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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729611/cryptic-speciation-in-pan-tropical-sea-urchins-a-case-study-of-an-edge-of-range-population-of-tripneustes-from-the-kermadec-islands
#1
Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Barbara Tautscher, Libby Liggins, Elisabeth Haring
Tripneustes is one of the most abundant and ecologically significant tropical echinoids. Highly valued for its gonads, wild populations of Tripneustes are commercially exploited and cultivated stocks are a prime target for the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Here we examine Tripneustes from the Kermadec Islands, a remote chain of volcanic islands in the southwest Pacific Ocean that mark the boundary of the genus' range, by combining morphological and genetic analyses, using two mitochondrial (COI and the Control Region), and one nuclear (bindin) marker...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729128/rosettes-engrailed-edges-and-star-shaped-patterns-between-rediscovery-and-forgetfulness-in-the-early-accounts-of-vibrating-liquid-drops-floating-over-hot-surfaces
#2
Seán M Stewart
Small drops of liquid brought into contact with very hot surfaces float above it as beautiful, slightly flattened spheroids without coming to the boil. An example of film boiling, drops that are sessile can often suddenly and quite unexpectedly start to oscillate forming highly symmetric patterns of surprising pulchritude. The rim of these oscillating drops take on "star-shaped" patterns with many different modes of vibration possible. Still an object of study today, their discovery, early accounts, rediscovery and ensuing controversies over claims of priority, before quietly slipping away from the collective memory of the scientific community to become all but forgotten makes for a compelling story in the early history of film boiling...
July 17, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728918/financing-transformative-health-systems-towards-achievement-of-the-health-sustainable-development-goals-a-model-for-projected-resource-needs-in-67-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Karin Stenberg, Odd Hanssen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Melanie Bertram, Callum Brindley, Andreia Meshreky, James E Rosen, John Stover, Paul Verboom, Rachel Sanders, Agnès Soucat
BACKGROUND: The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. METHODS: We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724002/challenges-in-a-product-development-partnership-a-malaria-treatment-case-study
#4
Vera Lucia Luiza, Gabriela Costa Chaves, Tayná Marques Torres Barboza, Luciana de Paula Barros Gonçalves, Eric G Stobbaerts
This paper examines the development of a treatment - a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and mefloquine - in Brazil, from three points of view: in terms of access to medication; to record and report successes; and to look at the lessons learned. This product development took place in the ambit of a public-private partnership. Semi-structured interviews were held with key actors involved in the different phases of the development, and documents were analyzed. Two important points of reference orienting the design of the study and analysis were: a logical model for access to medication; and evaluation of programs...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721604/a-space-of-one-s-own-barbosa-du-bocage-the-foundation-of-the-national-museum-of-lisbon-and-the-construction-of-a-career-in-zoology-1851-1907
#5
Daniel Gamito-Marques
This paper discusses the life and scientific work of José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823-1907), a nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalist who carved a new place for zoological research in Portugal and built up a prestigious scientific career by securing appropriate physical and institutional spaces to the discipline. Although he was appointed professor of zoology at the Lisbon Polytechnic School, an institution mainly devoted to the preparatory training of military officers and engineers, he succeeded in creating the conditions that allowed him to develop consistent research in zoology at this institution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709172/-irritable-bowel-syndrom-disection-of-a-disease-a-13-steps-polemic
#6
Paul Enck, Thomas Frieling, Michael Schemann
The last 35 years (since about 1985) have produced a vast amount of scientific publications with respect to the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but no real progress: The etiology and pathogenesis of IBS is still incompletely understood, and diagnosis and therapy is left to the individual understanding of the treating physicians in general medicine, gastroenterology and psychosomatic/psychiatry. In this gloss, three prominent representatives of neurogastroenterology in Germany assess their own contributions and those of their colleagues and lament the huge gap between ambitions and reality in clinical and basic science in IBS...
July 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676790/nanotechnology-in-sustainable-agriculture-recent-developments-challenges-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Ram Prasad, Atanu Bhattacharyya, Quang D Nguyen
Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676417/eu-ambition-to-build-the-world-s-leading-bioeconomy-uncertain-times-demand-innovative-and-sustainable-solutions
#8
REVIEW
John Bell, Lino Paula, Thomas Dodd, Szilvia Németh, Christina Nanou, Voula Mega, Paula Campos
This article outlines the current context and the development of the European Bioeconomy Strategy. It analyses the current situation, challenges and needs for EU action and concludes with the next steps that the European Commission will undertake to review and update the Bioeconomy Strategy. Bioeconomy offers great opportunities to realising a competitive, circular and sustainable economy with a sound industrial base that is less dependent on fossil carbon. A sustainable bioeconomy also contributes to climate change mitigation, with oceans, forests and soils being major carbon sinks and fostering negative CO2 emissions...
July 1, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643213/the-difficult-legacy-of-turing-s-wager
#9
Andrew Thwaites, Andrew Soltan, Eric Wieser, Ian Nimmo-Smith
Describing the human brain in mathematical terms is an important ambition of neuroscience research, yet the challenges remain considerable. It was Alan Turing, writing in 1950, who first sought to demonstrate how time-consuming such an undertaking would be. Through analogy to the computer program, Turing argued that arriving at a complete mathematical description of the mind would take well over a thousand years. In this opinion piece, we argue that - despite seventy years of progress in the field - his arguments remain both prescient and persuasive...
August 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636289/loss-of-idealism-or-realistic-optimism-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-dental-hygiene-students-and-registered-dental-hygienists-professional-identity-perceptions
#10
J M Champine, M R Inglehart, D Furgeson, J F Halaris, M Fitzgerald, T E Danciu, J S Kinney
OBJECTIVES: The dental hygiene profession in the U.S. is in the process of establishing a direct access model of care and contributing to the creation of the profession of a dental therapist. The objectives were to analyse the professional role perceptions of dental hygiene students and registered dental hygienists in these times of change. Specifically, it was explored whether dental hygiene students' current professional identities differ (i) from their expected future identities, and (ii) from dental hygienists' current and (iii) past identities...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627082/dependence-and-resistance-in-community-psychiatric-health-care-negotiations-of-user-participation-between-staff-and-users
#11
Ingrid Femdal, Ingrid Ruud Knutsen
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of user participation is considered important in today's mental health care. Research shows, however, that user participation lacks clarity and provokes uncertainty regarding shifting roles. AIM: To investigate negotiation of user participation in a micro-study of interplay between users and health professionals in community mental health care METHOD: This qualitative study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews, involving ten service users and ten professionals in community mental health care in Norway...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622590/can-evolutionary-theory-explain-the-slow-development-of-knowledge-about-the-level-of-safety-built-into-roads
#12
Rune Elvik
In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605282/is-binge-drinking-onset-timing-related-to-academic-performance-engagement-and-aspirations-among-youth-in-the-compass-study
#13
Karen A Patte, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests early initiation of alcohol use is associated with academic underachievement; however, substance use onset is an ambiguous concept, resulting in mixed findings across studies. Moreover, the quantity of early use is likely an important determinant. Binge drinking is a common pattern among younger cohorts, and is shown to magnify the risk of related problems. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored how students who initiated binge drinking early (grade 10 or earlier) or later in high school (grade 11 or 12) differed in relation to a variety of academic indices...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604034/emotions-and-concerns-situational-evidence-for-their-systematic-co-occurrence
#14
Jozefien De Leersnyder, Peter Koval, Peter Kuppens, Batja Mesquita
People experience emotions when events are relevant to their current concerns, that is, when events affect their goals, values, or motives that are pertinent at that time. In the current research, we focused on one kind of concern-values-and examined whether different types of concerns are associated with different categories of emotion. More specifically, we investigated whether, at the situation level, the relevance of different types of values is linked to the intensity of different types of emotional experience...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598917/improving-performance-by-monitoring-the-success-rate-of-peripheral-nerve-blocks
#15
Sietske M K Bakker, Rudolf Stienstra
In our hospital, we introduced a system to measure the collective and individual efficacy of brachial plexus and popliteal nerve blocks with the objective to create transparency as an instrument for monitoring and improvement. Initially, individual results were anonymous, but after 1 year anonymity was lifted within the team of anesthesiologists and results are now discussed quarterly. Collective performance of interscalene, supraclavicular, and popliteal blocks improved significantly over time. Sharing and discussing collective and individual performance has resulted in critical self-appraisal and increased willingness to learn from each other and strengthened the team's ambition for further improvement...
June 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595565/gold-nanoparticles-by-laser-ablation-for-x-ray-imaging-and-protontherapy-improvements
#16
Torrisi Lorenzo, Nancy Restuccia, Irene Paterniti
Gold nanoparticles, 5-20 nm in diameter, were generated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1010 W/cm2 at solution concentrations ranging between 1-100 mg/ml. Nanoparticles were characterized using optical absorbance, X-ray fluorescence, SEM, and TEM. Biocompatible nanoparticle solutions were injected by intravenously into the tail veins of mice followed by X-ray imaging using 20-45 keV photons to evaluate the uptake and the clearance by different organs of the nanoparticles. The incremental X-ray contrast imaging using gold nanoparticles was investigated and measured...
June 8, 2017: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594621/an-undergraduate-placemement-at-the-st-john-eye-hospital-jerusalem
#17
Ruth Dickinson
The elective placement is an opportunity for nursing undergraduates to independently decide where to go and what to do to widen their clinical experience. Being able to decide on and participate in an elective placement provides student nurses with a chance to work in a different area and explore personal ambitions. This reflective account examines a student nurse's experiences while on an elective placement at an eye hospital in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585231/the-employers-perspective-on-barriers-and-facilitators-to-employment-of-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-differential-mixed-method-approach
#18
Andreas Kocman, Linda Fischer, Germain Weber
BACKGROUND: Obtaining employment is among the most important ambitions of people with intellectual disability. Progress towards comprehensive inclusive employment is hampered by numerous barriers. Limited research is available on these barriers and strategies to overcome them. METHOD: A mixed method approach in a sample of 30 HR-managers was used to assess (i) differences in perceived barriers for employment of people with specific disabilities and mental disorders; (ii) barriers specific to employing people with intellectual disability; (iii) strategies to overcome these barriers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578211/confined-to-a-tokenistic-status-social-scientists-in-leadership-roles-in-a-national-health-research-funding-agency
#19
Mathieu Albert, Suzanne Laberge
The idea of interdisciplinarity has been taken up by academic and governmental organisations around the world and enacted through science policies, funding programs and higher education institutions. In Canada, interdisciplinarity led to a major transformation in health research funding. In 2000, the federal government closed the Medical Research Council (MRC) and created the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). From the outset, CIHR's vision and goals were innovative, as it sought to include the social sciences within its purview alongside more traditional health research sectors...
May 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570946/microfabricated-blood-vessels-undergo-neoangiogenesis
#20
Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Steven A Roberts, Frances S Ligler, André A Adams
The greatest ambition and promise of tissue engineering is to manufacture human organs. Before "made-to-measure" tissues can become a reality [1-3], however, three-dimensional tissues must be reconstructed and characterized. The current inability to manufacture operational vasculature has limited the growth of engineered tissues. Here, free-standing, small diameter blood vessels with organized cell layers that recapitulate normal biological functionality are fabricated using microfluidic technology. Over time in culture, the endothelial cells form a monolayer on the luminal wall and remodel the scaffold with human extracellular matrix proteins...
May 19, 2017: Biomaterials
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