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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#1
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918942/molecular-networks-orchestrating-plant-cell-growth
#2
REVIEW
Anna Franciosini, Bart Rymen, Michitaro Shibata, David S Favero, Keiko Sugimoto
Plant cell growth can broadly be categorized into either diffuse or tip growth. Here we compare gene regulatory networks (GRNs) controlling growth of hypocotyls and root hairs as examples for diffuse and tip growth, respectively. Accumulating evidence shows that GRNs in both cell types are multi-layered in structure and fine-tuned by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. We discuss how these GRNs regulate the expression of proteins controlling cell wall remodeling or other growth regulatory processes...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917501/a-highly-resistant-structure-between-cuticle-and-cortex-of-human-hair
#3
T Takahashi, S Yoshida
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the presence and properties of a unique structure which is located between the cuticle and cortex of human hair. METHODS: Whole hair fibre and longitudinally split hair were used. Treated with a mixture of urea, reductant and alkaline, hair was split at the interface between cuticle and cortex. The residues in the solution were observed by microscope, and the distribution of lipids and protein was determined. RESULTS: From the treated longitudinally split hair, a membrane-like structure which was located at the interface between cuticle and cortex was obtained...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917168/the-absence-of-the-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-autoinducer-synthase-genes-trai-and-ngri-increases-the-copy-number-of-the-symbiotic-plasmid-in-sinorhizobium-fredii-ngr234
#4
Jessica Grote, Dagmar Krysciak, Katrin Petersen, Simon Güllert, Christel Schmeisser, Konrad U Förstner, Hari B Krishnan, Harald Schwalbe, Nina Kubatova, Wolfgang R Streit
Plant-released flavonoids induce the transcription of symbiotic genes in rhizobia and one of the first bacterial responses is the synthesis of so called Nod factors. They are responsible for the initial root hair curling during onset of root nodule development. This signal exchange is believed to be essential for initiating the plant symbiosis with rhizobia affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we provide evidence that in the broad host range strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 the complete lack of quorum sensing molecules results in an elevated copy number of its symbiotic plasmid (pNGR234a)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911899/correction-root-hair-defective-six-like-class-i-genes-promote-root-hair-development-in-the-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#5
Chul Min Kim, Liam Dolan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006211.].
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904857/t-cadherin-expression-in-the-epidermis-and-adnexal-structures-of-normal-skin
#6
Stanislaw Buechner, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink
BACKGROUND: T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. The role of T-cadherin in biology of the skin is poorly understood. Expression of T-cadherin in basal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels of the healthy epidermis has been demonstrated, but studies on expression in skin appendages are rare. METHODS: We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures of normal skin...
September 2016: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904182/comparative-study-of-efficacy-of-epidermal-melanocyte-transfer-versus-hair-follicular-melanocyte-transfer-in-stable-vitiligo
#7
Navya Donaparthi, Ajay Chopra
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo surgery has come up a long way from punch skin grafts to epidermal cell suspension and latest to the extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (EHFORSCS) transplantation. The progressive development from one technique to the other is always on a quest for the best. In the latest development, EHFORSCS, which is an enriched source of follicular inactive melanocyte (melanocyte stem cells), seems to be a good addition to the prevailing cell-based therapies for vitiligo...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891245/genetic-diversity-of-halla-horses-using-microsatellite-markers
#8
Joo-Hee Seo, Kyung-Do Park, Hak-Kyo Lee, Hong-Sik Kong
BACKGROUND: Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses) of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%), Thoroughbred (18.8%) and Halla horse (75.1%). Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people's weighted interest toward Jeju horses...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888524/systematic-deletion-of-the-er-lectin-chaperone-genes-reveals-their-roles-in-vegetative-growth-and-male-gametophyte-development-in-arabidopsis
#9
Kien Van Vu, Ngoc Trinh Nguyen, Chan Young Jeong, Yong-Hwa Lee, Hojoung Lee, Suk-Whan Hong
Calnexin (CNX) and calreticulin (CRT) are homologous lectin chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that facilitate glycoprotein folding and retain folding intermediates to prevent their transit via the secretary pathway. The Arabidopsis genome has two CNX (CNX1 and CNX2) and three CRT homologs (CRT1, CRT2, and CRT3). Despite growing evidence of the biological roles of CNXs and CRTs, little is understood about their function in Arabidopsis growth and development under normal conditions. Here, we report that deletion of CNX1, but not of CNX2, in the crt1 crt2 crt3 triple mutation background had adverse effect on pollen viability and pollen tube growth, leading to significant reduction in fertility...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888361/morphological-and-structural-characterization-of-the-attachment-system-in-aerial-roots-of-syngonium-podophyllum
#10
Xiaojun Yang, Wenli Deng
The attachment of aerial roots of Syngonium podophyllum involves a multi-step process adjusted by multi-scale structures. Helical-crack root hairs are first found in the attachment system, representing specialized structures for surface anchorage. The morphological variability of attachment organs reflects diverse climbing strategies. One such anchoring mode in clinging-climbers involves the time-dependent interaction between roots and the support: By naturally occurring adhesive roots with root hairs, the plant can ascend on supports of any shape and size...
November 25, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880005/s-nitrosoglutathione-promotes-cell-wall-remodelling-alters-the-transcriptional-profile-and-induces-root-hair-formation-in-the-hairless-root-hair-defective-6-rhd6-mutant-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Camila Fernandes Moro, Marilia Gaspar, Felipe Rodrigues da Silva, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G Hahn, Ione Salgado, Marcia Regina Braga
Nitric oxide (NO) exerts pleiotropic effects on plant development; however, its involvement in cell wall modification during root hair formation (RHF) has not yet been addressed. Here, mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered root hair phenotypes were used to assess the involvement of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the primary NO source, in cell wall dynamics and gene expression in roots induced to form hairs. GSNO and auxin restored the root hair phenotype of the hairless root hair defective 6 (rhd6) mutant...
November 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879566/the-effect-of-an-acid-sensing-ion-channels-asics-inhibitor-on-pain-related-behavior-by-nucleus-pulposus-applied-on-the-nerve-root-in-rats
#12
Yoshihiro Kobayashi, Miho Sekiguchi, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled, interventional, animal study. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) on pain-related behavior induced by application of the nucleus pulposus (NP) onto the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ASIC3 is associated with acidosis pain in inflamed or ischemic tissues and is expressed in sensory neurons and NP cells. The ASIC3 inhibitor, APETx2, increases the mechanical threshold of pain in models of knee osteoarthritis or postoperative pain...
November 22, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878986/catechol-a-major-component-of-smoke-influences-primary-root-growth-and-root-hair-elongation-through-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-redox-signaling
#13
Ming Wang, Matthias Schoettner, Shuqing Xu, Christian Paetz, Julia Wilde, Ian T Baldwin, Karin Groten
Nicotiana attenuata germinates from long-lived seedbanks in native soils after fires. Although smoke signals have been known to break seed dormancy, whether they also affect seedling establishment and root development remains unclear. In order to test this, seedlings were treated with smoke solutions. Seedlings responded in a dose-dependent manner with significantly increased primary root lengths, due mainly to longitudinal cell elongation, increased numbers of lateral roots and impaired root hair development...
November 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866889/the-mechanism-forming-the-cell-surface-of-tip-growing-rooting-cells-is-conserved-among-land-plants
#14
Suvi Honkanen, Victor A S Jones, Giulia Morieri, Clement Champion, Alexander J Hetherington, Steve Kelly, Hélène Proust, Denis Saint-Marcoux, Helen Prescott, Liam Dolan
To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864971/proximal-end-root-morphology-characteristics-in-antemortem-anagen-head-hairs
#15
Katherine A Roberts, Lino R Garcia, Peter R De Forest
The proximal end morphology of antemortem anagen head hair was compared with the characteristics documented to occur in postmortem hairs. Antemortem anagen and telogen head hairs (N = 967) were recovered following exposure to seven environments. Root morphology characteristics consistent with those reported in postmortem hairs were observed in 66 (14%) hairs exposed to a water, normal saline, outdoor soil, or indoor shower environment. Thirty-three anagen hairs (7%) exhibited a root band at the proximal end...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864277/molecular-characterization-of-ghpld%C3%AE-1-and-its-relationship-with-secondary-cell-wall-thickening-in-cotton-fibers
#16
Kai Tang, Jin-Yuan Liu
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phospholipids to generate a free polar head group (e.g., choline) and a second messenger phosphatidic acid and plays diverse roles in plant growth and development, including seed germination, leaf senescence, root hair growth, and hypocotyl elongation. However, the function of PLD in cotton remains largely unexplored. Here, the comprehensive molecular characterization of GhPLDα1 was explored with its role in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development. The GhPLDα1 gene was cloned successfully, and a sequence alignment showed that GhPLDα1 contains one C2 domain and two HKD (HxKxxxxD) domains...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858182/migration-of-endophytic-diazotroph-azorhizobium-caulinodans-ors571-inside-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-its-effect-on-micrornas
#17
Li Qiu, Qiang Li, Junbiao Zhang, Yongchao Chen, Xiaojun Lin, Chao Sun, Weiling Wang, Huawei Liu, Baohong Zhang
Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a novel rhizobium, forms endosymbionts with its nature host Sesbania rostrata, a semi-aquatic leguminous tree. Recent studies showed that A. caulinodans ORS571, as endophytic rhizobium, disseminated and colonized inside of cereal plants. However, how this rhizobium infects monocot plants and the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we employed laser scanning confocal microscope to monitor the pathway that rhizobium invade wheat; we also investigated the potential role of miRNAs during A...
November 18, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845247/indole-3-acetic-acid-production-via-the-indole-3-pyruvate-pathway-by-plant-growth-promoter-rhizobium-tropici-ciat-899-is-strongly-inhibited-by-ammonium
#18
Eddie Luidy Imada, Amanda Alves de Paiva Rolla Dos Santos, André Luiz Martinez de Oliveira, Mariangela Hungria, Elisete Pains Rodrigues
Like many rhizobia, Rhizobium tropici produces indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important signal molecule required for root hair infection in rhizobia-legume symbioses. However, the IAA biosynthesis pathway and its regulation by R. tropici are still poorly understood. In this study, IAA synthesis and the effects of mineral N in IAA production by R. tropici CIAT 899 were verified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Furthermore, expression of genes related to IAA biosynthesis and metabolism were evaluated by RT-qPCR...
November 11, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837086/cis-cinnamic-acid-is-a-novel-natural-auxin-efflux-inhibitor-that-promotes-lateral-root-formation
#19
Ward Jan Steenackers, Petr Klíma, Mussa Quareshy, Igor Cesarino, Robert P Kumpf, Sander Corneillie, Pedro Araújo, Tom Viaene, Geert Goeminne, Moritz K Nowack, Karin Ljung, Jiří Friml, Joshua J Blakeslee, Ondřej Novák, Eva Zažímalová, Richard M Napier, Wout A Boerjan, Bartel Vanholme
Auxin steers numerous physiological processes in plants making the tight control of its endogenous levels and spatiotemporal distribution a necessity. This regulation is achieved by different mechanisms including auxin biosynthesis, metabolic conversions, degradation and transport. Here we introduce cis-cinnamic acid (c-CA) as a novel and unique addition to a small group of endogenous molecules affecting in planta auxin concentrations. c-CA is the photo-isomerization product of the phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate trans-CA (t-CA)...
November 11, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835849/nitric-oxide-signaling-is-involved-in-the-response-to-iron-deficiency-in-the-woody-plant-malus-xiaojinensis
#20
Longmei Zhai, Dashuang Xiao, Chaohua Sun, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang
To cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, plants have evolved a wide range of adaptive responses from changes in morphology to altered physiological responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the Fe-deficiency response through hormonal signaling pathways. Here, we report that NO plays a significant role in Malus xiaojinensis, an Fe-efficient woody plant. Fe deficiency triggered significant accumulation of NO in the root system, predominantly in the outer cortical and epidermal cells of the elongation zone...
November 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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