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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106779/water-quality-sanitation-and-hygiene-conditions-in-schools-and-households-in-dolakha-and-ramechhap-districts-nepal-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Akina Shrestha, Subodh Sharma, Jana Gerold, Séverine Erismann, Sanjay Sagar, Rajendra Koju, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104350/neonatal-exposure-to-bde-209-impaired-learning-and-memory-decreased-expression-of-hippocampal-core-snares-and-synaptophysin-in-adult-rats
#2
Xiong Li, Chunmei Wang, Wen Wang, Chengwei Yue, Yan Tang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants. While the mechanism remains unknown, the potential neurotoxic effects of PBDEs remain a relevant issue. In the present study, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were administered BDE 209 (1, 10, or 20mg/kg body weight) or peanut oil once daily from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND 10. We examined the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze and the working and reference memory by eight-arm radial maze in the stage of adulthood...
January 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100121/effects-of-bovine-pregnancy-on-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-milk-significance-for-humans-needs
#3
R Barreiro, P Regal, M Díaz-Bao, B I Vázquez, A Cepeda
Milk from forty Holstein dairy cows (twenty pregnant and twenty non-pregnant) was collected from two different farms in Galicia (Spain). The differences in the fatty acid composition of two groups of cows (pregnant and non-pregnant) was studied to determine whether pregnancy status is a determinant factor that can alter the fatty acid profile of milk. Gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionization detection (FID) was used for determination of the fatty acids. Difference in the milk fatty acids between pregnant and non-pregnant cows were pronounced showing statistically significant differences for some fatty acids and the total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids...
January 19, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094923/effect-of-e-waste-recycling-on-urinary-metabolites-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-and-plasticizers-and-their-association-with-oxidative-stress
#4
Shaoyou Lu, Yanxi Li, Tao Zhang, Dan Cai, Jujun Ruan, Mingzhi Huang, Lei Wang, JianQing Zhang, Rong-Liang Qiu
In this study, three chlorinated (Cl-mOPs) and five nonchlorinated (NCl-mOPs) organophosphate metabolites were determined in urine samples collected from participants living in electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area (n = 175) and two reference areas (rural: n = 29; urban: n = 17) in southern China. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [BCEP, geometric mean (GM): 0.72 ng/mL] was the most abundant Cl-mOP, and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 0.55 ng/mL) was the most abundant NCl-mOP. The GM concentrations of mOPs in the e-waste dismantling sites were higher than those in the rural control site...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094917/tuning-the-ignition-performance-of-a-micro-chip-initiator-by-integrating-various-al-moo3-rmfs-on-a-semiconductor-bridge
#5
Jianbing Xu, Yu Tai, Chengbo Ru, Ji Dai, Yinghua Ye, Ruiqi Shen, Peng Zhu
Reactive multilayer films (RMFs) can be integrated into semiconducting electronic structures with the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and represent potential applications in the advancement of microscale energy-demanding systems. In this study, aluminum/ molybdenum trioxide (Al/MoO3) -based RMFs with different modulation periods were integrated on a semiconductor bridge (SCB) using a combination of image reversal lift-off process and magnetron sputtering technology. This produced an energetic semiconductor bridge (ESCB)-chip initiator with controlled ignition performance...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089583/association-of-prenatal-and-childhood-pbde-exposure-with-timing-of-puberty-in-boys-and-girls
#6
Kim G Harley, Stephen A Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly L Parra, Celina Trujillo, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Andreas Sjödin, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that exhibit estrogenic and androgenic properties and may affect pubertal timing. METHODS: Study subjects were participants between 1999 and 2013 in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal cohort study of predominantly Mexican origin families in Northern California. We measured serum concentrations of four PBDEs (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153) in blood collected from mothers during pregnancy (N=263) and their children at age 9years (N=522)...
January 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089222/-etiology-and-prognosis-of-the-eye-traumas-by-war-weapons-in-the-senegalese-army
#7
S M Seck, M Diakhaté, M N Ndiaye Sow, M Dieng, G Agboton, N N Guèye
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work is to identify the main weapons causing eye injuries during the campaigns of the Senegalese army in the south of the country, as well as the prognosis of these traumas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is retrospective and concerns soldiers wounded by the weapons of war during the exercise of their mission within the Senegalese armed forces of 1991 in 2005. They are mainly soldiers affected in the south of the country during a war, clashes with the rebels or in Guinea-Bissau during operation Gabou in 1998...
January 11, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088475/role-of-some-vasoactive-mediators-in-scorpion-envenomed-children-possible-relation-to-envenoming-outcome
#8
Sahar E M El-DeeK, Ayat A Sayed, Ahmed Y Nassar, Zeynab M Mohey-Eldeen, Hussein M Eldeeb, Abdel-Raheim M A Meki
Scorpion envenomation causes an autonomic storm resulting in changes in the vasoactive mediators' levels which lead to myocardial damage, cardiovascular disturbances, peripheral circulatory failure, pulmonary edema, multi-system-organ-failure and death. The study aimed to determine the circulating levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II), kallikrein enzyme, nitric oxide (NO), aldosterone, and electrolytes Na(+), K(+) and Ca(+2) in scorpion envenomed children and to evaluate the potential relation between these vasoactive mediators, the severity of scorpion envenoming and the clinical outcome of envenomed children...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088081/lead-pb-2-and-copper-cu-2-remediation-from-water-using-superparamagnetic-maghemite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-flame-spray-pyrolysis-fsp
#9
Shalini Rajput, Lok P Singh, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan
Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of controllable morphology were successfully synthesized using a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique. Their physico-chemical properties, size, morphology, and surface chemistries were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAED), SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and pHZPC(6.3). Elemental contents before and after adsorption were identified using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and elemental mapping...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073603/relationship-between-serum-selenium-sociodemographic-variables-other-trace-elements-and-lipid-profile-in-an-adult-spanish-population
#10
Montserrat González-Estecha, Irene Palazón-Bru, Andrés Bodas-Pinedo, Elena Trasobares, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Manuel Fuentes, M Ángeles Cuadrado-Cenzual, Elpidio Calvo-Manuel
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between selenium status and cardiovascular health, although epidemiologic evidence yielded by the randomized trials did not find a beneficial effect of selenium administration. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum selenium levels and lipid profile adjusted by age, sex and other associated factors among a general adult population in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 372 hospital employee volunteers (60 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 47 (SD: 10...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072866/the-regulatory-roles-of-microrna-in-effects-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde47-on-the-transcriptome-of-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Jing Zhao, Ting Xu, Daqiang Yin, Bo Zhang, Jianfeng Bai
The developmental neurotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants has received great concern; however, there were still barely known about the underlying toxic mechanisms, especially the influence of varieties of regulatory factors such as microRNA (miRNA). A representative flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47), was found to disrupt zebrafish development in visual perception and bone formation in previous study, thus here we investigated its effects on miRNA expression profiling of 6 days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae by deep sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072538/formation-mechanisms-of-naphthalene-and-indene-from-the-interstellar-medium-to-combustion-flames
#12
Alexander Moiseevich Mebel, Alexander Landera, Ralf I Kaiser
The article addresses the formation mechanisms of naphthalene and indene, which represent prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) carrying two six-membered and one five plus a six-membered ring. Theoretical studies of the relevant chemical reactions are overviewed in terms of their potential energy surfaces, rate constants, and product branching ratios; these data are compared with experimental measurements in crossed molecular beams and the pyrolytic chemical reactor emulating the extreme conditions in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the combustion-like environment, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069368/polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans-and-flame-retardants-in-northern-gannet-morus-bassanus-eggs-from-bonaventure-island-gulf-of-st-lawrence-1994-2014
#13
Louise Champoux, Jean-François Rail, Raphael A Lavoie
Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, Canada, were collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in eggs from 2004 and 2009, and several brominated and nonbrominated flame retardants (FRs) were measured every 2-5 years in eggs from 1994 to 2014. The sum (Σ) concentrations of PCDDs/Fs were significantly lower in 2009 relative to 2004, but the total toxic equivalent concentrations for PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs showed no significant differences (196 ng/kg wet weight (ww) in 2004 and 220 ng/kg ww in 2009)...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068642/optimization-of-photocatalytic-degradation-of-biodiesel-using-tio2-h2o2-by-experimental-design
#14
Elizangela Ambrosio, Diego L Lucca, Maicon H B Garcia, Maísa T F de Souza, Thábata K F de S Freitas, Renata P de Souza, Jesuí V Visentainer, Juliana C Garcia
This study reports on the investigation of the photodegradation of biodiesel (B100) in contact with water using TiO2/H2O2. The TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), pH point of zero charge (pHpzc) and textural analysis. The results of the experiments were fitted to a quadratic polynomial model developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the parameters. Using the three factors, three levels, and the Box-Behnken design of experiment technique, 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064416/association-of-mood-disorders-with-serum-zinc-concentrations-in-adolescent-female-students
#15
Kobra Tahmasebi, Reza Amani, Zahra Nazari, Kambiz Ahmadi, Sara Moazzen, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes...
January 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063657/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-the-atmosphere-of-three-chilean-cities-using-passive-air-samplers
#16
Karla Pozo, Germán Oyola, Victor H Estellano, Tom Harner, Anny Rudolph, Petra Prybilova, Petr Kukucka, Ondrej Audi, Jana Klánová, America Metzdorff, Silvano Focardi
In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058766/synthesis-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-by-atom-transfer-radical-polymerization-for-the-solid-phase-extraction-of-phthalate-esters-in-edible-oil
#17
Ningning Chen, Juan He, Chaojun Wu, Yuanyuan Li, An Suo, Hongliang Wei, Lijun He, Shusheng Zhang
Novel molecularly imprinted polymers of phthalate esters were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization using methyl methacrylate as functional monomer, cyclohexanone as solvent, cuprous chloride as catalyst, 1-chlorine-1-ethyl benzene as initiator and 2,2-bipyridyl as cross-linker in the mixture of methanol and water (1:1, v/v). The effect of reaction conditions such as monomer ratio and template on the adsorption properties was investigated. The optimum condition was obtained by an orthogonal experiment...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057373/effects-of-the-amendment-of-biochars-and-carbon-nanotubes-on-the-bioavailability-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-hbcds-in-soil-to-ecologically-different-species-of-earthworms
#18
Bing Li, Hongkai Zhu, Hongwen Sun, Jiayao Xu
Biochar is a promising material used in soil amendment and carbon nanotubes may enter soil due to its increasing application. These carbonaceous materials may change the bioavailability of pollutants in soil. In this concern, 0.5% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3 corn-straw biochars acquired at different pyrolyzing temperatures were used in soil amendment and their influences on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a brominated flame retardant, to 2 ecologically different earthworm species were studied...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057345/emission-inventory-and-provincial-distribution-of-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-china
#19
Boya Zhang, Bu Zhao, Chun Xu, Jianbo Zhang
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and metalworking fluids, which have varying contents of toxic short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Based on the study of several relevant production and consumption sectors, this paper classifies the consumption of CPs among sectors and provides an emission inventory and the provincial emission distribution of SCCPs in China in 2010-2014 based on the consumption patterns and emission factors of each sector. The total emissions of SCCPs in China in 2014 were 3083...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056452/concentrations-of-organophosphorus-polybromobenzene-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-flame-retardants-in-human-serum-and-relationships-between-concentrations-and-donor-ages
#20
Peng Li, Jun Jin, Ying Wang, Jicheng Hu, Meng Xu, Yiming Sun, Yulong Ma
Organophosphorus flame retardants, polybromobenzenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in pooled human serum samples collected in an area in which these chemicals are produced in North China. Tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was found at a higher concentration than the other chemicals, and the mean TCEP concentration was 480.4 ng/g lipid. This is the first time TCEP has been detected in human serum from China. The PBDE concentration in serum was found to have decreased between 2007 and 2013...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
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