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root hair

Joëlle Fournier, Leandro Imanishi, Mireille Chabaud, Iltaf Abdou-Pavy, Andrea Genre, Lukas Brichet, Hernán Ramiro Lascano, Nacira Muñoz, Alice Vayssières, Elodie Pirolles, Laurent Brottier, Hassen Gherbi, Valérie Hocher, Sergio Svistoonoff, David G Barker, Luis G Wall
Nitrogen-fixing filamentous Frankia colonize the root tissues of its actinorhizal host Discaria trinervis via an exclusively intercellular pathway. Here we present studies aimed at uncovering mechanisms associated with this little-researched mode of root entry, and in particular the extent to which the host plant is an active partner during this process. Detailed characterization of the expression patterns of infection-associated actinorhizal host genes has provided valuable tools to identify intercellular infection sites, thus allowing in vivo confocal microscopic studies of the early stages of Frankia colonization...
May 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
B K Amos, Victoria G Pook, Seth Debolt
Chemical genetics is increasingly being employed to decode traits in plants that may be recalcitrant to traditional genetics due to gene redundancy or lethality. However, the probability of a synthetic small molecule being bioactive is low; therefore, thousands of molecules must be tested in order to find those of interest. Liquid handling robotics systems are designed to handle large numbers of samples, increasing the speed with which a chemical library can be screened in addition to minimizing/standardizing error...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiayin Pang, Ruchi Bansal, Hongxia Zhao, Emilien Bohuon, Hans Lambers, Megan H Ryan, Kosala Ranathunge, Kadambot H M Siddique
Root foraging and root physiology such as exudation of carboxylates into the rhizosphere are important strategies for plant phosphorus (P) acquisition. We used 100 chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes with diverse genetic backgrounds to study the relative roles of root morphology and physiology in P acquisition. Plants were grown in pots in a low-P sterilized river sand supplied with 10 μg P g-1 soil as FePO4 , a poorly soluble form of P. There was a large genotypic variation in root morphology (total root length, root surface area, mean root diameter, specific root length and root hair length), and root physiology (rhizosheath pH, carboxylates and acid phosphatase activity)...
May 14, 2018: New Phytologist
Mohammad Oves, Mohammad Aslam, Mohd Ahmar Rauf, Shariq Qayyum, Huda A Qari, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Mohammad Zubair Alam, Shams Tabrez, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Iqbal M I Ismail
There is a continuous rise in the rate of medicine consumption because of the development of drug resistance by microbial pathogens. In the last one decade, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become a remarkable choice for the development of new drugs due to their excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In the current piece of work, we have synthesized AgNPs from the root extract of Phoenix dactylifera to test their antimicrobial and anti-cancer potential. UV-visible spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm λmax corresponding to the formation of silver nanoparticles, FTIR spectra further confirmed the involvement of biological moieties in AgNPs synthesis...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Adam H Richard, Jack Hietpas, JoAnn Buscaglia, Keith L Monson
A study was undertaken using nonhuman mammal specimens to better understand environmental influences on postmortem hair root band (PMRB) formation and to see whether PMRBs would occur in nonhuman mammal hairs in a similar fashion to human hairs. Carcasses from surrounding roadways were the primary source of specimens for this study, augmented by donated deceased domestic pets. Sections of pelt from each specimen were placed in controlled environmental conditions while the remainder of the carcass was left in a secure outdoor setting...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
Zhuoyun Wei, Jia Li
Root hairs are tubular outgrowths specifically differentiated from epidermal cells in differentiation zone. The formation of root hairs greatly increases the surface area of a root and maximizes its ability to absorb water and inorganic nutrients essential for plant growth and development. Root hair development is strictly regulated by intracellular and intercellular signal communications. Cell surface-localized receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) have been discovered as important components in these cellular processes...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Rex Cole, Valera Peremyslov, Savanah Van Why, Ibrahim Moussaoui, Ann Ketter, Renee Cool, Matthew Andres Moreno, Zuzana Vejlupkova, Valerian Dolja, John E Fowler
The exocyst, a conserved, octameric protein complex helps mediate secretion at the plasma membrane, facilitating specific developmental processes that include control of root meristem size, cell elongation, and tip growth. A genetic screen for second-site enhancers in Arabidopsis identified NEW ENHANCER of ROOT DWARFISM1 (NERD1) as an exocyst interactor. Mutations in nerd1 combined with weak exocyst mutations in SEC8 and EXO70A1 result in a synergistic reduction in root growth. Alone, nerd1 alleles modestly reduce primary root growth, both by shortening the root meristem and by reducing cell elongation, but also result in a slight increase in root hair length, bulging, and rupture...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rahul Bhosale, Jitender Giri, Bipin K Pandey, Ricardo F H Giehl, Anja Hartmann, Richard Traini, Jekaterina Truskina, Nicola Leftley, Meredith Hanlon, Kamal Swarup, Afaf Rashed, Ute Voß, Jose Alonso, Anna Stepanova, Jeonga Yun, Karin Ljung, Kathleen M Brown, Jonathan P Lynch, Liam Dolan, Teva Vernoux, Anthony Bishopp, Darren Wells, Nicolaus von Wirén, Malcolm J Bennett, Ranjan Swarup
The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: 'We also thank DBT-CREST BT/HRD/03/01/2002.' This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
May 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Jitender Giri, Rahul Bhosale, Guoqiang Huang, Bipin K Pandey, Helen Parker, Susan Zappala, Jing Yang, Anne Dievart, Charlotte Bureau, Karin Ljung, Adam Price, Terry Rose, Antoine Larrieu, Stefan Mairhofer, Craig J Sturrock, Philip White, Lionel Dupuy, Malcolm Hawkesford, Christophe Perin, Wanqi Liang, Benjamin Peret, Charlie T Hodgman, Jonathan Lynch, Matthias Wissuwa, Dabing Zhang, Tony Pridmore, Sacha J Mooney, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Ranjan Swarup, Malcolm J Bennett
The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements:'We also thank DBT-CREST BT/HRD/03/01/2002.'This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
S Stamnes, C Hostetler, R Ferrare, S Burton, X Liu, J Hair, Y Hu, A Wasilewski, W Martin, B van Diedenhoven, J Chowdhary, I Cetinić, L K Berg, K Stamnes, B Cairns
We present an optimal-estimation-based retrieval framework, the microphysical aerosol properties from polarimetry (MAPP) algorithm, designed for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and ocean color bio-optical parameters using multi-angular total and polarized radiances. Polarimetric measurements from the airborne NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) were inverted by MAPP to produce atmosphere and ocean products. The RSP MAPP results are compared with co-incident lidar measurements made by the NASA High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 instruments...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Andreas Kreuzeder, Jakob Santner, Vanessa Scharsching, Eva Oburger, Christoph Hoefer, Stephan Hann, Walter W Wenzel
Aims: We imaged the sub-mm distribution of labile P and pH in the rhizosphere of three plant species to localize zones and hot spots of P depletion and accumulation along individual root axes and to relate our findings to nutrient acquisition / root exudation strategies in P-limited conditions at different soil pH, and to mobilization pattern of other elements (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Mn) in the rhizosphere. Methods: Sub-mm distributions of labile elemental patterns were sampled using diffusive gradients in thin films and analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
2018: Plant and Soil
Berislav Momčilović, Juraj Prejac, Anatoly Viktorovich Skalny, Ninoslav Mimica
The principles and practice of assessing the human body nutritional status or its environmental exposure through hair bioelement analysis are presented; herein the term "bioelements" is used as a common denominator for the major elements, trace elements and ultra-trace elements that are found in the human body. The accumulation of bioelements in the hair followed the statistical Power Law and the resulting sigmoid curve can be zoned into five regions in the ascending order of abundance (Low, Marginal, Adequate, High, and Excessive)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jessica S Helm, Marcia Nishioka, Julia Green Brody, Ruthann A Rudel, Robin E Dodson
BACKGROUND: Personal care products are a source of exposure to endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals. Because use of hair products differs by race/ethnicity, these products may contribute to exposure and disease disparities. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigates the endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemical content of hair products used by U.S. Black women. METHODS: We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to test 18 hair products in 6 categories used by Black women: hot oil treatment, anti-frizz/polish, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, hair lotion, and relaxer...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Catherine Duran, Patricio Arce-Johnson, Felipe Aquea
Our results showed that methylboronic acid is capable of alleviating boron deficiency, enhancing plant growth, and is less toxic than boric acid at higher concentrations. Boron is an essential plant micronutrient and its deficiency occurs in several regions globally, resulting in impaired plant growth. Boron fertilization is a common agricultural practice, but the action range of boron is narrow, sharply transitioning from deficiency to toxicity. Boric acid (BA) is the most common chemical form used in agriculture...
April 26, 2018: Planta
Zixing Li, Yohei Takahashi, Alexander Scavo, Benjamin Brandt, Desiree Nguyen, Philippe Rieu, Julian I Schroeder
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays essential roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. ABA induces subcellular translocation and degradation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RopGEF1, thus facilitating ABA core signal transduction. However, the underlying mechanisms for ABA-triggered RopGEF1 trafficking/degradation remain unknown. Studies have revealed that RopGEFs associate with receptor-like kinases to convey developmental signals to small ROP GTPases. However, how the activities of RopGEFs are modulated is not well understood...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Igor Kljujev, Vera Raicevic, Jelena Jovicic-Petrovic, Bojana Vujovic, Milica Mirkovic, Michael Rothballer
The microbiologically contaminated vegetables represent a risk for consumers, especially vegetables without thermal processing. It is known that human pathogen bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, could exist on fresh vegetables. The fresh vegetables could become Listeria-contaminated if they come in touch with contaminated soil, manure, irrigation water. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in different kind of vegetables grown in field and greenhouse condition as well as surface and endophytic colonization plant roots of different vegetables species by L...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hye-In Choi, Dong Young Kim, Soon-Jin Choi, Chang-Yup Shin, Sungjoo Tommy Hwang, Kyu Han Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND: Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, increases the intracellular level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate to cause vasodilation. Topical application of cilostazol is reported to improve local blood flow and enhance wound healing; however, its effect on human hair follicles is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cilostazol on hair growth. METHODS: We investigated the expression of PDE3 in human dermal papilla cells (DPCs), outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), and hair follicles...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Marcin Nadzieja, Simon Kelly, Jens Stougaard, Dugald Reid
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes requires nodule organogenesis to be coordinated with infection by rhizobia. The plant hormone auxin influences symbiotic infection, but the precise timing of auxin accumulation and the genetic network governing it remain unclear. We used a Lotus japonicus optimised variant of the DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and identify a rapid accumulation of auxin in the epidermis, specifically in the root hair cells. This auxin accumulation occurs in the infected root hairs during rhizobia invasion, while Nod factor application induces this response across a broader range of root hairs...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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