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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330182/fluorescence-recovery-allows-the-implementation-of-a-fluorescence-reporter-gene-platform-applicable-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-anoxic-environments
#1
Rafael Pinilla, Leise Riber, Søren J Sørensen
The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by significant advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter gene technologies. Recently, the combination of these novel approaches with flow cytometry has presented itself as one of the most powerful tools to study the spread of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the environment. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry is limited by environmental constraints that affect the correct maturation of their fluorophores, such as oxygen availability and pH levels...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329439/conserved-proteins-of-the-rna-interference-system-in-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizoglomus-irregulare-provide-new-insight-into-the-evolutionary-history-of-glomeromycota
#2
Soon-Jae Lee, Mengxuan Kong, Paul Harrison, Mohamed Hijri
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism in the evolution of many living organisms particularly in Prokaryotes where genes are frequently dispersed between taxa. Although, HGT has been reported in Eukaryotes, its accumulative effect and its frequency has been questioned. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an early diverged fungal lineage belonging to phylum Glomeromycota, whose phylogenetic position is still under debate. The history of AMF and land plant symbiosis dates back to at least 460 million years ago...
January 10, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325123/packaging-of-dinoroseobacter-shibae-dna-into-gene-transfer-agent-particles-is-not-random
#3
Jürgen Tomasch, Hui Wang, April T K Hall, Diana Patzelt, Matthias Preusse, Jörn Petersen, Henner Brinkmann, Boyke Bunk, Sabin Bhuju, Michael Jarek, Robert Geffers, Andrew S Lang, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are phage-like particles which contain a fragment of genomic DNA of the bacterial or archaeal producer and deliver this to a recipient cell. GTA gene clusters are present in the genomes of almost all marine Rhodobacteraceae (Roseobacters) and might be important contributors to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the world's oceans. For all organisms studied so far, no obvious evidence of sequence specificity or other non-random process responsible for packaging genomic DNA into GTAs has been found...
January 9, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320853/high-co2-requirement-as-a-mechanism-for-the-containment-of-genetically-modified-cyanobacteria
#4
Ryan L Clark, Gina C Gordon, Nathaniel R Bennett, Haoxiang Lyu, Thatcher W Root, Brian F Pfleger
As researchers engineer cyanobacteria for biotechnological applications, we must consider potential environmental release of these organisms. Previous theoretical work has considered cyanobacterial containment through elimination of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to impose a high-CO2 requirement (HCR), which could be provided in the cultivation environment but not in the surroundings. In this work, we experimentally implemented an HCR containment mechanism in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (PCC7002) through deletion of carboxysome shell proteins and showed that this mechanism contained cyanobacteria in a 5% CO2 environment...
January 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287310/high-grade-transformation-dedifferentiation-of-an-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-minor-salivary-gland-to-myoepithelial-carcinoma
#5
So Tando, Toshitaka Nagao, Kaori Kayano, Shinji Fushiki, Kyoko Itoh
High-grade transformation (HGT)/dedifferentiation is an unusual phenomenon in salivary gland carcinomas. Here we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with HGT/dedifferentiation to myoepithelial carcinoma, occurring in the epipharynx of a 42-year-old woman. The surgically resected tumor was a pedunculated mass, 31 × 25 mm in size, which had two histologically distinct carcinomatous areas, including a high-grade sarcomatoid area composed of pleomorphic spindle cells and an area consisting of low-grade typical ACC...
December 29, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250047/the-different-faces-of-rolling-circle-replication-and-its-multifunctional-initiator-proteins
#6
REVIEW
Paweł Wawrzyniak, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Dariusz Bartosik
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes greatly to the plasticity and evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The main carriers of foreign DNA in HGT are mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that have extremely diverse genetic structures and properties. Various strategies are used for the maintenance and spread of MGEs, including (i) vegetative replication, (ii) transposition (and other types of recombination), and (iii) conjugal transfer. In many MGEs, all of these processes are dependent on rolling-circle replication (RCR)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245272/epithelial-myoepithelial-carcinoma-with-high-grade-transformation-of-parotid-gland-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Bowen Li, Hongyu Yang, Xia Hong, Yufan Wang, Feng Wang
RATIONALE: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is regarded as a rare low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary gland, accounting for 0.4% to 1% of all salivary gland tumors. However, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma with high-grade transformation (EMC with HGT) is extremely rare, therefore it is easily to be inappropriately diagnosed and treated. Herein, we report an unusual case of EMC with HGT involving the parotid gland and discuss the clinical features and histological characteristic of EMC with HGT, in order to remind the doctors to take appropriate diagnosis and treatment...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238335/treatment-with-cefotaxime-affects-expression-of-conjugation-associated-proteins-and-conjugation-transfer-frequency-of-an-inci1-plasmid-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Thea S B Møller, Gang Liu, Anders Boysen, Line E Thomsen, Freja L Lüthje, Sisse Mortensen, Jakob Møller-Jensen, John E Olsen
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the major mechanism responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic treatment has been suggested to promote HGT, either by directly affecting the conjugation process itself or by selecting for conjugations subsequent to DNA transfer. However, recent research suggests that the effect of antibiotic treatment on plasmid conjugation frequencies, and hence the spread of resistance plasmids, may have been overestimated. We addressed the question by quantifying transfer proteins and conjugation frequencies of a blaCTX-M-1 encoding IncI1 resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli MG1655 in the presence and absence of therapeutically relevant concentrations of cefotaxime (CTX)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228300/dna-synthesis-by-fragment-assembly-using-extra-cellular-dna-delivered-by-artificial-controlled-horizontal-transfer
#9
Shinya Kaneko, Hiromi Fukushima, Misako Nakahama, Satomi Asano, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Yasunori Aizawa, Mitsuhiro Itaya
DNA synthesis in the Bacillus subtilis cells has become possible using extra-cellular DNA. Generally, purified DNAs in a test tube have been required to introduce into the host cells for molecular cloning technology in the laboratory. We have developed a cell lysis technique for natural transformation using stable extra-cellular plasmid DNAs, in which the extra-cellular plasmid DNAs are released from lysed Escherichia coli cells. DNA synthesis then proceeds by fragment assembly using the stable extracellular DNAs, without biochemical purification...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228229/variable-plasmid-fitness-effects-and-mobile-genetic-element-dynamics-across-pseudomonas-species
#10
Anastasia Kottara, James P J Hall, Ellie Harrison, Michael A Brockhurst
Mobile genetic elements (MGE) such as plasmids and transposons mobilise genes within and between species, playing a crucial role in bacterial evolution via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Currently we lack data on variation in MGE dynamics across bacterial host species. We tracked the dynamics of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, and its Tn5042 mercury resistance transposon, in five diverse Pseudomonas species in environments with and without mercury selection. Plasmid fitness effects and stability varied extensively between host species and environments, as did the propensity for chromosomal capture of the Tn5042 mercury resistance transposon associated with loss of the plasmid...
December 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225610/horizontal-gene-transfer-contributes-to-plant-evolution-the-case-of-agrobacterium-t-dnas
#11
REVIEW
Dora G Quispe-Huamanquispe, Godelieve Gheysen, Jan F Kreuze
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can be defined as the acquisition of genetic material from another organism without being its offspring. HGT is common in the microbial world including archaea and bacteria, where HGT mechanisms are widely understood and recognized as an important force in evolution. In eukaryotes, HGT now appears to occur more frequently than originally thought. Many studies are currently detecting novel HGT events among distinct lineages using next-generation sequencing. Most examples to date include gene transfers from bacterial donors to recipient organisms including fungi, plants, and animals...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220487/ancestral-genome-estimation-reveals-the-history-of-ecological-diversification-in-agrobacterium
#12
Florent Lassalle, Rémi Planel, Simon Penel, David Chapulliot, Valérie Barbe, Audrey Dubost, Alexandra Calteau, David Vallenet, Damien Mornico, Thomas Bigot, Laurent Guéguen, Ludovic Vial, Daniel Muller, Vincent Daubin, Xavier Nesme
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered as a major source of innovation in bacteria, and as such is expected to drive adaptation to new ecological niches. However, among the many genes acquired through HGT along the diversification history of genomes, only a fraction may have actively contributed to sustained ecological adaptation. We used a phylogenetic approach accounting for the transfer of genes (or groups of genes) to estimate the history of genomes in Agrobacterium biovar 1, a diverse group of soil and plant-dwelling bacterial species...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218031/crispr-cas-systems-in-bacteroides-fragilis-an-important-pathobiont-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#13
Mehrdad Tajkarimi, Hannah M Wexler
Background: While CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in bacteria from a wide variety of ecological niches, there are no studies to describe CRISPR-Cas elements in Bacteroides species, the most prevalent anaerobic bacteria in the lower intestinal tract. Microbes of the genus Bacteroides make up ~25% of the total gut microbiome. Bacteroides fragilis comprises only 2% of the total Bacteroides in the gut, yet causes of >70% of Bacteroides infections. The factors causing it to transition from benign resident of the gut microbiome to virulent pathogen are not well understood, but a combination of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of virulence genes and differential transcription of endogenous genes are clearly involved...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180992/phylogenetic-network-analysis-revealed-the-occurrence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-16s-rrna-in-the-genus-enterobacter
#14
Mitsuharu Sato, Kentaro Miyazaki
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a ubiquitous genetic event in bacterial evolution, but it seldom occurs for genes involved in highly complex supramolecules (or biosystems), which consist of many gene products. The ribosome is one such supramolecule, but several bacteria harbor dissimilar and/or chimeric 16S rRNAs in their genomes, suggesting the occurrence of HGT of this gene. However, we know little about whether the genes actually experience HGT and, if so, the frequency of such a transfer. This is primarily because the methods currently employed for phylogenetic analysis (e...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176894/horizontal-acquisition-of-a-hypoxia-responsive-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis-pathway-contributed-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathoadaptation
#15
Florence Levillain, Yannick Poquet, Ludovic Mallet, Serge Mazères, Michael Marceau, Roland Brosch, Franz-Christoph Bange, Philip Supply, Axel Magalon, Olivier Neyrolles
The unique ability of the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to persist for long periods of time in lung hypoxic lesions chiefly contributes to the global burden of latent TB. We and others previously reported that the M. tuberculosis ancestor underwent massive episodes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mostly from environmental species. Here, we sought to explore whether such ancient HGT played a part in M. tuberculosis evolution towards pathogenicity. We were interested by a HGT-acquired M...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176581/functional-horizontal-gene-transfer-from-bacteria-to-eukaryotes
#16
REVIEW
Filip Husnik, John P McCutcheon
Bacteria influence eukaryotic biology as parasitic, commensal or beneficial symbionts. Aside from these organismal interactions, bacteria have also been important sources of new genetic sequences through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for eukaryotes. In this Review, we focus on gene transfers from bacteria to eukaryotes, discuss how horizontally transferred genes become functional and explore what functions are endowed upon a broad diversity of eukaryotes by genes derived from bacteria. We classify HGT events into two broad types: those that maintain pre-existing functions and those that provide the recipient with new functionality, including altered host nutrition, protection and adaptation to extreme environments...
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134153/hgtsim-a-simulator-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-hgt-in-microbial-communities
#17
Weizhi Song, Kerrin Steensen, Torsten Thomas
The development and application of metagenomic approaches have provided an opportunity to study and define horizontal gene transfer (HGT) on the level of microbial communities. However, no current metagenomic data simulation tools offers the option to introduce defined HGT within a microbial community. Here, we present HgtSIM, a pipeline to simulate HGT event among microbial community members with user-defined mutation levels. It was developed for testing and benchmarking pipelines for recovering HGTs from complex microbial datasets...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120392/impact-of-lateral-transfers-on-the-genomes-of-lepidoptera
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Michel Drezen, Thibaut Josse, Annie Bézier, Jérémy Gauthier, Elisabeth Huguet, Elisabeth Anne Herniou
Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of "alien" DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera...
November 9, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112165/poxvirus-host-range-genes-and-virus-host-spectrum-a-critical-review
#19
REVIEW
Graziele Pereira Oliveira, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues, Maurício Teixeira Lima, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Jônatas Santos Abrahão
The Poxviridae family is comprised of double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Among the NCLDV, poxviruses exhibit the widest known host range, which is likely observed because this viral family has been more heavily investigated. However, relative to each member of the Poxviridae family, the spectrum of the host is variable, where certain viruses can infect a large range of hosts, while others are restricted to only one host species. It has been suggested that the variability in host spectrum among poxviruses is linked with the presence or absence of some host range genes...
November 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091031/inter-species-population-dynamics-enhance-microbial-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Robert M Cooper, Lev Tsimring, Jeff Hasty
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern are Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria, which recently emerged as global pathogens, with nosocomial mortality rates reaching 19-54% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013; Joly Guillou, 2005; Talbot et al., 2006). Acinetobacter gains antibiotic resistance remarkably rapidly (Antunes et al., 2014; Joly Guillou, 2005), with multi drug-resistance (MDR) rates exceeding 60% (Antunes et al., 2014; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013)...
November 1, 2017: ELife
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