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Flame study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550799/in%C3%A2-vivo-assessment-of-dermal-adhesion-penetration-and-bioavailability-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a
#1
Yunjiang Yu, Liangzhong Li, Hongyan Li, Xiaowei Yu, Yanping Zhang, Qiong Wang, Zhixiang Zhou, Dandan Gao, Hao Ye, Bigui Lin, Ruixue Ma
Individuals are exposed to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on a daily basis because of their widespread usage. These compounds may have adverse effects on human health. In the present study, dermal absorption experiments were conducted in vivo to predict the adhesion, penetration, and bioavailability of TBBPA. TBBPA was administered to Wistar rats for 6 h by repeated dermal exposure at doses of 20, 60, 200, and 600 mg of TBBPA per kg of body weight (bw). The skin adhesion coefficient (AC) was calculated using a difference-value method and ranged from 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550783/occurrence-distribution-and-bioaccumulation-behaviour-of-hydrophobic-organic-contaminants-in-a-large-scale-constructed-wetland-in-singapore
#2
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
This study involved a field-based investigation to assess the occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland. Samples of raw leachate, water and wetland plants, Typha angustifolia, were collected for chemical analysis. Target contaminants included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), as well as several halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and personal care products (triclosan and synthetic musks). In addition to PCBs and OCPs, synthetic musks, triclosan (TCS) and dechlorane plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DPs) were frequently detected...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545217/a-miniature-bird-borne-passive-air-sampler-for-monitoring-halogenated-flame-retardants
#3
Manon Sorais, Ali Rezaei, Joseph O Okeme, Miriam L Diamond, Ricardo Izquierdo, Jean-François Giroux, Jonathan Verreault
Birds have been used intensively as biomonitors of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and several studies have reported elevated tissue concentrations and inter-individual variability for these contaminants. While diet is known to be an important exposure pathway for HFRs in birds, it has been suggested that exposure through air may represent an underestimated source of HFRs for certain species. However, a method was not available for measuring the atmospheric exposure of individual birds to HFRs or other semi-volatile contaminants...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544800/reinforced-microextraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-polluted-soil-samples-using-an-in-needle-coated-fiber-with-polypyrrole-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite
#4
Mina Behfar, Ali Reza Ghiasvand, Fatemeh Yazdankhah
The surface of a stainless-steel wire was platinized using electrophoretic deposition method to create a high-surface-area, porous and cohesive substrate. The platinized fiber was coated by the polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite by electropolymerization and accommodated into a stainless-steel needle to fabricate an in-needle coated fiber. The developed setup was coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and applied to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in complicated solid matrices, along with reinforcement of the extraction by cooling the sorbent, using liquid carbon dioxide...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541672/impacts-of-unregulated-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-on-human-liver-thyroid-deiodination-and-sulfotransferation
#5
Tristan Alexander Smythe, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Kerri Pleskach, Geemitha Ratnayake, Chae Yoon Song, Nicole Riddell, Alex Konstantinov, Gregg Thomas Tomy
The inhibitory effects of five novel brominated flame retardants: 1,2-bis(2,4,5-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and β-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (β-TBECH) on thyroid hormone deiodinase (DIO) and sulfotransferase (SULT) activity were investigated using human in vitro liver microsomal and cytosolic bioassays. Enzymatic activity was measured by incubating active human liver sub-cellular fractions with thyroid hormones (T4 and rT3 separately) and measuring changes in thyroid hormone (T4, T3, rT3, and 3,3'-T2) concentrations...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540439/characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-produced-by-biosynthesis-mediated-by-fusarium-oxysporum-under-different-processing-conditions
#6
Édipo S Almeida, Débora de Oliveira, Dachamir Hotza
The goal of this study was the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) mediated by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, as well as the characterization of these nanoparticles including evaluation of the particles size and stability under different processing conditions. The results showed that the biosynthesis produced silver nanoparticles having a mean size of 34 nm and zeta potential values below -30 mV at the conditions used, characterizing the nanoparticles as being stable in suspension. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy detected the bands corresponding to the binding vibration of amide I and II bands of proteins in addition to the presence of cyclic alkanes, cyclohexane, ethers, and aromatic hydrocarbons...
May 24, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539940/horizontal-and-vertical-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-farm-produce-and-livestock-around-lead-contaminated-goldmine-in-dareta-and-abare-zamfara-state-northern-nigeria
#7
O E Orisakwe, O O Oladipo, G C Ajaezi, N A Udowelle
Background. Hitherto studies in response to the June 2010 lead poisoning, Zamfara State, Nigeria, have focused on clinical interventions without information on livestock and other metals. Objective. This study has investigated the distribution of heavy metals in farm produce and livestock around lead-contaminated goldmine in Dareta and Abare, Zamfara State, Nigeria. Methods. Vegetables, soil, water, blood, and different meat samples were harvested from goat, sheep, cattle, and chicken from Dareta, Abare, and Gusau communities...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539239/assessment-of-burn-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-and-patient-scar-status-following-burn
#8
Hyunjin Oh, Sunjoo Boo
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed patient-perceived levels of scar assessment and burn-specific quality of life (QOL) in Korean burn patients admitted to burn care centers and identified differences in scar assessment and QOL based on various patient characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study using anonymous paper-based survey methods was conducted with 100 burn patients from three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. RESULTS: Mean subject age was 44...
May 21, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534679/laser-induced-photofragmentation-fluorescence-imaging-of-alkali-compounds-in-flames
#9
Tomas Leffler, Christian Brackmann, Marcus Aldén, Zhongshan Li
Laser-induced photofragmentation fluorescence has been investigated for the imaging of alkali compounds in premixed laminar methane-air flames. An ArF excimer laser, providing pulses of wavelength 193 nm, was used to photodissociate KCl, KOH, and NaCl molecules in the post-flame region and fluorescence from the excited atomic alkali fragment was detected. Fluorescence emission spectra showed distinct lines of the alkali atoms allowing for efficient background filtering. Temperature data from Rayleigh scattering measurements together with simulations of potassium chemistry presented in literature allowed for conclusions on the relative contributions of potassium species KOH and KCl to the detected signal...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530825/effect-of-wood-aging-on-wine-mineral-composition-and-87sr-86sr-isotopic-ratio
#10
Ayse Deniz Kaya, Raúl Bruno de Sousa, António Sérgio Curvelo-Garcia, Jorge Manuel Ricardo-da-Silva, Sofia Catarino
Evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60 and 90 days of aging, and the wines evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multi-element composition and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, Pb elements and 87Sr/86Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), Na, K, Ca and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530568/characterization-of-the-key-aroma-compounds-in-different-light-aroma-type-chinese-liquors-by-gc-olfactometry-gc-fpd-quantitative-measurements-and-aroma-recombination
#11
Yunwei Niu, Zhengmin Yao, Qing Xiao, Zuobing Xiao, Ning Ma, Jiancai Zhu
The aroma profiles of five Chinese light aroma-type liquors were investigated in this study. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD) were employed to investigate aroma-active compounds. A total of 80 odorants were identified, including ten sulfur compounds. In addition, aroma-active compounds (FD≥16) were determined, according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). Finally 27 key aroma compounds, mainly possessing fruity and floral notes, were successfully used to simulate the aromas of Chinese light aroma-type liquors by dissolving them in 53% (v/v) hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525273/directional-fluid-gating-by-janus-membranes-with-heterogeneous-wetting-properties-for-selective-oil-water-separation
#12
Prashant Gupta, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
The rising oil seepage accidents evolved into a global issue necessitating immediate counter measure to abridge its catastrophic repercussions on sensitive marine ecosystem urging innovative techniques for effective oil/water separation. Here, we report surface tailored wettability modified superhydrophobic/superoleophilic Janus membrane by impregnating nonionic surfactant stabilized nanosized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dispersion polymerized via nonfluorinated processing aid onto cotton substrate using the Meyer rod-coating technique, exhibiting excellent separation efficiency up to 98% with various petroleum products and retaining its intrinsic properties for at least 30 recurrences...
May 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523936/experimental-spectroscopic-studies-of-carbon-monoxide-co-fluorescence-at-high-temperatures-and-pressures
#13
Olivier Carrivain, Mikael Orain, Nelly Dorval, Celine Morin, Guillaume Legros
Two-photon excitation laser-induced fluorescence of carbon monoxide (CO-LIF) is investigated experimentally in order to determine the applicability of this technique for imaging CO concentration in aeronautical combustors. Experiments are carried out in a high temperature, high-pressure test cell, and in a laminar premixed CH4/air flame. Influence of temperature and pressure on CO-LIF spectra intensity and shape is reported. The experimental results show that as pressure increases, the CO-LIF excitation spectrum becomes asymmetric...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523590/solvent-effects-on-quantitative-analysis-of-brominated-flame-retardants-with-soxhlet-extraction
#14
Yin Zhong, Dan Li, Xifen Zhu, Weilin Huang, Ping'an Peng
Reliable quantifications of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) not only ensure compliance with laws and regulations on the use of BFRs in commercial products, but also is key for accurate risk assessments of BFRs. Acetone is a common solvent widely used in the analytical procedure of BFRs, but our recent study found that acetone can react with some BFRs. It is highly likely that such reactions can negatively affect the quantifications of BFRs in environmental samples. In this study, the effects of acetone on the extraction yields of three representative BFRs [i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521094/critical-assessment-of-photoionization-efficiency-measurements-for-characterization-of-soot-precursor-species
#15
K Olof Johansson, Judit Zádor, Paolo Elvati, Matthew F Campbell, Paul E Schrader, Nicole K Richards-Henderson, Kevin R Wilson, Angela Violi, Hope A Michelsen
We present a critical evaluation of photoionization efficiency (PIE) measurements coupled with aerosol mass spectrometry for the identification of condensed soot-precursor species extracted from a premixed atmospheric-pressure ethylene/oxygen/nitrogen flame. Definitive identification of isomers by any means is complicated by the large number of potential isomers at masses likely to comprise particles at flame temperatures. This problem is compounded using PIE measurements by the similarity in ionization energies and PIE-curve shapes among many of these isomers...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516762/organophosphorus-flame-retardants-in-pregnant-women-and-their-transfer-to-chorionic-villi
#16
Fanrong Zhao, Mo Chen, Fumei Gao, Huan Shen, Jianying Hu
The potential for prenatal exposure has recently raised concerns over the health risks of endocrine disruptors; however, knowledge about human prenatal exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) is lacking. In this study, 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were detected in the majority of chorionic villus samples, with median concentrations of 13.6, 18.8, 11.1, and 0.51 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively, significantly higher than those in the matching maternal decidua samples (5...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512709/influence-of-low-temperature-combustion-and-dimethyl-ether-diesel-blends-on-performance-combustion-and-emission-characteristics-of-common-rail-diesel-engine-a-cfd-study
#17
Venkatesh Tavareppa Lamani, Ajay Kumar Yadav, Kumar Gottekere Narayanappa
Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511352/emission-inventory-and-environmental-distribution-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-in-china
#18
Boya Zhang, Bu Zhao, Mengqi Yu, Jianbo Zhang
Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is a highly brominated flame retardant that recent studies have identified as a potential persistent organic pollutant. Large amounts of decaBDE have been consumed and released in the environment in China, while no emission inventory has been available until now. In this study, a substance flow analysis was applied to establish the emission inventory of decaBDE in China from 1982 (the first year of decaBDE production in China) until 2013 based on activity data, transfer coefficients, and emission factors...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511039/occurrence-composition-source-and-regional-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-and-polybrominated-dibenzo-p-dioxin-dibenzofuran-in-the-soils-of-guiyu-china
#19
Pengjun Xu, Bu Tao, Zhiguang Zhou, Shuang Fan, Ting Zhang, Aimin Liu, Shuping Dong, Jingli Yuan, Hong Li, Jiping Chen, Yeru Huang
Guiyu, China, is well-known for the crude disposal of electronic waste (EW) and severe persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, in this study, the occurrence, composition, and source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB153), some novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), Dechlorane Plus (DP) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in farmland soils covering Guiyu were studied. In EW disposal area soils, PBDEs were the most abundant FRs, with concentrations of 13-1014 ng g(-1)...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508428/characterization-and-quantitation-of-pvp-content-in-a-silicone-hydrogel-contact-lens-produced-by-dual-phase-polymerization-processing
#20
Andrew J Hoteling, William F Nichols, Patricia S Harmon, Shawn M Conlon, Ivan M Nuñez, Joseph Hoff, Orlando M Cabarcos, Robert B Steffen, Daniel J Hook
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been incorporated over the years into numerous hydrogel contact lenses as both a primary matrix component and an internal wetting agent to increase lens wettability. In this study, complementary analytical techniques were used to characterize the PVP wetting agent component of senofilcon A and samfilcon A contact lenses, both in terms of chemical composition and amount present. Photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques confirmed dual phase reaction and curing of the samfilcon A silicone hydrogel material...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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