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Siv Skarstein, Per Lagerløv, Lisbeth Gravdal Kvarme, Sølvi Helseth
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe conditions that may influence the development of identity in adolescents frequently using over-the-counter analgesics (OTCAs). BACKGROUND: Frequent self-medication with analgesics among adolescents is associated with several physical pain points, low self-esteem and low ambitions for the future. Continuous use of OTCAs can keep adolescents from learning healthier coping strategies. DESIGN: Qualitative individual interviews with adolescents and their mothers were conducted and transcribed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Susanne Pedersen, Falko F Sniehotta, Kirby Sainsbury, Elizabeth H Evans, Marta M Marques, R James Stubbs, Berit L Heitmann, Liisa Lähteenmäki
RATIONALE: Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes in WLM...
May 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Andrew Mark Bassett, Caragh Brosnan, Erica Southgate, Heidi Lempp
BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in the transitions along the medical education continuum. However, little is known about how students from non-traditional backgrounds experience both the move to, and through Medical School, and their ambitions post-graduation. This research sought to understand the transitional journey into, and through undergraduate medical education, and future career aspirations for first-in-family (FiF) medical students. METHODS: Based on a interpretivist epistemological perspective, 20 FiF students from one English Medical School participated in semi-structured interviews...
May 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Sarita A Sanches, Jooske T van Busschbach, Harry W C Michon, Jaap van Weeghel, Wilma E Swildens
OBJECTIVE: A key aspect of psychiatric rehabilitation is supporting individuals with serious mental illness in reaching personal goals. This study aimed to investigate whether various aspects of the working alliance predict successful goal attainment and whether goal attainment improves subjective quality of life, independent of the rehabilitation approach used. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted of data from a Dutch randomized clinical trial on goal attainment by individuals supported with the Boston University approach to psychiatric rehabilitation (N=80) or a generic approach (N=76)...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Bruno Halioua
The Nazi doctors committed crimes in the camp of Auschwitz which constitute the darkest page in the history of medicine of the twentieth century. They were largely directly involved in the murder of the 1.1 million Jewish majority and about 21,000 gypsies who were transported from all over Europe. How can we explain the intellectual journey of those men who had embraced the medical career to relieve their neighbors? How could these cultivated and refined men, from the most prestigious faculties of medicine, have been able to achieve activities ethically unacceptable? Eight factors help to explain the crimes committed by these educated and cultivated SS doctors: indoctrination fervent to Nazism, adherence to racial hygiene, a false sense of participation in a "public health enterprise", virulent anti-Semitism, unreserved obedience to orders, the opportunity to avoid the danger of fighting areas, the ambition to carry out medical research and the desire to improve surgical knowledge...
May 3, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Asher Mullard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Olivier Garraud, Jean-Daniel Tissot
Blood transfusion is made possible because, in most countries and organizations, altruistic individuals voluntarily, anonymously, and generously donate (without compensation) either whole blood or separated components that are then processed and distributed by professionals, prior to being allocated to recipients in need. Being part of modern medicine, blood transfusion uses so-called standard blood components when relative to cellular fractions and fresh plasma. However, as will be discussed in this paper, strictly speaking, such so-called labile blood components are not completely standard...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Anne Doessing
With the coordination of health care services becoming increasingly complex, the challenges of fragmentation cannot be solved by administrative restructuring alone. Attention must also be given to the coordination practices of professional groups, and, in this respect, the nursing profession is a particularly interesting case. Based on a qualitative case study of Danish nurses in hospital, municipality, and general practice, this article addresses the following question: How does the nursing profession practice formal and informal inter-organisational coordination in complex pathways, and what is the interplay between the 2 types of coordination? The findings contribute to our knowledge of coordination at the operative level of health care by identifying specific informal practices in inter-organisational coordination and by showing how informal coordination is activated to support formal coordination in a concurrent organisational and professional ambition of integration...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Ioanna Dagiasi, Victor Vall, Eva Kumlien, Joachim Burman, Johan Zelano
PURPOSE: The prevalence of epilepsy is increased in multiple sclerosis (MS), but information on AED treatment and seizure outcome is scarce. We describe epilepsy characteristics including the use of AEDs and proportion of seizure-free patients at two tertiary hospitals in Sweden. METHOD: We retrospectively studied electronic medical records of all patients with a diagnosis of MS and seizures at Sahlgrenska university hospital and Uppsala university hospital. Clinical data were reviewed until 2017...
April 5, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jari Kuosmanen, Annelie de Cabo
The purpose of this study is to examine how men who sell sex to men perceive the risks in this activity and what experiences they have of actual denigration, threats, and violence in their relations with customers. We also discuss the self-defense strategies they have used to protect themselves. The study is based on an Internet survey on Swedish websites. Statistical analyses have been carried out, and in interpreting the results, Finkelhor and Asdigian's revised routine activities theory has been used. The results show that the vulnerability of sellers of sex is greatest during the time when the sexual act is being performed, and that this is primarily linked to the customer's antagonism and seeking gratification by overstepping agreed boundaries, particularly with regard to sexual services including BDSM...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Drew Shindell, Greg Faluvegi, Karl Seltzer, Cary Shindell
Societal risks increase as Earth warms, but also for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate even if they lead to identical warming [1]. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations [2]. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits [3, 4]...
2018: Nature Climate Change
Alessandra Pellerito, Sara M Ameen, Maria Micali, Giorgia Caruso
Antimicrobial substances are widely used in many anthropic activities, including sanitary and military services for the human population. These compounds are also known to be used in food production, agricultural activities, and partially correlated industrial sectors. However, there are concerns regarding the link between the abuse of antimicrobial agents in these ambits and the possible detection of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Modern food and beverage products are generally found on the market as prepackaged units, with several exceptions...
April 4, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Lavanya Rajamani, Jacob Werksman
This article assesses the legal character and operational relevance of the Paris Agreement's 1.5°C temperature goal. This article begins with a textual analysis of the 1.5°C goal. It considers whether the goal creates individual or collective obligations for Parties, and whether it is sufficiently specific to enable the tracking of individual or collective performance. Next, it assesses the operational relevance of the 1.5°C temperature goal, by considering the role it will play in the Paris Agreement's institutions and procedures...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
M Schmidt, D Gross, J Westemeier
The present article elucidates the role and function of SS Gruppenführer Karl Blumenreuter (1881-1969), the leading pharmacist of the SS. The aim is to clarify how he participated in the crimes of the Nazi Party and especially the SS during the "Third Reich" and the extent to which he was brought to justice after 1945. Central elements of the study are based on researched archival primary sources. The latter were compared with each other and supplemented with the currently available secondary literature on the subject...
April 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Marie Gaille
In this contribution, we intend to shed light on the challenges involved in the requirement for greater medical attention to the meaning of chronic illness for the person affected by it. Two philosophical approaches dating from the twentieth century, hermeneutics and phenomenology, are especially pertinent to this questioning about the meaning of chronic illness for the patient. After making a clear distinction between merely listening to the patient in order to improve diagnosis and treatment and applying interest to the actual meaning of the disease for the person who has it (I), our contribution presents the ideas of H...
March 31, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Camilla Andersson, Jesper Stage
Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden's increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments - weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste - affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems should be similar...
March 28, 2018: Waste Management
Martine Brouillette
This research wishes to contribute to the understanding of the migration policy regime of the European Union (EU), by considering an analytical perspective that privileges the standpoint of the countries of its neighbourhood. As an entry point, we have focused our analysis on the Mobility Partnership, a policy instrument of soft power, representative of the emblematic network governance privileged by the EU in its current political framework, the Global Approach to Migration and Mobility (GAMM). Applying an "instrument approach", our research raises the question of the role played by the Mobility Partnership in the circulation of norms, ideas and practices related to the "good governance" of international migration, and whether these are internalized by the partner third countries...
2018: Comparative Migration Studies
Ilse Catharina Sophia Swinkels, Martine Wilhelmina Johanna Huygens, Tim M Schoenmakers, Wendy Oude Nijeweme-D'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Joan Vermeulen, Marian Schoone-Harmsen, Yvonne Jfm Jansen, Onno Cp van Schayck, Roland Friele, Luc de Witte
BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) solutions are considered to relieve current and future pressure on the sustainability of primary health care systems. However, evidence of the effectiveness of eHealth in daily practice is missing. Furthermore, eHealth solutions are often not implemented structurally after a pilot phase, even if successful during this phase. Although many studies on barriers and facilitators were published in recent years, eHealth implementation still progresses only slowly...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
M Barbateskovic, S Marker, J C Jakobsen, M Krag, A Granholm, C T Anthon, A Perner, J Wetterslev, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit (ICU), stress ulcer prophylaxis with proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2-receptor antagonists is standard of care although gastrointestinal bleeding remains uncommon. It remains unknown whether its use is associated with benefits or harms and the quality of evidence supporting the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis has been questioned. Accordingly, the objective of this systematic review was to critically assess the evidence from randomized clinical trials on the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis vs...
March 25, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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