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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920507/navigating-the-structure-function-evolutionary-relationship-of-csaa-chaperone-in-archaea
#1
Archana Sharma, Shikha Rani, Manisha Goel
CsaA is a protein involved in the post-translational translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is considered to be a functional homolog of SecB which participates in the Sec-dependent translocation pathway in an analogous manner. CsaA has also been reported to act as a molecular chaperone, preventing aggregation of unfolded proteins. It is essentially a prokaryotic protein which is absent in eukaryotes, but found extensively in bacteria and earlier thought to be widely present in archaea...
September 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914880/tremblaya-phenacola-pper-an-evolutionary-beta-gammaproteobacterium-collage
#2
Rosario Gil, Carlos Vargas-Chavez, Sergio López-Madrigal, Diego Santos-García, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya
Many insects rely on bacterial endosymbionts to obtain nutrients that are scarce in their highly specialized diets. The most surprising example corresponds to the endosymbiotic system found in mealybugs from subfamily Pseudococcinae in which two bacteria, the betaproteobacterium 'Candidatus Tremblaya princeps' and a gammaproteobacterium, maintain a nested endosymbiotic consortium. In the sister subfamily Phenacoccinae, however, a single beta-endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola', has been described...
September 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894459/a-preliminary-list-of-horizontally-transferred-genes-in-prokaryotes-determined-by-tree-reconstruction-and-reconciliation
#3
Hyeonsoo Jeong, Arshan Nasir
Genome-wide global detection of genes involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT) remains an active area of research in medical microbiology and evolutionary genomics. Utilizing the explicit evolutionary method of comparing topologies of a total of 154,805 orthologous gene trees against corresponding 16S rRNA "reference" trees, we previously detected a total of 660,894 candidate HGT events in 2,472 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Here, we report an HGT-index for each individual gene-reference tree pair reconciliation, representing the total number of detected HGT events on the gene tree divided by the total number of genomes (taxa) member of that tree...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890711/horizontally-acquired-genes-are-often-shared-between-closely-related-bacterial-species
#4
Evgeni Bolotin, Ruth Hershberg
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) serves as an important source of innovation for bacterial species. We used a pangenome-based approach to identify genes that were horizontally acquired by four closely related bacterial species, belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This enabled us to examine the extent to which such closely related species tend to share horizontally acquired genes. We find that a high percent of horizontally acquired genes are shared among these closely related species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extent of sharing of horizontally acquired genes among these four closely related species is predictive of the extent to which these genes will be found in additional bacterial species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875307/the-para-region-of-broad-host-range-proma-plasmids-is-a-carrier-of-mobile-genes
#5
Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias, Simone Raposo Cotta, Fernando Dini Andreote, Jan Dirk van Elsas
The ecological competences in microbiomes are driven by the adaptive capabilities present within microbiome members. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) promoted by plasmids provides a rapid adaptive strategy to microbiomes, an interesting feature considering the constantly changing conditions in most environments. This study examined the parA locus, found in the highly promiscuous PromA class of plasmids, as the insertion site for incoming genes. A novel PCR system was designed that enabled examining insertions into this locus...
September 5, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864953/monitoring-of-genetically-modified-escherichia-coli-in-laboratory-wastewater
#6
Fabienne Wichmann, Ines Wyrsch, Jörg Frank, Matthias Müller, Nicole Bertschi, Peter Brodmann, Claudia Bagutti
Containment of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms such as Escherichia coli is a legal requirement to protect the environment from an unintended release and to avoid horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of recombinant DNA to native bacteria. In this study, we sampled the laboratory wastewater (LWW) at a large Swiss university from three sources over 2 years and cultured ampicillin-resistant, presumptive GM E. coli. From a total of 285 samples, 127 contained presumptive GM E. coli (45%) at a mean concentration of 2...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861068/protein-protein-interactions-in-virus-host-systems
#7
REVIEW
Anderson F Brito, John W Pinney
To study virus-host protein interactions, knowledge about viral and host protein architectures and repertoires, their particular evolutionary mechanisms, and information on relevant sources of biological data is essential. The purpose of this review article is to provide a thorough overview about these aspects. Protein domains are basic units defining protein interactions, and the uniqueness of viral domain repertoires, their mode of evolution, and their roles during viral infection make viruses interesting models of study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859885/case-studies-on-genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-potential-risk-scenarios-and-associated-health-indicators
#8
Barbara De Santis, Norbert Stockhofe, Jean-Michel Wal, Eefke Weesendorp, Jean Paul Lallès, Jeroen van Dijk, Esther Kok, Marzia De Giacomo, Ralf Einspanier, Roberta Onori, Carlo Brera, Paul Bikker, Jan van der Meulen, Kleter Gijs
Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed...
August 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856785/lifestyle-determining-extrachromosomal-replicon-pamv1-and-its-contribution-to-the-carbon-metabolism-of-the-methylotrophic-bacterium-paracoccus-aminovorans-jcm-7685
#9
Jakub Czarnecki, Lukasz Dziewit, Maria Puzyna, Emilia Prochwicz, Agnieszka Tudek, Daniel Wibberg, Andreas Schlüter, Alfred Pühler, Dariusz Bartosik
Plasmids play an important role in the adaptation of bacteria to changeable environmental conditions. As the main vectors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), they can spread genetic information among bacteria, sometimes even across taxonomic boundaries. Some plasmids carry genes involved in the utilization of particular carbon compounds, which can provide a competitive advantage to their hosts in particular ecological niches. Analysis of the multireplicon genome of the soil bacterium P. aminovorans JCM 7685 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal replicon pAMV1 (185 kb) with a unique structure and properties...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851849/functional-constraints-on-replacing-an-essential-gene-with-its-ancient-and-modern-homologs
#10
Betül Kacar, Eva Garmendia, Nurcan Tuncbag, Dan I Andersson, Diarmaid Hughes
Genes encoding proteins that carry out essential informational tasks in the cell, in particular where multiple interaction partners are involved, are less likely to be transferable to a foreign organism. Here, we investigated the constraints on transfer of a gene encoding a highly conserved informational protein, translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), by systematically replacing the endogenous tufA gene in the Escherichia coli genome with its extant and ancestral homologs. The extant homologs represented tuf variants from both near and distant homologous organisms...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842276/toxic-genes-present-a-unique-phylogenetic-signature
#11
Eliran Avni, Sagi Snir
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major part of the evolution of Archaea and Bacteria, to the extent that the validity of the Tree of Life concept for prokaryotes has been seriously questioned. The patterns and routes of HGT remain a subject of intense study and debate. It was discovered that while several genes exhibit rampant HGT across the whole prokaryotic tree of life, others are lethal to certain organisms and therefore cannot be successfully transferred to them. We distinguish between these two classes of genes and show analytically that genes found to be toxic to a specific species (E...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839126/ancestor-of-land-plants-acquired-the-dna-3-methyladenine-glycosylase-mag-gene-from-bacteria-through-horizontal-gene-transfer
#12
Huimin Fang, Liexiang Huangfu, Rujia Chen, Pengcheng Li, Shuhui Xu, Enying Zhang, Wei Cao, Li Liu, Youli Yao, Guohua Liang, Chenwu Xu, Yong Zhou, Zefeng Yang
The origin and evolution of land plants was an important event in the history of life and initiated the establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystems. From water to terrestrial environments, plants needed to overcome the enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation and many other DNA-damaging agents. Evolving new genes with the function of DNA repair is critical for the origin and radiation of land plants. In bacteria, the DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase (MAG) recognizes of a variety of base lesions and initiates the process of the base excision repair for damaged DNA...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832845/emotional-and-motor-symptoms-in-riverside-dwellers-exposed-to-mercury-in-the-amazon
#13
José Maria Farah Costa, Abner Ariel da Silva Lima, Dario Rodrigues, Eliana Dirce Torres Khoury, Givago da Silva Souza, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro
Introduction: The investigation of clinical and neurological impactations associated with exposure to mercury levels in exposed populations is necessary in the Amazon. Objective: To analyze emotional and motor symptoms of riverside dwellers exposed by diet in the municipalities of Itaituba and Acará, in Pará, Brazil. Methods: Hair samples were collected to assess the total mercury (HgT). Demographic data as well as emotional (depression, anxiety and insomnia) and motor (paresthesia, muscle weakness, loss of balance when walking, tremors, limb pain and dysarthria) symptomatology data were obtained...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822231/preoperative-halo-gravity-traction-for-severe-thoracic-kyphoscoliosis-patients-from-tibet-radiographic-correction-pulmonary-function-improvement-nursing-and-complications
#14
Xiaojin Li, Liwen Zeng, Xiaoyin Li, Xuexia Chen, Caixia Ke
BACKGROUND This study investigated the outcomes of preoperative HGT as an adjunct treatment for severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis, its role in radiographic correction, and pulmonary function improvement, together with nursing strategy and incidence of complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eleven patients with a mean age of 18.8 years were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: patients with severe kyphoscoliosis (coronal Cobb angle and kyphosis angle ≥80°); duration of HGT ≥8 weeks; patients undergoing HGT for at least 12 h per day; traction weight no less than 40% of body weight; and patients not receiving physical therapies...
August 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808128/conjugative-plasmid-transfer-in-xylella-fastidiosa-is-dependent-on-tra-and-trb-operon-functions
#15
Lindsey P Burbank, Christopher R Van Horn
The insect-transmitted plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa is capable of efficient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. Natural transformation occurs at high rates in X. fastidiosa, but there also is evidence that certain strains of X. fastidiosa carry native plasmids equipped with transfer and mobilization genes, suggesting conjugation as an additional mechanism of HGT in some instances. Two operons, tra and trb, putatively encoding a conjugative Type IV secretion system are found in some but not all X...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802203/disentangling-the-origins-of-virophages-and-polintons
#16
REVIEW
Samuel Campbell, Amr Aswad, Aris Katzourakis
Virophages and polintons are part of a complex system that also involves eukaryotes, giant viruses, as well as other viruses and transposable elements. Virophages are cosmopolitan, being found in environments ranging from the Amazon River to Antarctic hypersaline lakes, while polintons are found in many single celled and multicellular eukaryotes. Virophages and polintons have a shared ancestry, but their exact origins are unknown and obscured by antiquity and extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Paleovirology can help disentangle the complicated gene flow between these two, as well as their giant viral and eukaryotic hosts...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790994/insight-into-the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-pandemic-strain
#17
REVIEW
Romilio T Espejo, Katherine García, Nicolas Plaza
A strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that emerged in 1995 caused the first known pandemic involving this species. This strain comprises clonal autochthonous ocean-dwelling bacteria whose evolution has occurred in the ocean environment. The low sequence diversity in this population enabled the discovery of information on its origin and evolution that has been hidden in bacterial clones that have evolved over a long period. Multilocus sequencing and microarray analysis, together with phylogenetic analysis, of pandemic and pre-pandemic isolates has suggested that the founder clone was an O3:K6 non-pathogenic strain that initially acquired a toxRS/new region and subsequently acquired at least seven novel genomic islands...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769910/plasmid-transfer-in-the-ocean-a-case-study-from-the-roseobacter-group
#18
Jörn Petersen, Irene Wagner-Döbler
Plasmid mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been speculated to be one of the prime mechanisms for the adaptation of roseobacters (Rhodobacteraceae) to their ecological niches in the marine habitat. Their plasmids contain ecologically crucial functional modules of up to ∼40-kb in size, e.g., for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, flagellar formation and the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tropodithietic acid. Furthermore, the widely present type four secretion system (T4SS) of roseobacters has been shown to mediate conjugation across genus barriers, albeit in the laboratory...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753988/evolutionary-significance-of-wolbachia-to-animal-horizontal-gene-transfer-female-sex-determination-and-the-f-element-in-the-isopod-armadillidium-vulgare
#19
REVIEW
Richard Cordaux, Clément Gilbert
An increasing number of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from bacteria to animals have been reported in the past years, many of which involve Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts. Most transferred Wolbachia genes are neutrally-evolving fossils embedded in host genomes. A remarkable case of Wolbachia HGT for which a clear evolutionary significance has been demonstrated is the "f element", a nuclear Wolbachia insert involved in female sex determination in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare...
July 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749982/comparative-genomics-of-the-tardigrades-hypsibius-dujardini-and-ramazzottius-varieornatus
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yuki Yoshida, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Dominik R Laetsch, Lewis Stevens, Sujai Kumar, Daiki D Horikawa, Kyoko Ishino, Shiori Komine, Takekazu Kunieda, Masaru Tomita, Mark Blaxter, Kazuharu Arakawa
Tardigrada, a phylum of meiofaunal organisms, have been at the center of discussions of the evolution of Metazoa, the biology of survival in extreme environments, and the role of horizontal gene transfer in animal evolution. Tardigrada are placed as sisters to Arthropoda and Onychophora (velvet worms) in the superphylum Panarthropoda by morphological analyses, but many molecular phylogenies fail to recover this relationship. This tension between molecular and morphological understanding may be very revealing of the mode and patterns of evolution of major groups...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
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