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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346722/layer-by-layer-epitaxial-growth-of-defect-engineered-strontium-cobaltites
#1
Tassie Andersen, Seyoung Cook, Gang Wan, Hawoong Hong, Laurence D Marks, Dillon D Fong
Control over structure and composition of (ABO3) perovskite oxides offers exciting opportunities since these materials possess unique, tunable properties. Perovskite oxides with cobalt B-site cations are particularly promising, as the range of the cation's stable oxidation states leads to many possible structural frameworks. Here, we report growth of strontium cobalt oxide thin films by molecular beam epitaxy, and conditions necessary to stabilize different defect concentration phases. In situ X-ray scattering is used to monitor structural evolution during growth, while in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used to probe oxidation state and measure changes to oxygen vacancy concentration as a function of film thickness...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346413/genetic-diversity-and-potential-routes-of-transmission-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-mozambique
#2
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345624/the-role-of-h-bond-in-the-high-pressure-chemistry-of-model-molecules
#3
Samuele Fanetti, Margherita Citroni, Kamil Dziubek, Marcelo Medre Nobrega, Roberto Bini
Pressure is an extraordinary tool to modify direction and strength of intermolecular interactions with important consequences on the chemical stability of molecular materials. The decrease of the distance among nearest neighbour molecules can give rise to reactive configurations reflecting the crystal arrangement and leading to association processes. In this context, the role of the H-bonds is very peculiar because their usual strengthening with rising pressure not necessarily configures a decrease of the reaction activation energy but, on the contrary, can give rise to an anomalous stability of the system...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345018/an-orphan-protist-quadricilia-rotundata-finally-finds-its-phylogenetic-home-in-cercozoa
#4
Akinori Yabuki, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
Quadricilia rotundata is a heterotrophic flagellate with four flagella. However, because this species has no clear morphological characteristics or molecular data affiliating it with any known group, Q. rotundata has been treated as a protist incertae sedis, for a long time. Here, we established a clonal culture of Q. rotundata and sequenced its 18S rDNA sequence. Molecular phylogenetic analysis successfully placed Q. rotundata in an environmental clade within Cercozoa, which contributes to expand the morphological and species diversity within Cercozoa...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344954/mixed-ductal-lobular-carcinomas-evidence-for-progression-from-ductal-to-lobular-morphology
#5
Amy E McCart Reed, Jamie R Kutasovic, Katia Nones, Jodi M Saunus, Leonard Da Silva, Felicity Newell, Stephen Kazakoff, Lewis Melville, Janani Jayanthan, Ana Cristina Vargas, Lynne E Reid, Jonathan Beesley, Xiao Qing Chen, Anne Marie Patch, D David Clouston, Alan Porter, Elizabeth Evans, John V Pearson, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Margaret C Cummings, Nic Waddell, Sunil R Lakhani, Peter T Simpson
Mixed ductal-lobular carcinomas (MDL) display both ductal and lobular morphology, and are an archetypal example of intra-tumour morphological heterogeneity. The mechanisms underlying coexistence of these different morphologic entities are poorly understood, although theories include that these components either represent 'collision' of independent tumours or evolve from a common ancestor. We performed comprehensive clinico-pathological analysis of a cohort of 82 MDLs and found: i) MDLs more frequently co-exist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) than lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); ii) the E-cadherin-catenin complex was normal in the ductal component in 77...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344951/the-rise-of-a-novel-classification-system-for-endometrial-carcinoma-integration-of-molecular-subclasses
#6
REVIEW
Jessica McAlpine, Alicia Leon-Castillo, Tjalling Bosse
Endometrial cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease and it is becoming increasingly clear that this heterogeneity may be a function of the diversity of the underlying molecular alterations. Recent large scale genomic studies have revealed that endometrial cancer can be divided into at least four distinct molecular subtypes, with well described underlying genomic aberrations. These subtypes can be reliably delineated and carry significant prognostic as well as predictive information; embracing and incorporating them into clinical practice is thus attractive...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343217/ceratocystis-cacaofunesta-genome-analysis-reveals-a-large-expansion-of-extracellular-phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase-c-genes-pi-plc
#7
Eddy Patricia Lopez Molano, Odalys García Cabrera, Juliana Jose, Leandro Costa do Nascimento, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Javier Correa Alvarez, Ricardo Augusto Tiburcio, Paulo Massanari Tokimatu Filho, Gustavo Machado Alvares de Lima, Rafael Victório Carvalho Guido, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Piotr Mieczkowski, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
BACKGROUND: The Ceratocystis genus harbors a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that cause xylem parenchyma degradation and vascular destruction on a broad range of economically important plants. Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a necrotrophic fungus responsible for lethal wilt disease in cacao. The aim of this work is to analyze the genome of C. cacaofunesta through a comparative approach with genomes of other Sordariomycetes in order to better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity in the Ceratocystis genus...
January 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341024/advanced-contrast-agents-for-multimodal-biomedical-imaging-based-on-nanotechnology
#8
Daniel Calle, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340796/the-complete-plastome-of-macaw-palm-acrocomia-aculeata-jacq-lodd-ex-mart-and-extensive-molecular-analyses-of-the-evolution-of-plastid-genes-in-arecaceae
#9
Amanda de Santana Lopes, Túlio Gomes Pacheco, Tabea Nimz, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Miguel P Guerra, Rubens O Nodari, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Marcelo Rogalski
The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections...
January 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340252/positive-selection-on-human-gamete-recognition-genes
#10
Michael W Hart, Daryn A Stover, Vanessa Guerra, Sahar V Mozaffari, Carole Ober, Carina F Mugal, Ingemar Kaj
Coevolution of genes that encode interacting proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs can lead to variation in reproductive compatibility between mates and reproductive isolation between members of different species. Previous studies in mice and other mammals have focused in particular on evidence for positive or diversifying selection that shapes the evolution of genes that encode sperm-binding proteins expressed in the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP). By fitting phylogenetic models of codon evolution to data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified candidate sites evolving under diversifying selection in the human genes ZP3 and ZP2...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340210/treetime-maximum-likelihood-phylodynamic-analysis
#11
Pavel Sagulenko, Vadim Puller, Richard A Neher
Mutations that accumulate in the genome of cells or viruses can be used to infer their evolutionary history. In the case of rapidly evolving organisms, genomes can reveal their detailed spatiotemporal spread. Such phylodynamic analyses are particularly useful to understand the epidemiology of rapidly evolving viral pathogens. As the number of genome sequences available for different pathogens has increased dramatically over the last years, phylodynamic analysis with traditional methods becomes challenging as these methods scale poorly with growing datasets...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339418/an-evolutionary-biochemical-connection-between-promoter-and-primer-dependent-polymerases-revealed-by-selective-evolution-of-ligands-by-exponential-enrichment-selex
#12
Katherine J Fenstermacher, Vasudevan Achuthan, Thomas D Schneider, Jeffrey J DeStefano
DNA polymerases (DNAPs) recognize 3' recessed termini on duplex DNA and carry out nucleotide catalysis. Unlike promoter-specific RNA polymerases (RNAPs), no sequence specificity is required for binding or initiation of catalysis. Despite this, previous results indicate that viral reverse transcriptases bind much more tightly to DNA primers that mimic the polypurine tract. In the current report, primer sequences that bind with high affinity to Taq and Klenow polymerases were identified using a modified Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) approach...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339406/genetic-diversity-molecular-phylogeny-and-selection-evidence-of-jinchuan-yak-revealed-by-whole-genome-resequencing
#13
Daoliang Lan, Xianrong Xiong, Tserang-Donko Mipam, Changxiu Fu, Qiang Li, Yi Ai, Dingchao Hou, Zhixin Chai, Jincheng Zhong, Jian Li
Jinchuan yak, a newly discovered yak breed, not only possesses a large proportion of multi-ribs but also exhibits many good characteristics, such as high meat production, milk yield and reproductive performance. However, information about their overall genetic structure, relationship with yaks in other areas, and possible origins and evolutionary processes is limited. In this study, 7,693,689 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by resequencing the genome of Jinchuan yak. Principal component and population genetic structure analyses showed that Jinchuan yak was distinguished as an independent population among the domestic yak population...
January 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338218/mimicking-the-key-functions-of-photosystem-ii-in-artificial-photosynthesis-for-photoelectrocatalytic-water-splitting
#14
Sheng Ye, Chunmei Ding, Ruotian Chen, Fengtao Fan, Ping Fu, Heng Yin, Xiuli Wang, Zhiliang Wang, Pingwu Du, Can Li
It has been anticipated that learning from nature photosynthesis is a rational and effective way to develop artificial photosynthesis system, but it is still a great challenge. Here, we assembled a photoelectrocatalytic system by mimicking the functions of photosystem II (PSII), with BiVO4 semiconductor as a light-harvester protected by a layered double hydroxide (NiFeLDH) as a hole storage layer, a partially oxidized graphene (pGO) as biomimetic tyrosine for charge transfer, and molecular Co cubane as oxygen evolution complex...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337961/how-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-set-the-stage-for-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Anna S Trigos, Richard B Pearson, Anthony T Papenfuss, David L Goode
Neoplastic growth and many of the hallmark properties of cancer are driven by the disruption of molecular networks established during the emergence of multicellularity. Regulatory pathways and molecules that evolved to impose regulatory constraints upon networks established in earlier unicellular organisms enabled greater communication and coordination between the diverse cell types required for multicellularity, but also created liabilities in the form of points of vulnerability in the network that when mutated or dysregulated facilitate the development of cancer...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336975/mechanical-and-biochemical-role-of-fibrin-within-a-venous-thrombus
#16
REVIEW
Anirudh Chandrashekar, Gurtej Singh, Jonah Garry, Nicholas Sikalas, Nicos Labropoulos
BACKGROUND: The physical properties of a venous thrombus are derived from molecular characteristics, including fibrin polymer diameter, density, branching, and cross-linking. Dense thrombi with thin, highly branched fibrin fibres and small pores in the meshwork have been observed to be more rigid, less permeable, and more resistant to lysis. The three dimensional fibrin meshwork acts as the main structure to entrap and capture erythrocytes, platelets and plasma components. Attached factors become integrated into the developing thrombus, co-localise with fibrin deposition and act in either a pro- or anticoagulant capacity...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335803/contribution-of-transposable-elements-and-distal-enhancers-to-evolution-of-human-specific-features-of-interphase-chromatin-architecture-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Gennadi V Glinsky
Transposable elements have made major evolutionary impacts on creation of primate-specific and human-specific genomic regulatory loci and species-specific genomic regulatory networks (GRNs). Molecular and genetic definitions of human-specific changes to GRNs contributing to development of unique to human phenotypes remain a highly significant challenge. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of diverse families of human-specific genomic regulatory loci (HSGRL) identified topologically associating domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for HSGRL and designated rapidly evolving in human TADs...
January 15, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335372/all-s-well-that-ends-well-why-large-species-have-short-telomeres
#18
Rosa Ana Risques, Daniel E L Promislow
Among mammal species, almost all life-history traits are strongly size dependent. This size dependence even occurs at a molecular level. For example, both telomere length and telomerase expression show a size-dependent threshold. With some exceptions, species smaller than approximately 2 kg express telomerase, while species larger than that do not. Among species greater than approximately 5 kg, telomeres tend to be short-less than 25 kb-while among smaller species, some species have short and some have long telomeres...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335369/the-rate-of-telomere-loss-is-related-to-maximum-lifespan-in-birds
#19
Gianna M Tricola, Mirre J P Simons, Els Atema, Raoul K Boughton, J L Brown, Donald C Dearborn, G Divoky, John A Eimes, Charles E Huntington, Alexander S Kitaysky, Frans A Juola, David B Lank, Hannah P Litwa, Ellis G A Mulder, Ian C T Nisbet, Kazuo Okanoya, Rebecca J Safran, Stephan J Schoech, Elizabeth A Schreiber, Paul M Thompson, Simon Verhulst, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, David W Winkler, Rebecca Young, Carol M Vleck, Mark F Haussmann
Telomeres are highly conserved regions of DNA that protect the ends of linear chromosomes. The loss of telomeres can signal an irreversible change to a cell's state, including cellular senescence. Senescent cells no longer divide and can damage nearby healthy cells, thus potentially placing them at the crossroads of cancer and ageing. While the epidemiology, cellular and molecular biology of telomeres are well studied, a newer field exploring telomere biology in the context of ecology and evolution is just emerging...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334842/a-comprehensive-review-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-core-biopsy-needles
#20
Theodore W James, Todd H Baron
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided tissue acquisition by-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) developed over the last two decades as an attempt to overcome the limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA). There are now three commercially available second-generation FNB needles with different tip designs. Areas covered: In this review the roles of EUS-FNA and FNB, the history and evolution of the EUS core biopsy needle are addressed followed by a presentation of currently available needles. Literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Controlled Trials Register, US Patent Registry, Google Scholar, and Conference Abstracts...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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