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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798725/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-phosphorus-solubilizing-bacterium-from-rhizosphere-soils-and-its-colonization-of-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campestris-ssp-chinensis
#1
Zhen Wang, Guoyi Xu, Pengda Ma, Yanbing Lin, Xiangna Yang, Cuiling Cao
Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can promote the dissolution of insoluble phosphorus (P) in soil, enhancing the availability of soluble P. Thus, their application can reduce the consumption of fertilizer and aid in sustainable agricultural development. From the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage plants grown in Yangling, we isolated a strain of PSB (YL6) with a strong ability to dissolve P and showed that this strain promoted the growth of these plants under field conditions. However, systematic research on the colonization of bacteria in the plant rhizosphere remains deficient...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780645/the-mediator-genes-med12-and-med13-control-arabidopsis-root-system-configuration-influencing-sugar-and-auxin-responses
#2
Javier Raya-González, Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, José Carlos Prado-Rodríguez, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García, José López-Bucio
Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth...
August 5, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771873/nitrate-induction-of-root-hair-density-is-mediated-by-tga1-tga4-and-cpc-transcription-factors-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Javier Canales, Orlando Contreras-López, José M Álvarez, Rodrigo A Gutiérrez
Root hairs are specialized cells important for nutrient uptake. It is well established that nutrients such as phosphate have great influence on root hair development in many plant species. Here, we investigated the role of nitrate on root hair development at a physiological and molecular level. We showed nitrate increase root hair density in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found two different root hair defective mutants have significantly less nitrate than wild type plants, suggesting root hairs have an important role in nitrate acquisition capacity in A...
August 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770336/altered-expression-of-the-tarsl2-gene-contributed-to-variation-in-root-hair-length-during-allopolyploid-wheat-evolution
#4
Haiming Han, Huifang Wang, Yao Han, Zhaorong Hu, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
Altered expression of the TaRSL2 gene was positively correlated with variation in root hair length during allopolyploid wheat evolution, and overexpression of TaRSL2 in Arabidopsis increases root hair length. Root hairs aid nutrient and water uptake and anchor the plant in the soil. Allopolyploid wheats display significant growth vigor in terms of root hair length compared to their diploid progenitors, but little is known about the molecular basis of variation in root hair length during wheat allopolyploidization...
August 2, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758687/root-hairs-enable-high-transpiration-rates-in-drying-soils
#5
Andrea Carminati, John B Passioura, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki, Mutez A Ahmed, Peter R Ryan, Michelle Watt, Emmanuel Delhaize
Do root hairs help roots take up water from the soil? Despite the well-documented role of root hairs in phosphate uptake, their role in water extraction is controversial. We grew barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas) and its root-hairless mutant brb in a root pressure chamber, whereby the transpiration rate could be varied whilst monitoring the suction in the xylem. The method provides accurate measurements of the dynamic relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction. The relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction was linear in wet soils and did not differ between genotypes...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758681/high-resolution-synchrotron-imaging-shows-that-root-hairs-influence-rhizosphere-soil-structure-formation
#6
Nicolai Koebernick, Keith R Daly, Samuel D Keyes, Timothy S George, Lawrie K Brown, Annette Raffan, Laura J Cooper, Muhammad Naveed, Anthony G Bengough, Ian Sinclair, Paul D Hallett, Tiina Roose
In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755004/a-simple-method-using-ex-vivo-culture-of-hair-follicle-tissue-to-investigate-intrinsic-circadian-characteristics-in-humans
#7
Ai Yamaguchi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Takashi Matsuzaki, Wataru Nakamura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Almost all organisms maintain a circadian clock from birth to death to synchronize their own physiology and behavior with the earth's rotation. Because the in vivo evaluation of human circadian characteristics is labor-intensive, in vitro or ex vivo approaches could provide advantages. In this study, to enable the simple and non-invasive evaluation of autonomous circadian oscillation, we established a method for monitoring clock gene expression by performing ex vivo culture of whole hair root tissue. This method is extremely simple and imposes little burden on subjects...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751316/determining-the-site-of-action-of-strigolactones-during-nodulation
#8
Erin L McAdam, Cassandra Hugill, Sebastien Fort, Eric Samian, Sylvain Cottaz, Noel W Davies, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Strigolactones (SLs) influence the ability of legumes to associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In this study we determine the precise stage at which SLs influence nodulation. We show that SLs promote infection thread formation, as a null SL-deficient pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant forms significantly less infection threads than wild type plants and this reduction can be overcome by the application of the synthetic SL GR24. We found no evidence that SLs influence physical events in the plant before or after infection thread formation, since SL-deficient plants displayed a similar ability to induce root hair curling in response to rhizobia or lipochito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) and SL-deficient nodules appear to fix nitrogen at a similar rate to wild type plants...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751315/scyl2-genes-are-involved-in-clathrin-mediated-vesicle-trafficking-and-essential-for-plant-growth
#9
Ji-Yul Jung, Dong Wook Lee, Stephen Beungtae Ryu, Inhwan Hwang, Daniel P Schachtman
Protein transport between organelles is an essential process in all eukaryotic cells and is mediated by the regulation of processes such as vesicle formation, transport, docking and fusion. In animals, SCY1-Like2 (SCYL2) binds to clathrin and has been shown to play roles in trans-Golgi network (TGN)-mediated clathrin coated vesicle (CCV) trafficking. Here we demonstrate that SCYL2A and SCYL2B, which are Arabidopsis homologs of animal SCYL2, are vital for plant cell growth and root hair development. Studies of the SCYL2 isoforms using multiple single or double loss of function alleles show that SCYL2B is involved in root hair development and that SCYL2A and SCYL2B are essential for plant growth and development and act redundantly in those processes...
July 27, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746900/in-vivo-electrochemical-monitoring-of-h2o2-production-induced-by-root-inoculated-endophytic-bacteria-in-agave-tequilana-leaves
#10
Alex S Lima, Kátia R Prieto, Carla S Santos, Hellen Paula Valerio, Evelyn Y Garcia-Ochoa, Aurora Huerta-Robles, Miguel J Beltran-Garcia, Paolo Di Mascio, Mauro Bertotti
A dual-function platinum disc microelectrode sensor was used for in-situ monitoring of H2O2 produced in A. tequilana leaves after inoculation of their endophytic bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae). Voltammetric experiments were carried out from 0.0 to -1.0V, a potential range where H2O2 is electrochemically reduced. A needle was used to create a small cavity in the upper epidermis of A. tequilana leaves, where the fabricated electrochemical sensor was inserted by using a manual three-dimensional micropositioner...
July 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739135/cytokinins-in-symbiotic-nodulation-when-where-what-for
#11
REVIEW
Pascal Gamas, Mathias Brault, Marie-Françoise Jardinaud, Florian Frugier
Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of early stages of the symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobium bacteria. Those include the specific recognition of symbiotic partners, the initiation of bacterial infection in root hair cells, and the inception of a specific organ in the root cortex, the nodule. Increasingly complex regulatory networks have been uncovered in which cytokinin (CK) phytohormones play essential roles in different aspects of early symbiotic stages. Intriguingly, these roles can be either positive or negative, cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, and vary, depending on time, root tissues, and possibly legume species...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720840/positioning-of-the-scrambled-receptor-requires-udp-glc-sterol-glucosyltransferase-80b1-in-arabidopsis-roots
#12
Victoria G Pook, Meera Nair, KookHui Ryu, James C Arpin, John Schiefelbein, Kathrin Schrick, Seth DeBolt
The biological function of sterol glucosides (SGs), the most abundant sterol derivatives in higher plants, remains uncertain. In an effort to improve our understanding of these membrane lipids we examined phenotypes exhibited by the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines carrying insertions in the UDP-Glc:sterol glucosyltransferase genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1. We show that although ugt80A2 mutants exhibit significantly lower levels of total SGs they are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717875/mast-like-protein-kinase-ireh1-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-co-localizes-with-the-centrosome-when-expressed-in-animal-cells
#13
Elena M Chudinova, Pavel A Karpov, Artem I Fokin, Alla I Yemets, Dmytro I Lytvyn, Elena S Nadezhdina, Yaroslav B Blume
The similarity of IREH1 (Incomplete Root Hair Elongation 1) and animal MAST kinases was confirmed; IREH1cDNA was cloned while expressing in cultured animal cells co-localized with the centrosome. In mammals and fruit flies, microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinases (MAST) are strongly involved in the regulation of the microtubule system. Higher plants also possess protein kinases homologous to MASTs, but their function and interaction with the cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we confirmed the sequence and structural similarity of MAST-related putative protein kinase IREH1 (At3g17850) and known animal MAST kinases...
July 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716182/atp-sensing-in-living-plant-cells-reveals-tissue-gradients-and-stress-dynamics-of-energy-physiology
#14
Valentina De Col, Philippe Fuchs, Thomas Nietzel, Marlene Elsässer, Chia Pao Voon, Alessia Candeo, Ingo Seeliger, Mark D Fricker, Christopher Grefen, Ian Max Møller, Andrea Bassi, Boon Leong Lim, Marco Zancani, Andreas J Meyer, Alex Costa, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer
Growth and development of plants is ultimately driven by light energy captured through photosynthesis. ATP acts as universal cellular energy cofactor fuelling all life processes, including gene expression, metabolism, and transport. Despite a mechanistic understanding of ATP biochemistry, ATP dynamics in the living plant have been largely elusive. Here, we establish MgATP(2-) measurement in living plants using the fluorescent protein biosensor ATeam1.03-nD/nA. We generate Arabidopsis sensor lines and investigate the sensor in vitro under conditions appropriate for the plant cytosol...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711791/labeled-azospirillum-brasilense-wild-type-and-excretion-ammonium-strains-in-association-with-barley-roots
#15
Adrian Richard Schenberger Santos, Rafael Mazer Etto, Rafaela Wiegand Furmam, Denis Leandro de Freitas, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira Santos, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Ricardo Antônio Ayub, Maria Berenice Reynaud Steffens, Carolina Weigert Galvão
Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A...
July 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709047/persistence-of-immersed-blood-and-hair-dna-a-preliminary-study-based-on-casework
#16
Christophe Frippiat, Agathe Gastaldi, Séverine Van Grunderbeeck
In some cases, evidence is collected from rivers, canals, lakes or sink pipes. To determine the utility of analyzing these samples and for cases in which DNA was recovered from submerged bulletproof vest parts, we evaluated the time necessary to degrade the blood and, subsequently, DNA on bulletproof vests. In a second experiment, also based on cases, blood was diluted in water from a kitchen sink pipe and incubated at room temperature for different times. Subsequently, DNA quality was assessed. In a parallel experiment, hair roots were incubated in spring water for different time periods...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708056/metarhizium-robertsii-produces-indole-3-acetic-acid-which-promotes-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-and-enhances-virulence-to-insects
#17
Xinggang Liao, Brian Lovett, Weiguo Fang, Raymond J St Leger
The plant root colonizing insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii has been shown to boost plant growth, but little is known about the responsible mechanisms. Here we show that M. robertsii promotes lateral root growth and root hair development of Arabidopsis seedlings in part through an auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)]-dependent mechanism. M. robertsii, or its auxin-containing culture filtrate promoted root proliferation, activated IAA-regulated gene expression and rescued the root hair defect of the IAA-deficient rhd6 Arabidopsis mutant...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702040/abscisic-acid-regulates-auxin-homeostasis-in-rice-root-tips-to-promote-root-hair-elongation
#18
Tao Wang, Chengxiang Li, Zhihua Wu, Yancui Jia, Hong Wang, Shiyong Sun, Chuanzao Mao, Xuelu Wang
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10) had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2) had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694814/root-hair-mutations-displace-the-barley-rhizosphere-microbiota
#19
Robertson-Albertyn Senga, Senga Alegria Terrazas, Katharin Balbirnie, Manuel Blank, Agnieszka Janiak, Iwona Szarejko, Beata Chmielewska, Jagna Karcz, Jenny Morris, Pete E Hedley, Timothy S George, Davide Bulgarelli
The rhizosphere, the thin layer of soil surrounding and influenced by plant roots, defines a distinct and selective microbial habitat compared to unplanted soil. The microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere, the rhizosphere microbiota, engage in interactions with their host plants which span from parasitism to mutualism. Therefore, the rhizosphere microbiota emerges as one of the determinants of yield potential in crops. Studies conducted with different plant species have unequivocally pointed to the host plant as a driver of the microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687904/a-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-at-the-level-of-isolated-root-hair-cells-reveals-new-conserved-root-hair-regulatory-elements
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Zhenzhen Qiao, Lise Pingault, Prince Zogli, Micaela Langevin, Niccole Rech, Andrew Farmer, Marc Libault
A comparative transcriptomic and genomic analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max root hair genes reveals the evolution of the expression of plant genes after speciation and whole genome duplication. Our understanding of the conservation and divergence of the expression patterns of genes between plant species is limited by the quality of the genomic and transcriptomic resources available. Specifically, the transcriptomes generated from plant organs are the reflection of the contribution of the different cell types composing the samples weighted by their relative abundances in the sample...
August 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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