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Apuã C M Paquola, Huma Asif, Carlos Alberto de Bragança Pereira, Bruno César Feltes, Diego Bonatto, Wanessa Cristina Lima, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a major impact on the evolution of prokaryotic genomes, as it allows genes evolved in different contexts to be combined in a single genome, greatly enhancing the ways evolving organisms can explore the gene content space and adapt to the environment. A systematic analysis of HGT in a large number of genomes is of key importance in understanding the impact of HGT in the evolution of prokaryotes. We developed a method for the detection of genes that potentially originated by HGT based on the comparison of BLAST scores between homologous genes to 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic distances between the involved organisms...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Saori Kataoka, Toshio Norikura, Shin Sato
Maternal malnutrition is known to increase the risk of obesity in offspring. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation affects obesity-related fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney of high-fat-diet-fed adult offspring of protein-restricted-diet-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 20% (normal-protein, NP) or 8% (low-protein, LP) casein, and they received 0%-, 0.12%- or 0.24%-GTE-containing LP diets (LP/LP, LP/LGT and LP/HGT, respectively) during lactation...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lewis M Ward, James Hemp, Patrick M Shih, Shawn E McGlynn, Woodward W Fischer
The evolutionary mechanisms behind the extant distribution of photosynthesis is a point of substantial contention. Hypotheses range from the presence of phototrophy in the last universal common ancestor and massive gene loss in most lineages, to a later origin in Cyanobacteria followed by extensive horizontal gene transfer into the extant phototrophic clades, with intermediate scenarios that incorporate aspects of both end-members. Here, we report draft genomes of 11 Chloroflexi: the phototrophic Chloroflexia isolate Kouleothrix aurantiaca as well as 10 genome bins recovered from metagenomic sequencing of microbial mats found in Japanese hot springs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benoît Lacroix, Vitaly Citovsky
Besides the massive gene transfer from organelles to the nuclear genomes, which occurred during the early evolution of eukaryote lineages, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes remains controversial. Yet, increasing amounts of genomic data reveal many cases of bacterium-to-eukaryote HGT that likely represent a significant force in adaptive evolution of eukaryotic species. However, DNA transfer involved in genetic transformation of plants by Agrobacterium species has traditionally been considered as the unique example of natural DNA transfer and integration into eukaryotic genomes...
March 3, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Margarita Stritzler, Gabriela Soto, Nicolás Ayub
There are increasing evidences that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a critical mechanism of bacterial evolution, while its complete impact remains unclear. A main constraint of HGT effects on microbial evolution seems to be the conservation of the function of the horizontally transferred genes. From this perspective, inflexible nomenclature and functionality criteria have been established for some mobile genetic elements such as pathogenic and symbiotic islands. Adhesion is a universal prerequisite for both beneficial and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, and thus, adhesion systems (e...
February 23, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Andrey Vladimirovich Gorovtsov, Ivan Sergeevich Sazykin, Marina Alexandrovna Sazykina
The minireview is devoted to the analysis of the influence of soil pollution with heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the distribution of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in soil microbiomes. It is shown that the best understanding of ARGs distribution process requires studying the influence of pollutants on this process in natural microbiocenoses. Heavy metals promote co-selection of genes determining resistance to them together with ARGs in the same mobile elements of a bacterial genome, but the majority of studies focus on agricultural soils enriched with ARGs originating from manure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Hiroshi Nishiwaki, Mikako Ito, Shuto Negishi, Sayaka Sobue, Masatoshi Ichihara, Kinji Ohno
BACKGROUND: Molecular hydrogen exerts its effect on multiple pathologies, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In order to explore the effects of molecular hydrogen, we meta-analyzed gene expression profiles modulated by molecular hydrogen. METHODS: We performed microarray analysis of the mouse liver with or without drinking hydrogen water. We also integrated two previously reported microarray datasets of the rat liver into meta-analyses...
February 9, 2018: Free Radical Research
Hui Wang, Bum Soo Park, Weol-Ae Lim, Jang-Seu Ki
Metacaspases (MCAs) are cysteine proteases that share sequence homology with caspases, and may play roles in programmed cell death (PCD). In the present study, we identified a novel MCA gene (CpMCA) from the red tide dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, and examined its molecular characteristics and gene expression in response to algicide-induced cell death. CpMCA cDNA is 1164 bp in length, containing a dinoflagellate spliced leader sequence (dinoSL), an 879-bp open reading frame (ORF), which codes for a 293-aa protein, and a poly (A) tail...
February 2, 2018: Gene
Othman Rechiche, Jeffrey E Plowman, Duane P Harland, T Verne Lee, J Shaun Lott
Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) were identified 70 years ago in wool follicles. KAPs are encoded by several multi-gene families and are classified into three different groups: ultra-high sulfur (UHS), high sulfur (HS) and high glycine-tyrosine (HGT). KAPs are the major constituent of the matrix between the hair keratin intermediate filaments (IFs), and stabilise hair structure by extensive disulfide bonding. However, detailed molecular structural information is lacking for KAPs and for KAP interactions with IFs...
January 29, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
C Magnabosco, K R Moore, J M Wolfe, G P Fournier
Phototrophic bacteria are among the most biogeochemically significant organisms on Earth and are physiologically related through the use of reaction centers to collect photons for energy metabolism. However, the major phototrophic lineages are not closely related to one another in bacterial phylogeny, and the origins of their respective photosynthetic machinery remain obscured by time and low sequence similarity. To better understand the co-evolution of Cyanobacteria and other ancient anoxygenic phototrophic lineages with respect to geologic time, we designed and implemented a variety of molecular clocks that use horizontal gene transfer (HGT) as additional, relative constraints...
January 31, 2018: Geobiology
N Wybouw, T Van Leeuwen, W Dermauw
A number of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) have been identified in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a chelicerate herbivore. However, the genome of this mite species has at present not been thoroughly mined for the presence of HGT genes. Here, we performed a systematic screen for HGT genes in the T. urticae genome using the h-index metric. Our results not only validated previously identified HGT genes but also uncovered 25 novel HGT genes. In addition to HGT genes with a predicted biochemical function in carbohydrate, lipid and folate metabolism, we also identified the horizontal transfer of a ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase and a pantoate β-alanine ligase gene...
January 29, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Yueheng Zhang, Qingping Ma, Bingmei Su, Rui Chen, Juan Lin, Zhifen Lin, Dali Wang, Yang Yu
Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E...
January 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Rafael Pinilla, Leise Riber, Søren J Sørensen
The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by significant advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter gene technologies. Recently, the combination of these novel approaches with flow cytometry has presented itself as one of the most powerful tools to study the spread of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the environment. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry is limited by environmental constraints that affect the correct maturation of their fluorophores, such as oxygen availability and pH levels...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Soon-Jae Lee, Mengxuan Kong, Paul Harrison, Mohamed Hijri
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism in the evolution of many living organisms particularly in Prokaryotes where genes are frequently dispersed between taxa. Although, HGT has been reported in Eukaryotes, its accumulative effect and its frequency has been questioned. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an early diverged fungal lineage belonging to phylum Glomeromycota, whose phylogenetic position is still under debate. The history of AMF and land plant symbiosis dates back to at least 460 Ma...
January 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Jürgen Tomasch, Hui Wang, April T K Hall, Diana Patzelt, Matthias Preusse, Jörn Petersen, Henner Brinkmann, Boyke Bunk, Sabin Bhuju, Michael Jarek, Robert Geffers, Andrew S Lang, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are phage-like particles which contain a fragment of genomic DNA of the bacterial or archaeal producer and deliver this to a recipient cell. GTA gene clusters are present in the genomes of almost all marine Rhodobacteraceae (Roseobacters) and might be important contributors to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the world's oceans. For all organisms studied so far, no obvious evidence of sequence specificity or other non-random process responsible for packaging genomic DNA into GTAs has been found...
January 9, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Ryan L Clark, Gina C Gordon, Nathaniel R Bennett, Haoxiang Lyu, Thatcher W Root, Brian F Pfleger
As researchers engineer cyanobacteria for biotechnological applications, we must consider potential environmental release of these organisms. Previous theoretical work has considered cyanobacterial containment through elimination of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to impose a high-CO2 requirement (HCR), which could be provided in the cultivation environment but not in the surroundings. In this work, we experimentally implemented an HCR containment mechanism in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (PCC7002) through deletion of carboxysome shell proteins and showed that this mechanism contained cyanobacteria in a 5% CO2 environment...
January 10, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
So Tando, Toshitaka Nagao, Kaori Kayano, Shinji Fushiki, Kyoko Itoh
High-grade transformation (HGT)/dedifferentiation is an unusual phenomenon in salivary gland carcinomas. Here we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with HGT/dedifferentiation to myoepithelial carcinoma, occurring in the epipharynx of a 42-year-old woman. The surgically resected tumor was a pedunculated mass, 31 × 25 mm in size, which had two histologically distinct carcinomatous areas, including a high-grade sarcomatoid area composed of pleomorphic spindle cells and an area consisting of low-grade typical ACC...
December 29, 2017: Pathology International
Paweł Wawrzyniak, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Dariusz Bartosik
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes greatly to the plasticity and evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The main carriers of foreign DNA in HGT are mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that have extremely diverse genetic structures and properties. Various strategies are used for the maintenance and spread of MGEs, including (i) vegetative replication, (ii) transposition (and other types of recombination), and (iii) conjugal transfer. In many MGEs, all of these processes are dependent on rolling-circle replication (RCR)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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