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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159700/expression-and-distribution-patterns-of-spermine-spermidine-and-putrescine-in-rat-hair-follicle
#1
Yutaro Yamamoto, Takamitsu Makino, Hideo Kudo, Hironobu Ihn, Yasuko Murakami, Senya Matsufuji, Kunio Fujiwara, Masashi Shin
No expression and distribution patterns of polyamines (PAs), spermine, spermidine, and their precursor putrescine in mammalian hair follicle are available, although polyamines are known to correlate well with hair growth and epidermal tumor genesis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using our original two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) ASPM-29 specific for spermine or spermidine, and APUT-32 specific for putrescine allowed us to detect immunoreactivity for polyamines in hair follicles from normal adult rats. A wide range of immunoreactivity for the total spermine and spermidine was observed in the compartments of hair follicle: The highest degree of immunoreactivity for polyamines was observed in the matrix, in the Huxley's layer, in the deeper Henle's layer, and in the cuticle of the inner root sheath/the hair cuticle, while moderate immunoreactivity existed in the lower-to-mid cortex and the companion layer, followed by lower immunoreactivity in the outer root sheath, including the bulge region and in the deeper medulla, in which the immunoreactivity was also evident in their nuclei...
November 21, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149771/hoxc13-and-hsp27-expression-in-skin-and-the-periodic-growth-of-secondary-fiber-follicles-from-longdong-cashmere-goats-raised-in-different-production-systems
#2
Jiqing Wang, Ping Yu, Haifang Wang, Yanyu He
This experiment was conducted to identify periodic changes in secondary follicles (SFs) over one year of extensive (grazed) and intensive (housed and fed supplement) farming of Longdong cashmere goats. One-year old goats (n = 24, 12 extensively fed and 12 intensively fed) were studied. The diameter, depth, density, activity, and ultra-structural features of SFs were assessed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HOXC13 and HSP27 expression were studied using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence method...
November 17, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138354/efficient-er-fusion-requires-a-dimerization-and-c-terminal-tail-mediated-membrane-anchoring-of-rhd3
#3
Jiaqi Sun, Huanquan Zheng
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of tubules and sheets stretching throughout the eukaryotic cells. The formation of the ER requires homotypic membrane fusion, which is mediated by a family of Dynamin-like GTPase proteins. The Arabidopsis member ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3 (RHD3) has been demonstrated to mediate ER membrane fusion, but how exactly RHD3 is involved in the process is still unknown. Here we conducted systemic structure-function analyses of roles of different RHD3 domains in mediating ER fusion...
November 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125191/dual-flow-rootchip-reveals-local-adaptations-of-roots-towards-environmental-asymmetry-at-the-physiological-and-genetic-levels
#4
Claire E Stanley, Jagriti Shrivastava, Rik Brugman, Elisa Heinzelmann, Dirk van Swaay, Guido Grossmann
Roots grow in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Biological activity as well as uneven nutrient availability or localized stress factors result in diverse microenvironments. Plants adapt their root morphology in response to changing environmental conditions, yet it remains largely unknown to what extent developmental adaptations are based on systemic or cell-autonomous responses. We present the dual-flow-RootChip, a microfluidic platform for asymmetric perfusion of Arabidopsis roots to investigate root-environment interactions under simulated environmental heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123533/identifying-developmental-zones-in-maize-lateral-root-cell-length-profiles-using-multiple-change-point-models
#5
Beatriz Moreno-Ortega, Guillaume Fort, Bertrand Muller, Yann Guédon
The identification of the limits between the cell division, elongation and mature zones in the root apex is still a matter of controversy when methods based on cellular features, molecular markers or kinematics are compared while methods based on cell length profiles have been comparatively underexplored. Segmentation models were developed to identify developmental zones within a root apex on the basis of epidermal cell length profiles. Heteroscedastic piecewise linear models were estimated for maize lateral roots of various lengths of both wild type and two mutants affected in auxin signaling (rtcs and rum-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123134/divergent-proliferation-patterns-of-distinct-human-hair-follicle-epithelial-progenitor-niches-in-situ-and-their-differential-responsiveness-to-prostaglandin-d2
#6
Talveen S Purba, Michael Peake, Bessam Farjo, Nilofer Farjo, Ranjit K Bhogal, Gail Jenkins, Ralf Paus
Human scalp hair follicles (hHF) harbour several epithelial stem (eHFSC) and progenitor cell sub-populations organised into spatially distinct niches. However, the constitutive cell cycle activity of these niches remains to be characterized in situ. Therefore, the current study has studied these characteristics of keratin 15+ (K15), CD200+ or CD34+ cells within anagen VI hHFs by immunohistomorphometry, using Ki-67 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). We quantitatively demonstrate in situ the relative cell cycle inactivity of the CD200+/K15+ bulge compared to other non-bulge CD34+ and K15+ progenitor compartments and found that in each recognized eHFSC/progenitor niche, proliferation associates negatively with eHFSC-marker expression...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115640/off%C3%A2-target-effect-of-imatinib-and-nilotinib-on-human-vitamin-d3-metabolism
#7
Lysann Kroschwald, Meinolf Suttorp, Josephine Tabea Tauer, Nick Zimmermann, Claudia Günther, Andrea Bauer
Prolonged treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) including imatinib (IMA) or nilotinib (NIL), induces severe disturbances of bone metabolism in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. As vitamin D3 (VD3) is involved in the complex cycle of bone remodelling, the present study investigated in vitro, the influence of IMA and NIL on VD3 metabolism i) in HaCaT cells and ii) in cultured outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORS‑KC) from hair follicles of IMA treated children. Cells were incubated in the presence of IMA or NIL...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114231/co-option-of-hair-follicle-keratins-into-amelogenesis-is-associated-with-the-evolution-of-prismatic-enamel-a-hypothesis
#8
Elia Beniash
Recent discovery of hair follicle keratin 75 (KRT75) in enamel raises questions about the function of this protein in enamel and the mechanisms of its secretion. It is also not clear how this protein with a very specific and narrow expression pattern, limited to the inner root sheath of the hair follicle, became associated with enamel. We propose a hypothesis that KRT75 was co-opted by ameloblasts during the evolution of Tomes' process and the prismatic enamel in synapsids.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083039/changes-in-the-allocation-of-endogenous-strigolactone-improve-plant-biomass-production-on-phosphate-poor-soils
#9
Guowei Liu, Johannes Pfeifer, Rita de Brito Francisco, Aurelia Emonet, Marina Stirnemann, Christian Gübeli, Olivier Hutter, Joëlle Sasse, Christian Mattheyer, Ernst Stelzer, Achim Walter, Enrico Martinoia, Lorenzo Borghi
Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived phytohormones shaping plant architecture and inducing the symbiosis with endomycorrhizal fungi. In Petunia hybrida, SL transport within the plant and towards the rhizosphere is driven by the ABCG-class protein PDR1. PDR1 expression is regulated by phytohormones and by the soil phosphate abundance, and thus SL transport integrates plant development with nutrient conditions. We overexpressed PDR1 (PDR1 OE) to investigate whether increased endogenous SL transport is sufficient to improve plant nutrition and productivity...
October 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078349/requirement-of-zinc-transporter-zip10-for-epidermal-development-implication-of-the-zip10-p63-axis-in-epithelial-homeostasis
#10
Bum-Ho Bin, Jinhyuk Bhin, Mikiro Takaishi, Koh-Ei Toyoshima, Saeko Kawamata, Kana Ito, Takafumi Hara, Takashi Watanabe, Tarou Irié, Teruhisa Takagishi, Su-Hyon Lee, Haeng-Sun Jung, Sangchul Rho, Juyeon Seo, Dong-Hwa Choi, Daehee Hwang, Haruhiko Koseki, Osamu Ohara, Shigetoshi Sano, Takashi Tsuji, Kenji Mishima, Toshiyuki Fukada
Skin tissues, in particular the epidermis, are severely affected by zinc deficiency. However, the zinc-mediated mechanisms that maintain the cells that form the epidermis have not been established. Here, we report that the zinc transporter ZIP10 is highly expressed in the outer root sheath of hair follicles and plays critical roles in epidermal development. We found that ZIP10 marked epidermal progenitor cell subsets and that ablating Zip10 caused significant epidermal hypoplasia accompanied by down-regulation of the transactivation of p63, a master regulator of epidermal progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075273/the-peach-rgf-glv-signaling-peptide-pctg134-is-involved-in-a-regulatory-circuit-that-sustains-auxin-and-ethylene-actions
#11
Nicola Busatto, Umberto Salvagnin, Francesca Resentini, Silvia Quaresimin, Lorella Navazio, Oriano Marin, Maria Pellegrini, Fabrizio Costa, Dale F Mierke, Livio Trainotti
In vascular plants the cell-to-cell interactions coordinating morphogenetic and physiological processes are mediated, among others, by the action of hormones, among which also short mobile peptides were recognized to have roles as signals. Such peptide hormones (PHs) are involved in defense responses, shoot and root growth, meristem homeostasis, organ abscission, nutrient signaling, hormone crosstalk and other developmental processes and act as both short and long distant ligands. In this work, the function of CTG134, a peach gene encoding a ROOT GROWTH FACTOR/GOLVEN-like PH expressed in mesocarp at the onset of ripening, was investigated for its role in mediating an auxin-ethylene crosstalk...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070807/functional%C3%A2-characterization-of-the-pht1-family-transporters-of-foxtail-millet-with-development-of-a-novel-agrobacterium-mediated-transformation-procedure
#12
S Antony Ceasar, Alison Baker, S Ignacimuthu
Phosphate is an essential nutrient for plant growth and is acquired from the environment and distributed within the plant in part through the action of phosphate transporters of the PHT1 family. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an orphan crop essential to the food security of many small farmers in Asia and Africa and is a model system for other millets. A novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and direct plant regeneration procedure was developed from shoot apex explants and used to downregulate expression of 3 members of the PHT1 phosphate transporter family SiPHT1;2 SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061907/deubiquitllating-enzyme-otu5-contributes-to-dna-methylation-patterns-and-is-critical-for-phosphate-nutrition-signals
#13
Ming-Ren Yen, Der-Fen Suen, Fei-Man Hsu, Yi-Hsiu Tsai, Hongyong Fu, Wolfgang Schmidt, Pao-Yang Chen
Phosphate (Pi) starvation induces a suite of adaptive responses aimed at recalibrating cellular Pi homeostasis. Plants harboring a mutation in OVARIAN TUMOR DOMAIN-CONTAINING DEUBIQUITILATING ENZYME5 (OTU5) showed altered DNA methylation of root hair-related genes and altered Pi-responsive root traits. Unlike the wild type, homozygous otu5 mutants did not respond to Pi starvation by increased lateral root formation and increased root hair length, but formed very short root hairs when grown on low Pi media. Under Pi-replete conditions, otu5 plants developed more root hairs than the wild type due to attenuated primary root growth, a phenotype which resembled that of Pi-deficient plants...
October 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044186/an-endophytic-microbe-from-an-unusual-volcanic-swamp-corn-seeks-and-inhabits-root-hair-cells-to-extract-rock-phosphate
#14
Hanan R Shehata, Christopher Dumigan, Sophia Watts, Manish N Raizada
In the animal microbiome, localization of microbes to specific cell types is well established, but there are few such examples within the plant microbiome which includes endophytes. Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes that inhabit plants. Root hairs are single cells, equivalent to the nutrient-absorbing intestinal microvilli of animals, used by plants to increase the root surface area for nutrient extraction from soil including phosphorus (P). There has been significant interest in the microbiome of intestinal microvilli but less is known about the root hair microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036625/ospht1-8-a-phosphate-transporter-is-involved-in-auxin-and-phosphate-starvation-response-in-rice
#15
Hongfang Jia, Songtao Zhang, Lizhi Wang, Yongxia Yang, Hongying Zhang, Hong Cui, Huifang Shao, Guohua Xu
The responses of plants to auxin and phosphate (Pi) starvation are closely linked. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting the Pi starvation (-Pi) responses to auxin are largely unclear. Here, we show that OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), a phosphate transporter, functions in both the auxin and -Pi responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The overexpression of OsPT8 (OsPT8-Oe) led to the loss of sensitivity to auxin and -Pi in adventitious roots, lateral roots, and root hairs in rice. The expression levels of OsPT8 and pOsPT8::GUS staining in roots, root-shoot junctions and leaves of rice were induced by IAA treatments...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030805/an-explicit-structural-model-of-root-hair-and-soil-interactions-parameterised-by-synchrotron-x-ray-computed-tomography
#16
Samuel David Keyes, Konstantinos C Zygalakis, Tiina Roose
The rhizosphere is a zone of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of nutrient acquisition by plant roots. The canonical difficulty of experimentally investigating the rhizosphere led long ago to the adoption of mathematical models, the most sophisticated of which now incorporate explicit representations of root hairs and rhizosphere soil. Mathematical upscaling regimes, such as homogenisation, offer the possibility of incorporating into larger-scale models the important mechanistic processes occurring at the rhizosphere scale...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030089/knockdown-of-hif-1%C3%AE-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-outer-root-sheath-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia-in-vitro-an-involvement-of-shh-pathway
#17
Haihua Zhang, Weixiao Nan, Xingchao Song, Shiyong Wang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
AIMS: Outer root sheath (ORS) is a highly proliferative component of a hair follicle. This study is performed to investigate whether hypoxia-induced elevation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional activator, contributes to the outgrowth of ORS cells in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Hair follicles with intact ORS collected from 4-month old male American minks were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic condition (3% oxygen) for 7days. Primary ORS cells isolated from the mink hair follicles were exposed to hypoxia for 12, 24 or 48h, and their proliferation was analyzed with immunofluorescence assay using anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody...
December 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017091/the-regulation-of-cell-polarity-by-lipid-transfer-proteins-of-the-sec14-family
#18
REVIEW
Marília Kf de Campos, Gabriel Schaaf
SEC14 lipid transfer proteins are important regulators of phospholipid metabolism. Structural, genetic and cell biological studies in yeast suggest that they help phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphoinositide (PIP) kinases to overcome their intrinsic inefficiency to recognize membrane-embedded substrate, thereby playing a key role in PIP homeostasis. Genomes of higher plants encode a high number and diversity of SEC14 proteins, often in combination with other domains. The Arabidopsis SEC14-Nlj16 protein AtSFH1, an important regulator of root hair development, plays an important role in the establishment of PIP microdomains...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993253/regulation-and-functional-diversification-of-root-hairs
#19
REVIEW
Songkui Cui, Takuya Suzaki, Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Satoko Yoshida
Root hairs result from the polar outgrowth of root epidermis cells in vascular plants. Root hair development processes are regulated by intrinsic genetic programs, which are flexibly modulated by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Basic programs for root hair development were present in early land plants. Subsequently, some plants developed the ability to utilize root hairs for specific functions, in particular, for interactions with other organisms, such as legume-rhizobia and host plants-parasites interactions...
October 6, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980744/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-l-nameaffects-arabidopsis-root-growth-morphology-and-microtubule-organization
#20
Krasylenko Yu A, Yemets A I, Blume Ya B
The presence of evolutionarily conserved NOS or NOS-like enzymes in land plants different than those in animals is still unclear, despite their activity has been revealed in cytosol and some organelles. At the same time, the emerging evidence for the importance of L-arginine-dependent pathways of NO synthesis in plant cells is still accumulating. The aim of our study was to reveal physiological effects on growth and differentiation processes and microtubular cytoskeleton organization of the competitive mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME...
October 5, 2017: Cell Biology International
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