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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207825/discovery-of-a-new-family-of-relaxases-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#1
Gayetri Ramachandran, Andrés Miguel-Arribas, David Abia, Praveen K Singh, Isidro Crespo, César Gago-Córdoba, Jian An Hao, Juan Roman Luque-Ortega, Carlos Alfonso, Ling J Wu, D Roeland Boer, Wilfried J J Meijer
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global problem. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), which are widespread in environmental bacteria, can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Gut microbiomes are especially apt for the emergence and dissemination of ARG. Conjugation is the HGT route that is predominantly responsible for the spread of ARG. Little is known about conjugative elements of Gram-positive bacteria, including those of the phylum Firmicutes, which are abundantly present in gut microbiomes...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185083/posterior-only-surgery-with-preoperative-skeletal-traction-for-management-of-severe-scoliosis
#2
Saeedreza Mehrpour, Reza Sorbi, Reza Rezaei, Keyvan Mazda
PURPOSE: The surgical treatment of severe adolescent spinal deformities is challenging and carries substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. To mitigate this risk, surgeons have employed various methods as this study designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of preoperative halo-femoral or halo gravity traction (HGT) followed by posterior-only surgery in the management of severe scoliosis. METHOD: A total number of 23 patients with severe scoliosis treated by preoperative skeletal traction (halo gravity or halo femoral) followed by posterior fusion and instrumentation in one stage...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177699/comparing-phylogenetic-trees-by-matching-nodes-using-the-transfer-distance-between-partitions
#3
Damian Bogdanowicz, Krzysztof Giaro
Ability to quantify dissimilarity of different phylogenetic trees describing the relationship between the same group of taxa is required in various types of phylogenetic studies. For example, such metrics are used to assess the quality of phylogeny construction methods, to define optimization criteria in supertree building algorithms, or to find horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. Among the set of metrics described so far in the literature, the most commonly used seems to be the Robinson-Foulds distance...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137747/2b-or-not-2b-experimental-evolution-of-functional-exogenous-sequences-in-a-plant-rna-virus
#4
Anouk Willemsen, Mark P Zwart, Silvia Ambrós, José L Carrasco, Santiago F Elena
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is pervasive in viruses, and thought to be a key mechanism in their evolution. On the other hand, strong selective constraints against increasing genome size are an impediment for HGT, rapidly purging horizontally transferred sequences and thereby potentially hindering evolutionary innovation. Here we explore experimentally the evolutionary fate of viruses with simulated HGT events, using the plant RNA virus Tobacco etch virus (TEV), by separately introducing two functional, exogenous sequences to its genome...
January 30, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126282/net-deposition-of-mercury-to-the-antarctic-plateau-enhanced-by-sea-salt
#5
Yeongcheol Han, Youngsook Huh, Soon Do Hur, Sungmin Hong, Ji Woong Chung, Hideaki Motoyama
Photochemically driven mercury (Hg) exchange between the atmosphere and the Antarctic Plateau snowpack has been observed. An imbalance in bidirectional flux causes a fraction of Hg to remain in the snowpack perennially, but the factors that control the amount of Hg sequestered on the Antarctic Plateau are not fully understood. We analyzed sub-annual variations in total Hg (HgT) deposition to Dome Fuji over the period of 1986-2010 using cold vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared concentrations with those of sea salt components (Na(+) and Cl(-))...
January 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115989/identification-and-characterization-of-the-glucose-dual-affinity-transport-system-in-neurospora-crassa-pleiotropic-roles-in-nutrient-transport-signaling-and-carbon-catabolite-repression
#6
Bang Wang, Jingen Li, Jingfang Gao, Pengli Cai, Xiaoyun Han, Chaoguang Tian
BACKGROUND: The glucose dual-affinity transport system (low- and high-affinity) is a conserved strategy used by microorganisms to cope with natural fluctuations in nutrient availability in the environment. The glucose-sensing and uptake processes are believed to be tightly associated with cellulase expression regulation in cellulolytic fungi. However, both the identities and functions of the major molecular components of this evolutionarily conserved system in filamentous fungi remain elusive...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115381/adaptive-evolution-of-extreme-acidophile-sulfobacillus-thermosulfidooxidans-potentially-driven-by-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-gene-loss
#7
Xian Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Xue Guo, Yunhua Xiao, Liyuan Ma, Bo Miao, Hongwei Liu, Deliang Peng, Wenkun Huang, Yuguang Zhang, Huaqun Yin
: Recent phylogenomic analysis has suggested that three strains isolated from different copper mine tailings around the world were taxonomically affiliated with Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Here, we present a detailed investigation of their genomic features, particularly with respect to metabolic potentials and stress tolerance mechanisms. Comprehensive analysis of the Sulfobacillus genomes identified a core set of essential genes with specialized biological functions in the survival of acidophiles in their habitats, despite differences in their metabolic pathways...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110078/escherichia-coli-hgt-engineered-for-high-glucose-throughput-even-under-slowly-growing-or-resting-conditions
#8
Annette Michalowski, Martin Siemann-Herzberg, Ralf Takors
Aerobic production-scale processes are constrained by the technical limitations of maximum oxygen transfer and heat removal. Consequently, microbial activity is often controlled via limited nutrient feeding to maintain it within technical operability. Here, we present an alternative approach based on a newly engineered Escherichia coli strain. This E. coli HGT (high glucose throughput) strain was engineered by modulating the stringent response regulation program and decreasing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase...
January 18, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100665/co-option-of-bacteriophage-lysozyme-genes-by-bivalve-genomes
#9
Qian Ren, Chunyang Wang, Min Jin, Jiangfeng Lan, Ting Ye, Kaimin Hui, Jingmin Tan, Zheng Wang, Gerald J Wyckoff, Wen Wang, Guan-Zhu Han
Eukaryotes have occasionally acquired genetic material through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, little is known about the evolutionary and functional significance of such acquisitions. Lysozymes are ubiquitous enzymes that degrade bacterial cell walls. Here, we provide evidence that two subclasses of bivalves (Heterodonta and Palaeoheterodonta) acquired a lysozyme gene via HGT, building on earlier findings. Phylogenetic analyses place the bivalve lysozyme genes within the clade of bacteriophage lysozyme genes, indicating that the bivalves acquired the phage-type lysozyme genes from bacteriophages, either directly or through intermediate hosts...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095778/the-pangenome-of-antarctic-pseudoalteromonas-bacteria-evolutionary-and-functional-insights
#10
Emanuele Bosi, Marco Fondi, Valerio Orlandini, Elena Perrin, Isabel Maida, Donatella de Pascale, Maria Luisa Tutino, Ermenegilda Parrilli, Angelina Lo Giudice, Alain Filloux, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of ubiquitous marine bacteria used as model organisms to study the biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation to cold conditions. A remarkable feature shared by these bacteria is their ability to produce secondary metabolites with a strong antimicrobial and antitumor activity. Despite their biotechnological relevance, representatives of this genus are still lacking (with few exceptions) an extensive genomic characterization, including features involved in the evolution of secondary metabolites production...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067311/supra-operonic-clusters-of-functionally-related-genes-socs-are-a-source-of-horizontal-gene-co-transfers
#11
Tin Yau Pang, Martin J Lercher
Adaptation of bacteria occurs predominantly via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). While it is widely recognized that horizontal acquisitions frequently encompass multiple genes, it is unclear what the size distribution of successfully transferred DNA segments looks like and what evolutionary forces shape this distribution. Here, we identified 1790 gene family pairs that were consistently co-gained on the same branches across a phylogeny of 53 E. coli strains. We estimated a lower limit of their genomic distances at the time they were transferred to their host genomes; this distribution shows a sharp upper bound at 30 kb...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049420/horizontal-gene-transfer-drives-the-evolution-of-rh50-permeases-in-prokaryotes
#12
Giorgio Matassi
BACKGROUND: Rh50 proteins belong to the family of ammonia permeases together with their Amt/MEP homologs. Ammonia permeases increase the permeability of NH3/NH4(+) across cell membranes and are believed to be involved in excretion of toxic ammonia and in the maintenance of pH homeostasis. RH50 genes are widespread in eukaryotes but absent in land plants and fungi, and remarkably rare in prokaryotes. The evolutionary history of RH50 genes in prokaryotes is just beginning to be unveiled...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041851/acquisition-of-phage-sensitivity-by-bacteria-through-exchange-of-phage-receptors
#13
Elhanan Tzipilevich, Michal Habusha, Sigal Ben-Yehuda
Bacteriophages (phages) typically exhibit a narrow host range, yet they tremendously impact horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here, we investigate phage dynamics in communities harboring phage-resistant (R) and sensitive (S) bacteria, a common scenario in nature. Using Bacillus subtilis and its lytic phage SPP1, we demonstrate that R cells, lacking SPP1 receptor, can be lysed by SPP1 when co-cultured with S cells. This unanticipated lysis was triggered in part by phage lytic enzymes released from nearby infected cells...
January 12, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029340/horizontal-gene-transfer-versus-biostimulation-a-strategy-for-bioremediation-in-goa
#14
Rajesh Pasumarthi, Srikanth Mutnuri
Bioaugmentation, Biostimulation and Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of catabolic genes have been proven for their role in bioremediation of hydrocarbons. It also has been proved that selection of either biostimulation or bioremediation varies for every contaminated site. The reliability of HGT compared to biostimulation and bioremediation was not tested. The present study focuses on reliability of biostimulatiion, bioaugmentation and HGT during biodegradation of Diesel oil and Non aqueous phase liquids (NAPL)...
October 28, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018913/evolution-of-bopa-gene-in-burkholderia-a-case-of-convergent-evolution-as-a-mechanism-for-bacterial-autophagy-evasion
#15
Dong Yu, Zhiqiu Yin, Yuan Jin, Jing Zhou, Hongguang Ren, Mingda Hu, Beiping Li, Wei Zhou, Long Liang, Junjie Yue
Autophagy is an important defense mechanism targeting intracellular bacteria to restrict their survival and growth. On the other hand, several intracellular pathogens have developed an antiautophagy mechanism to facilitate their own replication or intracellular survival. Up to now, no information about the origin or evolution of the antiautophagic genes in bacteria is available. BopA is an effector protein secreted by Burkholderia pseudomallei via the type three secretion system, and it has been shown to play a pivotal role in their escape from autophagy...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966630/arsenic-resistance-strategy-in-pantoea-sp-imh-organization-function-and-evolution-of-ars-genes
#16
Liying Wang, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang, Chuanyong Jing
Pantoea sp. IMH is the only bacterium found in genus Pantoea with a high As resistance capacity, but its molecular mechanism is unknown. Herein, the organization, function, and evolution of ars genes in IMH are studied starting with analysis of the whole genome. Two ars systems - ars1 (arsR1B1C1H1) and ars2 (arsR2B2C2H2) - with low sequence homology and two arsC-like genes, were found in the IMH genome. Both ars1 and ars2 are involved in the As resistance, where ars1 is the major contributor at 15 °C and ars2 at 30 °C...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965627/bacteriophage-wo-can-mediate-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-endosymbiotic-wolbachia-genomes
#17
Guan H Wang, Bao F Sun, Tuan L Xiong, Yan K Wang, Kristen E Murfin, Jin H Xiao, Da W Huang
Phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is common in free-living bacteria, and many transferred genes can play a significant role in their new bacterial hosts. However, there are few reports concerning phage-mediated HGT in endosymbionts (obligate intracellular bacteria within animal or plant hosts), such as Wolbachia. The Wolbachia-infecting temperate phage WO can actively shift among Wolbachia genomes and has the potential to mediate HGT between Wolbachia strains. In the present study, we extend previous findings by validating that the phage WO can mediate transfer of non-phage genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906133/the-plastid-genome-of-some-eustigmatophyte-algae-harbours-a-bacteria-derived-six-gene-cluster-for-biosynthesis-of-a-novel-secondary-metabolite
#18
Tatiana Yurchenko, Tereza Ševčíková, Hynek Strnad, Anzhelika Butenko, Marek Eliáš
Acquisition of genes by plastid genomes (plastomes) via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) seems to be a rare phenomenon. Here, we report an interesting case of HGT revealed by sequencing the plastomes of the eustigmatophyte algae Monodopsis sp. MarTras21 and Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202. These plastomes proved to harbour a unique cluster of six genes, most probably acquired from a bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes, with homologues in various bacteria, typically organized in a conserved uncharacterized putative operon...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905863/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-selenium-content-and-mercury-levels-in-wild-harvested-fish-from-the-dehcho-region-northwest-territories-canada
#19
Ellen S Reyes, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Katherine M Kornobis, Rhona M Hanning, Shannon E Majowicz, Karsten Liber, Ken D Stark, George Low, Heidi K Swanson, Brian D Laird
To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905116/unparalleled-replacement-of-native-mitochondrial-genes-by-foreign-homologs-in-a-holoparasitic-plant
#20
M Virginia Sanchez-Puerta, Laura E García, Josefina Wohlfeiler, Luis F Ceriotti
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among flowering plant mitochondria occurs frequently and, in most cases, leads to nonfunctional transgenes in the recipient genome. Parasitic plants are particularly prone to this phenomenon, but their mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) have been largely unexplored. We undertook a large-scale mitochondrial genomic study of the holoparasitic plant Lophophytum mirabile (Balanophoraceae). Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses were performed to address the frequency, origin, and impact of HGT...
November 30, 2016: New Phytologist
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