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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150903/phylogenetic-and-genetic-variation-analyses-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-isolated-from-china
#1
S Yang, S Yin, Y Shang, B Liu, L Yuan, M U Zafar Khan, X Liu, J Cai
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease, which is a growing problem in the swine industry worldwide. High nucleotide substitution occurs in the capsid (Cap) gene of PCV2, which allows the continuous evolution and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. In this study, we sequenced 24 Chinese PCV2 strains collected from healthy and diseased pigs between 2013 and 2015. Analyses of the genome, Cap and phylogeny classified the 24 Chinese PCV2 strains as PCV-2a (four of 24), PCV-2b (five of 24) and PCV-2d (15 of 24)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150497/low-molecular-weight-thiols-and-thioredoxins-are-important-players-in-hg-ii-resistance-in-thermus-thermophilus-hb27
#2
J Norambuena, Y Wang, T Hanson, J M Boyd, T Barkay
Mercury (Hg), one of the most toxic and widely distributed heavy metals, has a high affinity for thiol groups. Thiol groups reduce and sequester Hg. Therefore, low molecular weight and protein thiols may be important cell components used in Hg resistance. To date, the role of low molecular weight thiols in Hg-detoxification remains understudied. The mercury resistance (mer) operon of Thermus thermophilus suggests an evolutionary link between Hg(II) resistance and low molecular weight thiol metabolism. This mer operon encodes for an enzyme involved in methionine biosynthesis, Oah...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149077/rna-virus-evolution-via-a-quasispecies-based-model-reveals-a-drug-target-with-a-high-barrier-to-resistance
#3
Richard J Bingham, Eric C Dykeman, Reidun Twarock
The rapid occurrence of therapy-resistant mutant strains provides a challenge for anti-viral therapy. An ideal drug target would be a highly conserved molecular feature in the viral life cycle, such as the packaging signals in the genomes of RNA viruses that encode an instruction manual for their efficient assembly. The ubiquity of this assembly code in RNA viruses, including major human pathogens, suggests that it confers selective advantages. However, their impact on viral evolution cannot be assessed in current models of viral infection that lack molecular details of virus assembly...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148270/a-g3p-13-porcine-group-a-rotavirus-emerging-in-china-is-a-reassortant-and-a-natural-recombinant-in-the-vp4-gene
#4
Z Jing, X Zhang, H Shi, J Chen, D Shi, H Dong, L Feng
Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are a major cause of serious intestinal disease in piglets. In this study, a novel pig strain was identified in a stool sample from China. The strain was designated RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] and had a G3-P[13]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genome. The viral protein 7 (VP7) and non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) genes of RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] were closely related to cogent genes of human RVAs, suggesting that a reassortment between pig and human strains had occurred. Recombination analysis showed that RVA/Pig/China/LNCY/2016/G3P[13] is a natural recombinant strain between the P[23] and P[7] RVA strains, and crossover points for recombination were found at nucleotides (nt) 456 and 804 of the VP4 gene...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147015/structure-of-flgk-reveals-the-divergence-of-the-bacterial-hook-filament-junction-of-campylobacter
#5
Paula V Bulieris, Nausad H Shaikh, Peter L Freddolino, Fadel A Samatey
Evolution of a nano-machine consisting of multiple parts, each with a specific function, is a complex process. A change in one part should eventually result in changes in other parts, if the overall function is to be conserved. In bacterial flagella, the filament and the hook have distinct functions and their respective proteins, FliC and FlgE, have different three-dimensional structures. The filament functions as a helical propeller and the hook as a flexible universal joint. Two proteins, FlgK and FlgL, assure a smooth connectivity between the hook and the filament...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145825/assembling-large-genomes-analysis-of-the-stick-insect-clitarchus-hookeri-genome-reveals-a-high-repeat-content-and-sex-biased-genes-associated-with-reproduction
#6
Chen Wu, Victoria G Twort, Ross N Crowhurst, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
BACKGROUND: Stick insects (Phasmatodea) have a high incidence of parthenogenesis and other alternative reproductive strategies, yet the genetic basis of reproduction is poorly understood. Phasmatodea includes nearly 3000 species, yet only the genome of Timema cristinae has been published to date. Clitarchus hookeri is a geographical parthenogenetic stick insect distributed across New Zealand. Sexual reproduction dominates in northern habitats but is replaced by parthenogenesis in the south...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145390/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-brazilian-populations-of-diatraea-saccharalis-fabricius-1794-lepidoptera-crambidae-and-the-evolutionary-relationship-among-species-of-diatraea-guilding
#7
Fabricio J B Francischini, Jaqueline Bueno de Campos, Alessandro Alves-Pereira, João Paulo Gomes Viana, Christopher C Grinter, Steven J Clough, Maria I Zucchi
The sugarcane borer or corn stalk borer, Diatraea Guilding is polyphagous insect pest of many important crops such as corn, sorghum and sugarcane. Losses arising from the attack of Diatraea species have been a serious problem, which may cause loss in sugarcane production around 0.25% in sugar, 0.20% in alcohol and 0.77% of body weight for every 1% infestation and up to 21% in corn production fields. In Brazil, the most commonly reported species are Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) and Diatraea impersonatella (Walker, 1863) (= D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143603/evolution-of-vrn-1-homoeologous-loci-in-allopolyploids-of-triticum-and-their-diploid-precursors
#8
REVIEW
Andrey B Shcherban, Elena A Salina
BACKGROUND: The key gene in genetic system controlling the duration of the vegetative period in cereals is the VRN1 gene, whose product under the influence of low temperature (vernalization) promotes the transition of the apical meristem cells into a competent state for the development of generative tissues of spike. As early genetic studies shown, the dominant alleles of this gene underlie the spring forms of plants that do not require vernalization for this transition. In wheat allopolyploids various combinations of alleles of the VRN1 homoeologous loci (VRN1 homoeoalleles) provide diversity in such important traits as the time to heading, height of plants and yield...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143492/molecular-epidemiological-survey-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-influenza-d-virus-in-japan
#9
H Mekata, M Yamamoto, S Hamabe, H Tanaka, T Omatsu, T Mizutani, B M Hause, T Okabayashi
The influenza D virus, a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is predominantly found in cattle. Although viral pathology and clinical disease in cattle appear mild, this virus plays an important role as a trigger of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a costly illness worldwide. Thus, epidemiological surveys of the influenza D virus are necessary. Here, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey for the influenza D virus in healthy and respiratory-diseased cattle in Japan. We found that 2.1% (8/377) of the cattle were infected with influenza D...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143488/isolation-and-characterization-of-novel-goose-parvovirus-related-virus-reveal-the-evolution-of-waterfowl-parvovirus
#10
P Li, S Lin, R Zhang, J Chen, D Sun, J Lan, S Song, Z Xie, S Jiang
Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) has been constantly breaking out in China since 2015. It is caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) and can severely restrict the growth of ducks. In this study, seven NGPV stains were isolated from different regions in China between 2015 and 2016. To better understand the correlation between NGPV and goose parvovirus (GPV), we conducted complete genome sequencing and a comprehensive analysis of the NGPV genome. The phylogenetic and alignment analysis showed that NGPV is a branch of GPV, sharing 92...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#11
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142828/metabolic-engineering-of-ustilago-trichophora-tz1-for-improved-malic-acid-production
#12
Thiemo Zambanini, Hamed Hosseinpour Tehrani, Elena Geiser, Christiane K Sonntag, Joerg M Buescher, Guido Meurer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
Ustilago trichophora RK089 has been found recently as a good natural malic acid producer from glycerol. This strain has previously undergone adaptive laboratory evolution for enhanced substrate uptake rate resulting in the strain U. trichophora TZ1. Medium optimization and investigation of process parameters enabled titers and rates that are able to compete with those of organisms overexpressing major parts of the underlying metabolic pathways. Metabolic engineering can likely further increase the efficiency of malate production by this organism, provided that basic genetic tools and methods can be established for this rarely used and relatively obscure species...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142136/size-composition-and-evolution-of-hiv-dna-populations-during-early-antiretroviral-therapy-and-intensification-with-maraviroc
#13
Antoine Chaillon, Sara Gianella, Steven M Lada, Josué Perez-Santiago, Parris Jordan, Caroline Ignacio, Maile Karris, Douglas Richman, Sanjay R Mehta, Susan J Little, Joel O Wertheim, Davey M Smith
Residual viremia is common during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and could be caused by ongoing low-level virus replication or by release of viral particles from infected cells. ART Intensification should impact ongoing viral propagation but not virion release. Eighteen acutely infected men were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, and followed for a median of 107 weeks. Participants started ART with (n=9) or without (n=9) intensification with maraviroc (MVC) within 90 days of infection. Levels of HIV DNA and cell-free RNA were quantified by droplet digital PCR...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141545/main-isoflavones-found-in-dietary-sources-as-natural-anti-inflammatory-agents
#14
Corina Danciu, Stefana Avram, Ioana Pavel, Roxana Ghiulai, Cristina Dehelean, Alexa Ersilia, Daliana Minda, Cristina Petrescu, Elena Moaca, Codruta Soica
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones are natural compounds belonging to the class of isoflavonoids, molecules with a chemical structure based on the 3-phenyl chromen-4-one backbone. As a particular element, the isoflavones are called also phytoestrogens, due to the structural similarity with 17-β estradiol, the primary female sex hormone, presenting both estrogen-agonist and estrogen-antagonist properties. This class of secondary plant metabolites has been extensively reported in the literature for a wide range of therapeutic activities including antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antibacterial, cardio preventive effects...
November 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141193/evolution-of-the-clock-and-bmal1-genes-in-a-subterranean-rodent-species-lasiopodomys-mandarinus
#15
Hong Sun, Yifeng Zhang, Yuhua Shi, Yangwei Li, Wei Li, Zhenlong Wang
Lasiopodomys mandarinus, a subterranean rodent, spends its entire life underground. To test whether the CLOCK and BMAL1 genes of L. mandarinus have undergone adaptive evolution to underground darkness, we cloned and analyzed their complete cDNA sequences, using Lasiopodomys brandtii as a control. The phylogenetic trees of the CLOCK and BMAL1 genes were similar to the trees of the conserved Cyt b gene,further, L. mandarinus clustered with L. brandtii and Microtus ochrogaster in the phylogenetic tree. The Q-rich region of the CLOCK gene in L...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141015/nematocytes-discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anculeate-hemocyte-in-drosophila-falleni-and-drosophila-phalerata
#16
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140987/dating-the-beginning-of-the-roman-viticultural-model-in-the-western-mediterranean-the-case-study-of-chianti-central-italy
#17
Riccardo Aversano, Boris Basile, Mauro Paolo Buonincontri, Francesca Carucci, Domenico Carputo, Luigi Frusciante, Gaetano Di Pasquale
Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139543/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-sox3-during-gonad-and-embryonic-development-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#18
Xiaohua Xia, Weiran Huo, Ruyan Wan, Linxia Zhang, Xiaopei Xia, Zhongjie Chang
Sox3 is a single-exon gene located on the X chromosome in most vertebrates. It belongs to the SoxB1 subfamily, which is part of the larger Sox family. Previous studies have revealed that Sox3 is expressed in many fish species. However, how Sox3 influences the development of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus remains unknown. In this study, a Sox3 homologue, termed MaSox3, was cloned from the brain of M. anguillicaudatus using homology-based cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. Sequence analysis reveals that MaSox3 encodes a hydrophilic protein, which contains a characteristic HMG-box DNA-binding domain of 79 amino acids, and shares high homology with Sox3 in other species...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#19
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138289/the-evolution-of-cortical-development-the-synapsid-diapsid-divergence
#20
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet
The cerebral cortex covers the rostral part of the brain and, in higher mammals and particularly humans, plays a key role in cognition and consciousness. It is populated with neuronal cell bodies distributed in radially organized layers. Understanding the common and lineage-specific molecular mechanisms that orchestrate cortical development and evolution are key issues in neurobiology. During evolution, the cortex appeared in stem amniotes and evolved divergently in two main branches of the phylogenetic tree: the synapsids (which led to present day mammals) and the diapsids (reptiles and birds)...
November 15, 2017: Development
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