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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419587/oligogalacturonide-derived-molecular-probe-demonstrates-the-dynamics-of-calcium-mediated-pectin-complexation-in-cell-walls-of-tip-growing-structures
#1
Jozef Mravec, Stjepan K Kračun, Maja G Rydahl, Bjørge Westereng, Daniela Pontiggia, Giulia De Lorenzo, David S Domozych, William G T Willats
Pectic homogalacturonan (HG) is one of the main constituents of plant cell walls. When processed to low degrees of esterification, HG can form complexes with divalent calcium ions. These macromolecular structures (also called egg boxes) play an important role in determining cell wall biomechanics and in mediating cell-to-cell adhesion. Current immunological methods enable only steady-state detection of egg box formation in situ. Here we present a tool for efficient real-time visualisation of available sites for HG crosslinking within cell wall microdomains...
April 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418107/a-new-path-in-defining-light-parameters-for-hair-growth-discovery-and-modulation-of-photoreceptors-in-human-hair-follicle
#2
Serena Buscone, Andrei N Mardaryev, Bianca Raafs, Jan W Bikker, Carsten Sticht, Norbert Gretz, Nilofer Farjo, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Natalia V Botchkareva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches...
April 18, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413068/epithelial-mesenchymal-micro-niches-govern-stem-cell-lineage-choices
#3
Hanseul Yang, Rene C Adam, Yejing Ge, Zhong L Hua, Elaine Fuchs
Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which, through intercellular contacts and signaling, influence SC behavior. Once activated, SCs typically give rise to short-lived transit-amplifying cells (TACs), which then progress to differentiate into their lineages. Here, using single-cell RNA-seq, we unearth unexpected heterogeneity among SCs and TACs of hair follicles. We trace the roots of this heterogeneity to micro-niches along epithelial-mesenchymal interfaces, where progenitors display molecular signatures reflective of spatially distinct local signals and intercellular interactions...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402495/analysis-of-aneuploid-lines-of-bread-wheat-to-map-chromosomal-locations-of-genes-controlling-root-hair-length
#4
Miao Liu, Tina Rathjen, Kumara Weligama, Kerrie Forrest, Matthew Hayden, Emmanuel Delhaize
Background and Aims: Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Methods: Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401988/a-rapid-nuclear-staining-test-using-cationic-dyes-contributes-to-efficient-str-analysis-of-telogen-hair-roots
#5
So-Yeon Lee, Eun-Ju Ha, Seung-Kyun Woo, So-Min Lee, Kyung-Hee Lim, Yong-Bin Eom
Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB) and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study...
April 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398587/complexity-and-specificity-of-the-maize-zea-mays-l-root-hair-transcriptome
#6
Stefan Hey, Jutta Baldauf, Nina Opitz, Andrew Lithio, Asher Pasha, Nicholas Provart, Dan Nettleton, Frank Hochholdinger
Root hairs are tubular extensions of epidermis cells. Transcriptome profiling demonstrated that the single cell-type root hair transcriptome was less complex than the transcriptome of multiple cell-type primary roots without root hairs. In total, 831 genes were exclusively and 5585 genes were preferentially expressed in root hairs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%]. Among those, the most significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms were related to energy metabolism, highlighting the high energy demand for the development and function of root hairs...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391059/root-hair-development-in-grasses-and-cereals-poaceae
#7
REVIEW
Liam Dolan
Root hairs are tubular, cellular outgrowths of epidermal cells that extend from the root surface into the soil. Root hairs tether root systems to their growth substrate, take up inorganic nutrients and water, and interact with the soil microflora. At maturity, the root epidermis comprises two cell types; cells with root hairs and hairless epidermal cells. These two cell types alternate with each other along longitudinal files in grasses and cereals (Poaceae). While the mechanism by which this alternating pattern develops is unknown, the later stages of root hair differentiation are controlled by a conserved mechanism that promotes root hair development among angiosperms...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384189/polymorphisms-of-fst-gene-and-their-association-with-wool-quality-traits-in-chinese-merino-sheep
#8
Guang-Wei Ma, Yan-Kai Chu, Wen-Jian Zhang, Fei-Yue Qin, Song-Song Xu, Hua Yang, En-Guang Rong, Zhi-Qiang Du, Shou-Zhi Wang, Hui Li, Ning Wang
Follistatin (FST) is involved in hair follicle morphogenesis. However, its effects on hair traits are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of FST gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on wool quality traits in Chinese Merino sheep (Junken Type). We performed gene expression analysis, SNP detection, and association analysis of FST gene with sheep wool quality traits. The real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that FST gene was differentially expressed in adult skin between Chinese Merino sheep (Junken Type) and Suffolk sheep...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379562/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-quantifies-calcium-oscillations-in-root-hairs-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Alessia Candeo, Fabrizio G Doccula, Gianluca Valentini, Andrea Bassi, Alex Costa
Calcium oscillations play a role in the regulation of the development of tip-growing plant cells. Using optical microscopy, calcium oscillations have been observed in a few systems (e.g. pollen tubes, fungal hyphae, algal rhizoids). High resolution, non-phototoxic and rapid imaging methods are required to study the calcium oscillation in root hairs. We show that Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy is optimal to image growing root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana and to follow their oscillatory tip-focused calcium gradient...
March 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375579/seed-vectored-endophytic-bacteria-modulate-development-of-rice-seedlings
#10
Satish Kumar Verma, Kathryn Kingsley, Ivelisse Irizarry, Marshall Bergen, Ravindra Nath Kharwar, James F White
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defense against pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seed associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375469/atpme3-a-ubiquitous-cell-wall-pectin-methylesterase-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-alters-the-metabolism-of-cruciferin-seed-storage-proteins-during-post-germinative-growth-of-seedlings
#11
Stéphanie Guénin, Julie Hardouin, Florence Paynel, Kerstin Müller, Gaëlle Mongelard, Azeddine Driouich, Patrice Lerouge, Allison R Kermode, Arnaud Lehner, Jean-Claude Mollet, Jérôme Pelloux, Laurent Gutierrez, Alain Mareck
AtPME3 (At3g14310) is a ubiquitous cell wall pectin methylesterase. Atpme3-1 loss-of-function mutants exhibited distinct phenotypes from the wild type (WT), and were characterized by earlier germination and reduction of root hair production. These phenotypical traits were correlated with the accumulation of a 21.5-kDa protein in the different organs of 4-day-old Atpme3-1 seedlings grown in the dark, as well as in 6-week-old mutant plants. Microarray analysis showed significant down-regulation of the genes encoding several pectin-degrading enzymes and enzymes involved in lipid and protein metabolism in the hypocotyl of 4-day-old dark grown mutant seedlings...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#12
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
March 24, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370528/the-biology-and-genetics-of-curly-hair
#13
REVIEW
Gillian E Westgate, Rebecca S Ginger, Martin R Green
Hair fibers show wide diversity across and within all human populations suggesting that hair fiber form and colour has been subject to much adaptive pressure over thousands of years. All human hair fibers typically have the same basic structure. However, the three dimensional shape of the entire fiber varies considerably depending on ethnicity and geography, with examples from very straight hair with no rotational turn about the long axis, to the tightly sprung coils of African races. The creation of the highly complex biomaterials in hair follicle and how these confer mechanical functions on the fibre so formed is a topic that remains relatively unexplained thus far...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369625/arabidopsis-plasma-membrane-h-atpase-genes-aha2-and-aha7-have-distinct-and-overlapping-roles-in-the-modulation-of-root-tip-h-efflux-in-response-to-low-phosphorus-stress
#14
Wei Yuan, Dongping Zhang, Tao Song, Feiyun Xu, Sheng Lin, Weifeng Xu, Qianfeng Li, Yiyong Zhu, Jiansheng Liang, Jianhua Zhang
Phosphorus deficiency in soil is one of the major limiting factors for plant growth. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM H+-ATPase) plays an important role in the plant response to low-phosphorus stress (LP). However, few details are known regarding the action of PM H+-ATPase in mediating root proton (H+) flux and root growth under LP. In this study, we investigated the involvement and function of different Arabidopsis PM H+-ATPase genes in root H+ flux in response to LP. First, we examined the expressions of all Arabidopsis PM H+-ATPase gene family members (AHA1-AHA11) under LP...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368733/protein-s-acyl-transferase-4-controls-nucleus-position-during-root-hair-tip-growth
#15
Zhi-Yuan Wan, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Protein S-acyl transferases (PATs) play critical roles in plant developmental and environmental responses by catalyzing S-acylation of substrate proteins, most of which are involved in cellular signaling. However, only few plant PATs have been functionally characterized. We recently demonstrated that Arabidopsis PAT4 mediates root hair elongation by positively regulating the membrane association of ROP2 and actin microfilament organization. Here, we show that apex-associated re-positioning of nucleus during root hair elongation was impaired by PAT4 loss-of-function...
April 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365859/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-collective-and-individual-cell-migration-regulate-epithelial-changes-in-the-amikacin-damaged-organ-of-corti
#16
Sabine Ladrech, Michel Eybalin, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
Characterizing the microenvironment of a damaged organ of Corti and identifying the basic mechanisms involved in subsequent epithelial reorganization are critical for improving the outcome of clinical therapies. In this context, we studied the expression of a variety of cell markers related to cell shape, cell adhesion and cell plasticity in the rat organ of Corti poisoned with amikacin. Our results indicate that, after severe outer hair cell losses, the cytoarchitectural reorganization of the organ of Corti implicates epithelial-mesenchymal transition mechanisms and involves both collective and individual cell migratory processes...
April 1, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365236/the-assessment-of-the-chronic-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-polygoni-multiflori-radix-in-rats-a-pilot-study-by-using-untargeted-metabolomics-method
#17
Xin-Hua Xia, Yuan-Yuan Yuan, Mei Liu
Polygoni Multiflori Radix is the dried root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb officially recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as HeShouWu (HSW) in Chinese pinyin. The processed HSW are commonly used in TCM to treat liver disease and Chinese Pharmacopoeia has described the actions of it to tonify liver-kidney, replenish essence and blood, blacken beard and hair, strengthen sinew and bone, and resolve turbidity and lower lipid hence making it use not only as a herbal medicine in TCM but also as supplementary food in health care...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361876/a-novel-method-for-non-destructive-determination-of-hair-photo-induced-damage-based-on-multispectral-imaging-technology
#18
Yue Cao, Hao Qu, Can Xiong, Changhong Liu, Lei Zheng
Extended exposure to sunlight may give rise to chemical and physical damages of human hairs. In this work, we report a novel method for non-destructive quantification of hair photodamage via multispectral imaging (MSI) technology. We show that the multispectral reflectance value in near-infrared region has a strong correlation with hair photodamage. More specifically, the hair segments with longer growing time and the same hair root segment after continuous ultraviolet (UV) irradiation displaying more severe photodamage observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed significantly higher multispectral reflectance value...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360836/genetic-tracing-of-cav3-2-t-type-calcium-channel-expression-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#19
Yinth A Bernal Sierra, Julia Haseleu, Alexey Kozlenkov, Valérie Bégay, Gary R Lewin
Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358137/identification-and-evolution-of-a-plant-cell-wall-specific-glycoprotein-glycosyl-transferase-exad
#20
Svenning Rune Møller, Xueying Yi, Silvia Melina Velásquez, Sascha Gille, Pernille Louise Munke Hansen, Christian P Poulsen, Carl Erik Olsen, Martin Rejzek, Harriet Parsons, Yang Zhang, Hans H Wandall, Henrik Clausen, Robert A Field, Markus Pauly, Jose M Estevez, Jesper Harholt, Peter Ulvskov, Bent Larsen Petersen
Extensins are plant cell wall glycoproteins that act as scaffolds for the deposition of the main wall carbohydrate polymers, which are interlocked into the supramolecular wall structure through intra- and inter-molecular iso-di-tyrosine crosslinks within the extensin backbone. In the conserved canonical extensin repeat, Ser-Hyp4, serine and the consecutive C4-hydroxyprolines (Hyps) are substituted with an α-galactose and 1-5 β- or α-linked arabinofuranoses (Arafs), respectively. These modifications are required for correct extended structure and function of the extensin network...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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