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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818966/meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data-from-randomised-trials-opportunities-and-limitations-created-by-access-to-raw-data
#1
Ewelina Rogozińska, Nadine Marlin, Shakila Thangaratinam, Khalid S Khan, Javier Zamora
Meta-analysis based on individual participant data (IPD), often described as the 'gold standard' for effectiveness evidence synthesis, is increasingly being deployed despite being more resource intensive than collating study-level results. Its professed virtues include the ability to incorporate unreported data and to standardise variables and their definitions across trials. In reality, the unreported data, although present in shared datasets, might still not be usable in the analysis. The characteristics of trial participants and their outcomes may be too diversely captured for harmonisation and too time and resource consuming to standardise...
August 17, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#2
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816572/effects-on-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-related-harm-of-a-community-based-prevention-intervention-with-national-support-in-sweden
#3
Tony Nilsson, Peter Allebeck, Håkan Leifman, Sven Andréasson, Thor Norström, Karin Guldbrandsson
BACKGROUND: In order to strengthen local alcohol prevention work in Sweden the Swedish government has for the past almost 15 years commissioned the Public Health Agency of Sweden to initiate a series of community-based alcohol prevention projects. The latest of these, labeled local development with ambitions (LUMA), included 25 municipalities in Sweden. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to examine if LUMA municipalities that received financial support, with requirements, increased local alcohol prevention and if alcohol consumption and harm declined...
August 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807365/-the-breakthrough-of-personalized-medicine-new-hopes-and-new-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Ronan Flippot, Christophe Massard, Edouard Auclin, David Azria, Héloïse Bourien, Philippe Rochigneux, Antoine Schernberg, Loïc Verlingue, Lara Zafrani, Stéphane Vignot
The development of personalized medicine in oncology is based on biomarkers that help select populations for more efficient and less toxic therapies. The onset of molecular biology led to new paradigms in drug development, with efficacy data reported in early clinical trials and accelerated approvals. Multiple clinical trials, including SHIVA, SAFIR-01 and MOSCATO-01, have been developed to evaluate the interest of treatment decision-making based on tumor molecular profiling, with the ambition to replace historical clinical and pathological classifications...
August 11, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#5
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765106/the-level-of-provision-of-specialist-palliative-care-services-in-scotland-an-international-benchmarking-study
#6
Hamilton Inbadas, José Miguel Carrasco, Michelle Gillies, David Clark
OBJECTIVES: Comparative benchmarking of specialist palliative care (SPC) services across jurisdictions can be used to assess the adequacy of provision. Published in 2016, the Scottish Atlas of Palliative Care unlocks the possibility of benchmarking Scotland's provision against other European Union (EU) countries. Our objectives were to describe the provision of SPC services in Scotland and compare this with other EU countries, assessing coverage against European norms. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected as part for the Scottish Atlas by structured telephone (n=33) or online (n=3) survey with informants from 14 territorial health boards and 15 hospices who provided information about SPC services in their locality...
July 8, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762036/the-astonishing-population-averted-by-china-s-birth-restrictions-estimates-nightmares-and-reprogrammed-ambitions
#7
Daniel Goodkind
China launched an unprecedented program to control its population in 1971. Experts have dismissed the official estimate of 400 million births averted by this program as greatly exaggerated yet neglect to provide their own estimates. Counterfactual projections based on fertility declines in other countries suggest that China's program-averted population numbered 360-520 million as of 2015. The low end of this range is based on Vietnam-China's best national comparator, with a two-child program of its own-and the high end is based on a 16-country comparator selected, ironically, by critics of the official estimate...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760798/protocol-for-a-randomised-crossover-trial-to-evaluate-patient-and-nurse-satisfaction-with-electronic-and-elastomeric-portable-infusion-pumps-for-the-continuous-administration-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-the-home-the-comparing-home-infusion-devices-chid-study
#8
Jodie G Hobbs, Melissa K Ryan, Brett Ritchie, Janet K Sluggett, Andrew J Sluggett, Lucy Ralton, Karen J Reynolds
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies comparing satisfaction with electronic and elastomeric infusion pumps are limited, and improvements in size and usability of electronic pumps have since occurred. The Comparing Home Infusion Devices (CHID) study plans to assess patient and nurse satisfaction with an elastomeric and electronic pump for delivering intravenous antibiotic treatment in the home. Secondary objectives are to determine pump-related complications and actual antibiotic dose administered, evaluate temperature variation and compare pump operating costs...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759516/swedish-children-s-lived-experience-of-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Vedrana Vejzovic, Ann-Cathrine Bramhagen, Ewa Idvall, Anne Wennick
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in children. When this lifelong illness is diagnosed in childhood, especially during adolescence, it may have a negative impact on children's quality of life. The aim of the present study was to illuminate the meaning of children's lived experience of ulcerative colitis. Seven children aged between 10 and 18 years were recruited from University Hospital South Sweden and interviewed about the phenomenon under scrutiny. Data were analyzed by means of a phenomenological hermeneutical method...
July 28, 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758204/freud-s-transference-clinical-technique-in-the-rat-man-case-and-theoretical-conceptualization-compared
#10
Michael Diercks
A considerable gap exists between clinical psychoanalytic concepts and psychoanalytic practice. It can be traced back to the early beginnings of psychoanalysis and to Freud's own handling of concepts that he had developed himself. Focusing on the concept of 'transference' that Freud in several steps coined so precisely from his experiences with hysteric patients and especially from his understanding of the 'Dora' case, it can be shown that he - seen from today - could not fully apply the meaning of his own concept in the later treatment of the so-called 'Rat Man'...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757424/evaluation-of-chemical-modified-hydrogel-formulation-for-topical-suitability
#11
Flavia Laffleur
BACKGROUND: Skin delivery and transdermal delivery are key ambitions of the pharmaceutical and cosmetically researchers. AIM: The study aimed to chemically modify well-known polymeric gelling agents in order to boost their topical suitability by fostering their dermal adhesiveness. METHODS: Conventional chitosan was modified via amide bound formation with sulfhydryl compound thioglycolic acid. Subsequently, preactivated chitosan conjugate was established by preactivation of chitosan-thioglycolic acid with mercaptonicotinamide being covalently attached via disulfide bond linkage...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750842/exploring-the-role-of-social-capital-in-urban-citizens-initiatives-in-the-netherlands
#12
Carlijn Wentink, Lenneke Vaandrager, Rosalie van Dam, Jan Hassink, Irini Salverda
OBJECTIVE: This research explores the role of social capital in urban citizens' initiatives in the Netherlands, by using in-depth interviews. METHOD: Social capital was operationalized as shared norms and values, connectedness, trust and reciprocity. RESULTS: The findings show that initiatives form around a shared idea or ambition (shared norms and values). An existing network of relationships (connectedness) is needed for an idea to emerge and take form...
July 24, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741235/making-patient-engagement-a-reality
#13
Daphnee S Pushparajah
Patients are increasingly recognised as the true customers of healthcare. By providing insights and perspectives, patients can help the wider healthcare community better understand their needs and ultimately enhance the value of healthcare solutions being developed. In the development of new medicines, for example, meaningful patient engagement can enable the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers and other stakeholders to achieve more meaningful health outcomes. While both the pharmaceutical industry and regulators have achieved some progress in incorporating patient perspectives into their activities, the lack of standardised best practices and metrics has made it challenging to achieve consistency and measure success in patient engagement...
July 24, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739561/smartphone-based-monitoring-of-objective-and-subjective-data-in-affective-disorders-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-going-systematic-review
#14
Ezgi Dogan, Christian Sander, Xenija Wagner, Ulrich Hegerl, Elisabeth Kohls
BACKGROUND: Electronic mental health interventions for mood disorders have increased rapidly over the past decade, most recently in the form of various systems and apps that are delivered via smartphones. OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of studies on smartphone-based systems that combine subjective ratings with objectively measured data for longitudinal monitoring of patients with affective disorders. Specifically, we aim to examine current knowledge on: (1) the feasibility of, and adherence to, such systems; (2) the association of monitored data with mood status; and (3) the effects of monitoring on clinical outcomes...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737219/impacts-of-hydraulic-redistribution-on-grass-tree-competition-vs-facilitation-in-a-semi-arid-savanna
#15
Greg A Barron-Gafford, Enrique P Sanchez-Cañete, Rebecca L Minor, Sean M Hendryx, Esther Lee, Leland F Sutter, Newton Tran, Elizabeth Parra, Tony Colella, Patrick C Murphy, Erik P Hamerlynck, Praveen Kumar, Russell L Scott
A long-standing ambition in ecosystem science has been to understand the relationship between ecosystem community composition, structure and function. Differential water use and hydraulic redistribution have been proposed as one mechanism that might allow for the coexistence of overstory woody plants and understory grasses. Here, we investigated how patterns of hydraulic redistribution influence overstory and understory ecophysiological function and how patterns vary across timescales of an individual precipitation event to an entire growing season...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729611/cryptic-speciation-in-pan-tropical-sea-urchins-a-case-study-of-an-edge-of-range-population-of-tripneustes-from-the-kermadec-islands
#16
Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Barbara Tautscher, Libby Liggins, Elisabeth Haring
Tripneustes is one of the most abundant and ecologically significant tropical echinoids. Highly valued for its gonads, wild populations of Tripneustes are commercially exploited and cultivated stocks are a prime target for the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Here we examine Tripneustes from the Kermadec Islands, a remote chain of volcanic islands in the southwest Pacific Ocean that mark the boundary of the genus' range, by combining morphological and genetic analyses, using two mitochondrial (COI and the Control Region), and one nuclear (bindin) marker...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729128/rosettes-engrailed-edges-and-star-shaped-patterns-between-rediscovery-and-forgetfulness-in-the-early-accounts-of-vibrating-liquid-drops-floating-over-hot-surfaces
#17
Seán M Stewart
Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling...
July 17, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728918/financing-transformative-health-systems-towards-achievement-of-the-health-sustainable-development-goals-a-model-for-projected-resource-needs-in-67-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Karin Stenberg, Odd Hanssen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Melanie Bertram, Callum Brindley, Andreia Meshreky, James E Rosen, John Stover, Paul Verboom, Rachel Sanders, Agnès Soucat
BACKGROUND: The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. METHODS: We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724002/challenges-in-a-product-development-partnership-a-malaria-treatment-case-study
#19
Vera Lucia Luiza, Gabriela Costa Chaves, Tayná Marques Torres Barboza, Luciana de Paula Barros Gonçalves, Eric G Stobbaerts
This paper examines the development of a treatment - a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and mefloquine - in Brazil, from three points of view: in terms of access to medication; to record and report successes; and to look at the lessons learned. This product development took place in the ambit of a public-private partnership. Semi-structured interviews were held with key actors involved in the different phases of the development, and documents were analyzed. Two important points of reference orienting the design of the study and analysis were: a logical model for access to medication; and evaluation of programs...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#20
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
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