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Gang Li, Mengyu Shen, Shuai Le, Yinling Tan, Ming Li, Xia Zhao, Wei Shen, Yuhui Yang, Jing Wang, Hongbin Zhu, Shu Li, Xiancai Rao, Fuquan Hu, Shuguang Lu
As a third-generation sequencing method, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology provides long read length, and it is well suited for re-sequencing projects and de novo assembly. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was characterized and re-sequenced using SMRT technology. PA1 was also subjected to genomic, comparative, and pan-genomic analyses. The multi-drug resistant strain PA1 possesses a 6,498,072 bp genome and a sequence type of ST-782. The genome of PA1 was also visualized, and the results revealed the details of general genome annotations, virulence factors, regulatory proteins, secretion system proteins, type II toxin-antitoxin pairs, and genomic islands...
October 20, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Oleg Mamontov, Mikhail Bogachev, Andrey Kozlenoc
OBJECTIVE: To assess the autonomic regulation in patients with various circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) anomalies that persisted despite of combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 114 hypertensives aged 56,8 ± 17,9 years receiving combined antihypertensive therapy divided into two groups, with adequate (n = 61) and inadequate (n = 53) CBPP. Groups were comparable in terms of age and number of drugs intake per day (2.8 ± 1...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
N Briant, T Chouvelon, L Martinez, C Brach-Papa, J F Chiffoleau, N Savoye, J Sonke, J Knoery
Marine mercury (Hg) concentrations have been monitored in the French coastline for the last half a century using bivalves. The analyses presented in this study concerned 192 samples of bivalves (mussels: Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis and oysters: Crassostrea gigas and Isognomon alatus) from 77 sampling stations along the French coast and in the French Antilles sea. The goals of this study were to assess MeHg levels in various common bivalves from French coastline, and to identify possible geographic, taxonomic or temporal variations of concentrations...
October 13, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kai Zhao, Fangfang Ren, Fangting Han, Qiwen Liu, Guogan Wu, Yan Xu, Jian Zhang, Xiao Wu, Jinbin Wang, Peng Li, Wei Shi, Hong Zhu, Jianjun Lv, Xiao Zhao, Xueming Tang
In this study, assessment of the safety of transgenic rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C was carried out by: (1) studying horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Sprague Dawley rats fed transgenic rice for 90 d; (2) examining the effect of Cry1C protein in vitro on digestibility and allergenicity; and (3) studying the changes of intestinal microbiota in rats fed with transgenic rice T1C-1 in acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing either 60% GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein, the parental rice Minghui 63, or a basic diet for 90 d...
2016: PloS One
Ravi S Pandey, Garima Saxena, Debashish Bhattacharya, Huan Qiu, Rajeev K Azad
Identification of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) has primarily relied on phylogenetic tree based methods, which require a rich sampling of sequenced genomes to ensure a reliable inference. Because the success of phylogenetic approaches depends on the breadth and depth of the database, researchers usually apply stringent filters to detect only the most likely gene transfers in the genomes of interest. One such study focused on a highly conservative estimate of trans-domain gene transfers in the extremophile eukaryote, Galdieria sulphuraria (Galdieri) Merola (Rhodophyta), by applying multiple filters in their phylogenetic pipeline...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Allison J Lopatkin, Tatyana A Sysoeva, Lingchong You
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major mechanism responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance. Conversely, it is often assumed that antibiotics promote HGT. Careful dissection of the literature, however, suggests a lack of conclusive evidence supporting this notion in general. This is largely due to the lack of well-defined quantitative experiments to address this question in an unambiguous manner. In this review, we discuss the extent to which HGT is responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance and examine what is known about the effect of antibiotics on the HGT dynamics...
October 4, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Juan Tong, Chulu Buhe, Rui Wang, Meixue Chen, Yuansong Wei
Sewage sludge is considered as one of major contributors to the increased environmental burden of ARGs. Sludge bio-drying was increasingly adopted due to its faster sludge reduction compared with composting. The fate of ARGs during full-scale sludge bio-drying was investigated to determine whether it could effectively reduce ARGs, and the contributions of bacterial community, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and co-selection from heavy metals to ARGs profiles were discussed in detail...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
Gabriela Jorge Da Silva, Sara Domingues
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force to the evolution of bacteria. The fast emergence of antimicrobial resistance reflects the ability of genetic adaptation of pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged in the last few decades as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, in part due to its high capacity of acquiring resistance to diverse antibiotic families, including to the so-called last line drugs such as carbapenems. The rampant selective pressure and genetic exchange of resistance genes hinder the effective treatment of resistant infections...
August 23, 2016: Microorganisms
Zefeng Yang, Li Liu, Huimin Fang, Pengcheng Li, Shuhui Xu, Wei Cao, Chenwu Xu, Jinling Huang, Yong Zhou
The Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a direct inhibitor of ToMV RNA replication to protect tomato from infection. The plant Tm-1-like (Tm-1L) protein is predicted to contain an uncharacterized N-terminal UPF0261 domain and a C-terminal TIM-barrel signal transduction (TBST) domain. Homologous searches revealed that proteins containing both of these two domains are mainly present in charophyte green algae and land plants but absent from glaucophytes, red algae and chlorophyte green algae...
2016: Scientific Reports
Oleg Mamontov, Mikhail Bogachev, Andrey Kozlenoc
OBJECTIVE: To assess the autonomic regulation in patients with various circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) anomalies that persisted despite of combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 114 hypertensives aged 56,8 ± 17,9 years receiving combined antihypertensive therapy divided into two groups, with adequate (n = 61) and inadequate (n = 53) CBPP. Groups were comparable in terms of age and number of drugs intake per day (2.8 ± 1...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Charley G P McCarthy, David A Fitzpatrick
While most commonly associated with prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can also have a significant influence on the evolution of microscopic eukaryotes. Systematic analysis of HGT in the genomes of the oomycetes, filamentous eukaryotic microorganisms in the Stramenopiles-Alveolates-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup, has to date focused mainly on intradomain transfer events between oomycetes and fungi. Using systematic whole-genome analysis followed by phylogenetic reconstruction, we have investigated the extent of interdomain HGT between bacteria and plant-pathogenic oomycetes...
September 2016: MSphere
Zhiyuan Yin, Baitao Zhu, Hao Feng, Lili Huang
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) often has strong benefits for fungi. In a study of samples from apple canker in Shaanxi Province, China, diverse microbes, along with the necrotrophic pathogen Valsa mali, were found to colonize the apple bark, thus providing ample opportunity for HGT to occur. In the present study, we identified 32 HGT events in V. mali by combining phyletic distribution-based methods with phylogenetic analyses. Most of these HGTs were from bacteria, whereas several others were from eukaryotes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Baofa Sun, Tong Li, Jinhua Xiao, Li Liu, Peng Zhang, Robert W Murphy, Shunmin He, Dawei Huang
Amphibian populations are experiencing catastrophic declines driven by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Although horizontal gene transfer (HGT) facilitates the evolution and adaptation in many fungi by conferring novel function genes to the recipient fungi, inter-kingdom HGT in Bd remains largely unexplored. In this study, our investigation detects 19 bacterial genes transferred to Bd, including metallo-beta-lactamase and arsenate reductase that play important roles in the resistance to antibiotics and arsenates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert M Mulhall, Carina Brehony, Lois O'Connor, Kenneth Meyler, Keith A Jolley, James Bray, Desiree Bennett, Martin C J Maiden, Robert Cunney
BACKGROUND: A carriage study was undertaken (n=112) to ascertain the prevalence Neisseria spp. following the eighth case of invasive meningococcal disease in young children (5-46 months) and members of a large extended indigenous ethnic minority Traveller family (n=123), typically associated with high occupancy living conditions. METHODS: Nested Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was employed for case specimen extracts. Isolates were genome sequenced, then assembled de novo and deposited into the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequencing database (BIGSdb)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jonas Stenløkke Madsen, Leise Riber, Witold Kot, Alrun Basfeld, Mette Burmølle, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Søren Johannes Sørensen
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae...
2016: PloS One
Danielle Bury, Mugtaba Dafalla, Shabada Ahmed, Henrik Hellquist
Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is commonly thought of as a low grade malignant salivary neoplasm, and possibly has the best prognosis of all salivary malignancies with a 10-year survival of almost 90%. High grade transformation (HGT) in these tumours is a relatively rare event but is increasingly being reported. HGT (formerly referred to as dedifferentiation) in acinic cell carcinoma has shown to drastically reduce the survival rates and its recognition is imperative as more aggressive clinical management is needed...
August 22, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Lucas D Lopes, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Fernando D Andreote
The rhizosphere harbors one of the most complex, diverse, and active plant-associated microbial communities. This community can be recruited by the plant host to either supply it with nutrients or to help in the survival under stressful conditions. Although selection for the rhizosphere community is evident, the specific bacterial traits that make them able to colonize this environment are still poorly understood. Thus, here we used a combination of community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing (coupled with in silico analysis and metagenome prediction), to get insights on bacterial features and processes involved in rhizosphere colonization of sugarcane...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ivana Mašlaňová, Sabina Stříbná, Jiří Doškař, Roman Pantůček
The transduction mediated by bacteriophages is considered to be one of the primary driving forces in horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci, which is crucial to their adaptation and successful evolution. For a transduction to be effective, it is generally accepted that the recipient strain should be susceptible to the transducing phage. In this study, we demonstrate that the plasmid DNAs are effectively transduced into the recipient Staphylococcus aureus strains in spite of their insensitivity to the lytic action of the transducing phage, provided that these phages adsorb effectively to the bacterial cells...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Henrik Hellquist, Alena Skalova, Bahram Azadeh
Salivary gland hybrid tumour, first described in 1996, is a very rare neoplasm for which exact morphological criteria have not been universally agreed upon. In contrast, the concept of high-grade transformation (HGT) in salivary neoplasms has been widely accepted during the last decade, and the number of reported cases is rapidly increasing. A review of the literature revealed 38 cases of hybrid tumour reported in 22 publications. During approximately the same time period, well over 100 cases of HGT in salivary neoplasms have been reported...
September 7, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Kathrin Trappe, Tobias Marschall, Bernhard Y Renard
MOTIVATION: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fundamental mechanism that enables organisms such as bacteria to directly transfer genetic material between distant species. This way, bacteria can acquire new traits such as antibiotic resistance or pathogenic toxins. Current bioinformatics approaches focus on the detection of past HGT events by exploring phylogenetic trees or genome composition inconsistencies. However, these techniques normally require the availability of finished and fully annotated genomes and of sufficiently large deviations that allow detection and are thus not widely applicable...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
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