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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720840/positioning-of-the-scrambled-receptor-requires-udp-glc-sterol-glucosyltransferase-80b1-in-arabidopsis-roots
#1
Victoria G Pook, Meera Nair, KookHui Ryu, James C Arpin, John Schiefelbein, Kathrin Schrick, Seth DeBolt
The biological function of sterol glucosides (SGs), the most abundant sterol derivatives in higher plants, remains uncertain. In an effort to improve our understanding of these membrane lipids we examined phenotypes exhibited by the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines carrying insertions in the UDP-Glc:sterol glucosyltransferase genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1. We show that although ugt80A2 mutants exhibit significantly lower levels of total SGs they are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717875/mast-like-protein-kinase-ireh1-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-co-localizes-with-the-centrosome-when-expressed-in-animal-cells
#2
Elena M Chudinova, Pavel A Karpov, Artem I Fokin, Alla I Yemets, Dmytro I Lytvyn, Elena S Nadezhdina, Yaroslav B Blume
The similarity of IREH1 (Incomplete Root Hair Elongation 1) and animal MAST kinases was confirmed; IREH1cDNA was cloned while expressing in cultured animal cells co-localized with the centrosome. In mammals and fruit flies, microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinases (MAST) are strongly involved in the regulation of the microtubule system. Higher plants also possess protein kinases homologous to MASTs, but their function and interaction with the cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we confirmed the sequence and structural similarity of MAST-related putative protein kinase IREH1 (At3g17850) and known animal MAST kinases...
July 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716182/atp-sensing-in-living-plant-cells-reveals-tissue-gradients-and-stress-dynamics-of-energy-physiology
#3
Valentina De Col, Philippe Fuchs, Thomas Nietzel, Marlene Elsässer, Chia Pao Voon, Alessia Candeo, Ingo Seeliger, Mark D Fricker, Christopher Grefen, Ian Max Møller, Andrea Bassi, Boon Leong Lim, Marco Zancani, Andreas J Meyer, Alex Costa, Stephan Wagner, Markus Schwarzländer
Growth and development of plants is ultimately driven by light energy captured through photosynthesis. ATP acts as universal cellular energy cofactor fuelling all life processes, including gene expression, metabolism, and transport. Despite a mechanistic understanding of ATP biochemistry, ATP dynamics in the living plant have been largely elusive. Here, we establish MgATP(2-) measurement in living plants using the fluorescent protein biosensor ATeam1.03-nD/nA. We generate Arabidopsis sensor lines and investigate the sensor in vitro under conditions appropriate for the plant cytosol...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711791/labeled-azospirillum-brasilense-wild-type-and-excretion-ammonium-strains-in-association-with-barley-roots
#4
Adrian Richard Schenberger Santos, Rafael Mazer Etto, Rafaela Wiegand Furmam, Denis Leandro de Freitas, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira Santos, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Ricardo Antônio Ayub, Maria Berenice Reynaud Steffens, Carolina Weigert Galvão
Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A...
July 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709047/persistence-of-immersed-blood-and-hair-dna-a-preliminary-study-based-on-casework
#5
Christophe Frippiat, Agathe Gastaldi, Séverine Van Grunderbeeck
In some cases, evidence is collected from rivers, canals, lakes or sink pipes. To determine the utility of analyzing these samples and for cases in which DNA was recovered from submerged bulletproof vest parts, we evaluated the time necessary to degrade the blood and, subsequently, DNA on bulletproof vests. In a second experiment, also based on cases, blood was diluted in water from a kitchen sink pipe and incubated at room temperature for different times. Subsequently, DNA quality was assessed. In a parallel experiment, hair roots were incubated in spring water for different time periods...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708056/metarhizium-robertsii-produces-indole-3-acetic-acid-which-promotes-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-and-enhances-virulence-to-insects
#6
Xinggang Liao, Brian Lovett, Weiguo Fang, Raymond J St Leger
The plant root colonizing insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii has been shown to boost plant growth, but little is known about the responsible mechanisms. Here we show that M. robertsii promotes lateral root growth and root hair development of Arabidopsis seedlings in part through an auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)]-dependent mechanism. M. robertsii, or its auxin-containing culture filtrate promoted root proliferation, activated IAA-regulated gene expression and rescued the root hair defect of the IAA-deficient rhd6 Arabidopsis mutant...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702040/abscisic-acid-regulates-auxin-homeostasis-in-rice-root-tips-to-promote-root-hair-elongation
#7
Tao Wang, Chengxiang Li, Zhihua Wu, Yancui Jia, Hong Wang, Shiyong Sun, Chuanzao Mao, Xuelu Wang
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10) had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2) had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694814/root-hair-mutations-displace-the-barley-rhizosphere-microbiota
#8
Robertson-Albertyn Senga, Senga Alegria Terrazas, Katharin Balbirnie, Manuel Blank, Agnieszka Janiak, Iwona Szarejko, Beata Chmielewska, Jagna Karcz, Jenny Morris, Pete E Hedley, Timothy S George, Davide Bulgarelli
The rhizosphere, the thin layer of soil surrounding and influenced by plant roots, defines a distinct and selective microbial habitat compared to unplanted soil. The microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere, the rhizosphere microbiota, engage in interactions with their host plants which span from parasitism to mutualism. Therefore, the rhizosphere microbiota emerges as one of the determinants of yield potential in crops. Studies conducted with different plant species have unequivocally pointed to the host plant as a driver of the microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687904/a-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-at-the-level-of-isolated-root-hair-cells-reveals-new-conserved-root-hair-regulatory-elements
#9
Zhenzhen Qiao, Lise Pingault, Prince Zogli, Micaela Langevin, Niccole Rech, Andrew Farmer, Marc Libault
A comparative transcriptomic and genomic analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max root hair genes reveals the evolution of the expression of plant genes after speciation and whole genome duplication. Our understanding of the conservation and divergence of the expression patterns of genes between plant species is limited by the quality of the genomic and transcriptomic resources available. Specifically, the transcriptomes generated from plant organs are the reflection of the contribution of the different cell types composing the samples weighted by their relative abundances in the sample...
July 7, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683402/different-roles-of-glutathione-in-copper-and-zinc-chelation-in-brassica-napus-roots
#10
Ilya E Zlobin, Alexander V Kartashov, George V Shpakovski
We investigated the specific features of copper and zinc excess action on the roots of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Copper rapidly accumulated in canola root cells and reached saturation during several hours of treatment, whereas the root zinc content increased relatively slowly. Excessive copper and zinc entry inside the cell resulted in significant cell damage, as evidenced by alterations in plasmalemma permeability and decreases in cellular enzymatic activity. Zinc excess specifically damaged root hair cells, which correlated with a pronounced elevation of their labile zinc level...
June 28, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681304/roots-alterations-in-presence-of-phenanthrene-may-limit-co-remediation-implementation-with-noccaea-caerulescens
#11
Ivan Zelko, Stéphanie Ouvrard, Catherine Sirguey
Co-phytoremediation of both trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is an emerging technique to treat multi-contaminated soils. In this study, root morphological and structural features of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, exposed to a model PAH phenanthrene (PHE) in combination with cadmium (Cd), were observed. In vitro cultivated seedlings were exposed to 2 mM of PHE and/or 5 μM of Cd for 1 week. Co-phytoremediation effectiveness appeared restricted because of a serious inhibition (about 40%) of root and shoot biomass production in presence of PHE, while Cd had no significant adverse effect on these parameters...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680071/microrna-profiling-provides-insights-into-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-chickpea-root-apex-under-salinity-and-water-deficiency
#12
Hitaishi Khandal, Sabiha Parween, Riti Roy, Mukesh Kumar Meena, Debasis Chattopadhyay
Activity of root apical meristem (RAM) at the root apex is critical for stress-mediated modulation of root-architecture. Chickpea, like other legumes, possesses a basic open root meristem. Deep sequencing was used to perform microRNA expression profiling in root apex of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in order to investigate post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in this tissue in response to salinity and water deficit. Five small RNA libraries prepared from chickpea root apices at different stages of stress treatments were sequenced to obtain 284 unique miRNA sequences including 60 novel miRNAs belonging to total 255 families...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676568/extended-c-termini-of-cpc-like-myb-proteins-confer-functional-diversity-in-arabidopsis-epidermal-cell-differentiation
#13
Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Takuji Wada
The CAPRICE (CPC) gene encodes a R3-type MYB transcription factor that promotes differentiation of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we have compared the functions of five CPC-homologous genes for epidermal cell differentiation using CPC promoter-driven transgenic plants. Our results show that TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC2 (ETC2) were less effective in root hair cell differentiation and were unstable in root epidermal cells when compared with CPC, ETC1 or CPC LIKE MYB3 (CPL3). The deletion of the extended C-terminal domain of TRY and ETC2 enhanced protein stability and conferred the ability to induce root hair cell differentiation on them...
July 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659681/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-breast-lump
#14
Narendra Pai, Amol Amonkar, Rajesh Ballal
Trichilemmal cyst also known as pilar cyst is a rare cyst arising from the external root sheath of the hair follicle. These cysts are observed on the scalp most commonly in females. The occurrence of trichilemmal cysts in areas other than the scalp is extremely rare. We report a case of an 80-year-old female with trichilemmal cyst of the breast which was first misdiagnosed as a sebaceous cyst because of the unusual disease site and our unfamiliarity with the disease. The patient underwent excision of cyst along with the cyst wall and histopathological diagnosis was trichilemmal cyst of the breast...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649126/cis-stilbene-glucoside-in-polygonum-multiflorum-induces-immunological-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-in-lps-treated-rats-by-suppressing-ppar-%C3%AE
#15
Ya-Kun Meng, Chun-Yu Li, Rui-Yu Li, Lan-Zhi He, He-Rong Cui, Ping Yin, Cong-En Zhang, Peng-Yan Li, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Ya Wang, Ming Niu, Ya-Ming Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Rong Sun, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PM) has been used in China to treat a variety of diseases, such as constipation, early graying of the hair and hyperlipemia. Recent evidence shows that PM causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of PM-induced liver injury in a rat model of IDILI based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of LPS. SD rats were orally administered 3 potentially hepatotoxic compounds of PM: cis-stilbene glucoside (cis-SG, 50 mg/kg), trans-SG (50 mg/kg) or emodin (5 mg/kg), followed by injection of LPS (2...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647813/ghvln4-is-involved-in-cell-elongation-via-regulation-of-actin-organization
#16
Fenni Lv, Mingya Han, Dongdong Ge, Hui Dong, Xiaotong Zhang, Lifeng Li, Peipei Zhang, Zhongqi Zhang, Jing Sun, Kang Liu, Youlu Yuan
GhVLN4 exhibited activity of cross-linking actin filaments into bundles. Overexpression of GhVLN4 increased the abundance of thick actin bundles and resulted in longer cell phenotypes. Actin bundle is a dynamic, higher-order cytoskeleton structure that is essential for cell expansion. Villin is one of the major proteins responsible for crosslinking actin filaments into bundles. However, this kind of actin binding protein has rarely been investigated in cotton. In the present work, a cotton villin gene was molecularly cloned from Upland cotton and denominated as GhVLN4...
June 24, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647533/transport-properties-and-regulatory-roles-of-nitrogen-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#17
REVIEW
Aiqun Chen, Mian Gu, Shuangshuang Wang, Jiadong Chen, Guohua Xu
Many terrestrial plants can form root symbiosis with beneficial microorganisms for enhancing uptake of mineral nutrients or increasing fitness to adverse environmental challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis that is formed by AM fungi and the roots of vascular flowering plants is the most widespread mutualistic associations in nature. As a typical endosymbiosis, AM interactions involves the differentiation of both symbionts to create novel symbiotic interfaces within the root cells, and requires a continuous nutrient exchange between the two partners...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647027/targeting-of-stem-cell-niches-using-unconventional-genetic-tools
#18
Vasily V Shinin, Andrey A Panteleyev
Maintenance of hair follicle (HF) stem cell quiescence and self-renewal are key functions of a specific cellular niche represented by the HF bulge and adjacent cell populations. The unique context of this niche is crucial for normal HF functioning, but mechanisms implicated in its maintenance are still not quite clear. The Letter to the Editor by Sada et al. introduces a novel Slc1a3-CreER genetic mouse model which, in contrast to previously reported marking tools, selectively and highly efficiently demarcates the telogen bulge inner layer, one of the critical structural components of the bulge stem cell niche...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646092/deletion-analysis-of-agd1-reveals-domains-crucial-for-its-plasma-membrane-recruitment-and-function-in-root-hair-polarity
#19
Cheol-Min Yoo, Satoshi Naramoto, J Alan Sparks, Bibi Rafeiza Khan, Jin Nakashima, Hiroo Fukuda, Elison B Blancaflor
AGD1, a plant ACAP-type ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase activating protein (ARF-GAP), functions in specifying root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana To better understand how AGD1 modulates root hair growth, we generated full length and domain-deleted AGD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) constructs, and followed their localization during root hair development. AGD1-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and was recruited to specific regions of the root hair plasma membrane (PM). Distinct PM AGD1-GFP signal was first detected along the site of root hair bulge formation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644898/spatio-temporal-orientation-of-microtubules-controls-conical-cell-shape-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-petals
#20
Huibo Ren, Xie Dang, Xianzhi Cai, Peihang Yu, Yajun Li, Shanshan Zhang, Menghong Liu, Binqing Chen, Deshu Lin
The physiological functions of epidermal cells are largely determined by their diverse morphologies. Most flowering plants have special conical-shaped petal epidermal cells that are thought to influence light capture and reflectance, and provide pollinator grips, but the molecular mechanisms controlling conical cell shape remain largely unknown. Here, we developed a live-confocal imaging approach to quantify geometric parameters of conical cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Through genetic screens, we identified katanin (KTN1) mutants showing a phenotype of decreased tip sharpening of conical cells...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
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