that comprise the skeletal elements of the marine sponge Euplectella aspergillum are a quintessential example of the intricate architectures prevalent in biological structures. These skeletal elements, known as spicules, are hair-like fibers that consist of a concentric array of silica cylinders separated by thin, organic layers. Thousands of spicules act like roots to anchor the sponge to the sea floor...
May 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587354/th1-th2-pb-balance-and-cd200-expression-of-patients-with-active-severe-alopecia-areata
#11
Xinhua Ma, Shisheng Chen, Wanwan Jin, Yu Gao
Th1/Th2 peripheral blood balance and CD200 expression in patients with severe alopecia areata (SAA) in the active stage were investigated. Fifty patients with active SAA, 50 patients with stable SAA and 50 healthy controls were continuously selected and expression of Th1/Th2 of peripheral T lymphocytes, and peripheral B lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry; RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of the PBMC CD200 mRNA and the expression of CD200 in hair follicles of alopecia area was detected by immunohistochemically staining; ELISA was used to detect expression levels of serum LFN-γ and serum interleukin (IL)-10...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584276/persistent-lhpa-activation-in-german-individuals-raised-in-an-overprotective-parental-behavior
#12
E Ullmann, J Licinio, A Barthel, K Petrowski, T Stalder, S R Bornstein, C Kirschbaum
Parental upbringing may affect their offspring's mental state across the entire lifespan. Overprotective parental child-rearing style may increase the disease burden in the offspring. Furthermore, this child-rearing style may also play a pathogenetic role by transmitting trauma- and stressor-related disorders (TSRD) across generations. Studies with animals have demonstrated that the mother's immediate and expansive protection of the newborn decreases the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis activity in the offspring...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577898/the-nexus-of-hair-corticosterone-level-immunocompetence-metabolic-rates-and-overwinter-survival-in-the-root-vole-microtus-oeconomus
#13
Aneta Książek, Karol Zub, Paulina A Szafrańska, Monika Wieczorek, Marek Konarzewski
Although corticosterone (CORT) regulates many physiological mechanisms, the associations between CORT levels, immunocompetence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival have not been examined. Here, we studied individual variation in CORT level extracted from hair, immunocompetence quantified as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels (NAbs), along with the resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus...
May 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577518/development-of-transgenic-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp-overexpressing-citrate-synthase-gene-for-high-phosphorus-uptake
#14
Aftab Aftab Hussain, I S Pavithra, Rohini Sreevathsa, K N Nataraja, Naveen Babu
Plants have developed several adaptive strategies to enhance the availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from the soil under conditions of P deficiency. Exudation of organic acids like citrate is one of the important strategies. In this study, we developed transgenic pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) over-expressing Dacus carota citrate synthase (DcCs) gene to increase the synthesis and exudation of citrate. Transgenic plants were generated through agro bacterium mediated in-planta transformation technique. Integration and expression of the transgene was confirmed by genomic Southern and RT-PCR analysis...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577194/genome-wide-characterization-of-the-rab-gene-family-in-gossypium-by-comparative-analysis
#15
Peng Li, Wangzhen Guo
BACKGROUND: Rab protein family is the largest subfamily of small G protein family. As one of the most important families in plant, Rab family plays an important role in the process of plant growth and development. So far, the identification of 57 members of the Rab family in Arabidopsis has been completed. In cotton, the relevant family has not been reported. RESULTS: Here, we identified 87, 169, 136, 80 Rabs in the four sequenced cotton species, G. raimondii (D5), G...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576325/distinct-physiological-and-molecular-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-exposed-to-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticles-and-ionic-aluminum
#16
Yujian Jin, Xiaoji Fan, Xingxing Li, Zhenyan Zhang, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Michel Lavoie, Xiangliang Pan, Haifeng Qian
Nano-aluminium oxide (nAl2O3) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials. However, nAl2O3 toxicity mechanisms and potential beneficial effects on terrestrial plant physiology remain poorly understood. Such knowledge is essential for the development of robust nAl2O3 risk assessment. In this study, we studied the influence of a 10-d exposure to a total selected concentration of 98 μM nAl2O3 or to the equivalent molar concentration of ionic Al (AlCl3) (196 μM) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on the physiology (e...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556372/plant-plant-interactions-influence-developmental-phase-transitions-grain-productivity-and-root-system-architecture-in-arabidopsis-via-auxin-and-pft1-med25-signaling
#17
Edith Muñoz-Parra, Ramón Pelagio-Flores, Javier Raya-González, Guadalupe Salmerón-Barrera, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, José López-Bucio
Transcriptional regulation of gene expression influences plant growth, environmental interactions, and plant-plant communication. Here, we report that population density is a key factor for plant productivity and a major root architectural determinant in Arabidopsis thaliana. When grown in soil at varied densities from 1 to 32 plants, high number of individuals decreased stem growth and accelerated senescence, which negatively correlated with total plant biomass and seed production at the completion of the life cycle...
May 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548242/enhanced-root-growth-in-phosphate-starved-arabidopsis-by-stimulating-de-novo-phospholipid-biosynthesis-through-the-overexpression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferase-2-lpat2
#18
Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Van Cam Nguyen, Yuki Nakamura
Upon phosphate starvation, plants retard shoot growth but promote root development presumably to enhance phosphate assimilation from the ground. Membrane lipid remodeling is a metabolic adaptation that replaces membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorous galactolipids, thereby allowing plants to obtain scarce phosphate yet maintain the membrane structure. However, stoichiometry of this phospholipid-to-galactolipid conversion may not account for the massive demand of membrane lipids that enables active growth of roots under phosphate starvation, thereby suggesting the involvement of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, which is not represented in the current model...
May 26, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535568/tianeptine-reduces-mechanical-allodynia-in-spinal-nerve-ligated-and-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-mice
#19
Seong Min Han, Young Hoon Kim, Hyeon Uk Jo, Jung Ah Kwak, Hue Jung Park
BACKGROUND: Spinal nerve-ligated neuropathy and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy produce a persistent tactile allodynia in mice. Tianeptine is an antidepressant that exhibits structural similarities to tricyclic antidepressants but has distinct neurochemical properties. OBJECTIVE: Here we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) tianeptine on allodynia in spinal nerve-ligated and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic mice. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, experimental trial...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535564/the-different-dynamic-changes-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-dorsal-horn-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-leads-to-hyperalgesia-and-allodynia-in-diabetic-neuropathic-pain
#20
Zhifeng Gao, Yi Feng, Hui Ju
BACKGROUND: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes and more than half of the patients with DPN have self-reported symptoms referring to painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a key factor for the nervous system, but the role of it in the neuropathic pain of diabetic patients is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the dynamic expression of NGF in dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of diabetic rats and hyperalgesia and allodynia in diabetic neuropathic pain...
May 2017: Pain Physician
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