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acoustic phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#1
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898342/voice-sensitive-brain-networks-encode-talker-specific-phonetic-detail
#2
Emily B Myers, Rachel M Theodore
The speech stream simultaneously carries information about talker identity and linguistic content, and the same acoustic property (e.g., voice-onset-time, or VOT) may be used for both purposes. Separable neural networks for processing talker identity and phonetic content have been identified, but it is unclear how a singular acoustic property is parsed by the neural system for talker identification versus phonetic processing. In the current study, listeners were exposed to two talkers with characteristically different VOTs...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826946/phonetic-convergence-across-multiple-measures-and-model-talkers
#3
Jennifer S Pardo, Adelya Urmanche, Sherilyn Wilman, Jaclyn Wiener
This study consolidates findings on phonetic convergence in a large-scale examination of the impacts of talker sex, word frequency, and model talkers on multiple measures of convergence. A survey of nearly three dozen published reports revealed that most shadowing studies used very few model talkers and did not assess whether phonetic convergence varied across same- and mixed-sex pairings. Furthermore, some studies have reported effects of talker sex or word frequency on phonetic convergence, but others have failed to replicate these effects or have reported opposing patterns...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819457/more-than-a-boundary-shift-perceptual-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech-reshapes-the-internal-structure-of-phonetic-categories
#4
Xin Xie, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
The literature on perceptual learning for speech shows that listeners use lexical information to disambiguate phonetically ambiguous speech sounds and that they maintain this new mapping for later recognition of ambiguous sounds for a given talker. Evidence for this kind of perceptual reorganization has focused on phonetic category boundary shifts. Here, we asked whether listeners adjust both category boundaries and internal category structure in rapid adaptation to foreign accents. We investigated the perceptual learning of Mandarin-accented productions of word-final voiced stops in English...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794357/effects-of-obstruent-voicing-on-vowel-f0-evidence-from-true-voicing-languages
#5
James P Kirby, D Robert Ladd
This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations ("CF0") in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(1), 425-441]. In both languages, F0 is significantly depressed, relative to sonorants, during the closure for voiced obstruents, but cannot be differentiated from sonorants following the release of oral constriction...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794292/lexically-guided-perceptual-tuning-of-internal-phonetic-category-structure
#6
Julia R Drouin, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
Listeners use lexical information to retune the mapping between the acoustic signal and speech sound representations, resulting in changes to phonetic category boundaries. Other research shows that phonetic categories have a rich internal structure; within-category variation is represented in a graded fashion. The current work examined whether lexically informed perceptual learning promotes a comprehensive reorganization of internal category structure. The results showed a reorganization of internal structure for one but not both of the examined categories, which may reflect an attenuation of learning for distributions with extensive category overlap...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768175/exploring-the-clinical-utility-of-relative-fundamental-frequency-as-an-objective-measure-of-vocal-hyperfunction
#7
Nelson Roy, Rebecca A Fetrow, Ray M Merrill, Christopher Dromey
Purpose: Vocal hyperfunction, related to abnormal laryngeal muscle activity, is considered the proximal cause of primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD). Relative fundamental frequency (RFF) has been proposed as an objective acoustic marker of vocal hyperfunction. This study examined (a) the ability of RFF to track changes in vocal hyperfunction after treatment for pMTD and (b) the influence of dysphonia severity, among other factors, on the feasibility of RFF computation. Method: RFF calculations and dysphonia severity ratings were derived from pre- and posttreatment recordings from 111 women with pMTD and 20 healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736242/bias-in-the-perception-of-phonetic-detail-in-children-s-speech-a-comparison-of-categorical-and-continuous-rating-scales
#8
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669107/mental-representations-of-vowel-features-asymmetrically-modulate-activity-in-superior-temporal-sulcus
#9
Mathias Scharinger, Ulrike Domahs, Elise Klein, Frank Domahs
Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e...
September 23, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649413/shifting-perceptual-weights-in-l2-vowel-identification-after-training
#10
Wei Hu, Lin Mi, Zhen Yang, Sha Tao, Mingshuang Li, Wenjing Wang, Qi Dong, Chang Liu
Difficulties with second-language vowel perception may be related to the significant challenges in using acoustic-phonetic cues. This study investigated the effects of perception training with duration-equalized vowels on native Chinese listeners' English vowel perception and their use of acoustic-phonetic cues. Seventeen native Chinese listeners were perceptually trained with duration-equalized English vowels, and another 17 native Chinese listeners watched English videos as a control group. Both groups were tested with English vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination before training, immediately after training, and three months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648210/normal-hearing-listeners-and-cochlear-implant-users-perception-of-pitch-cues-in-emotional-speech
#11
Steven Gilbers, Christina Fuller, Dicky Gilbers, Mirjam Broersma, Martijn Goudbeek, Rolien Free, Deniz Başkent
In cochlear implants (CIs), acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study's aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings' pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners' and 20 CI users' emotion recognition...
October 2015: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622923/phonetic-detail-and-lateralization-of-reading-related-inner-speech-and-of-auditory-and-somatosensory-feedback-processing-during-overt-reading
#12
Christian A Kell, Maritza Darquea, Marion Behrens, Lorenzo Cordani, Christian Keller, Susanne Fuchs
Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610938/covert-contrast-and-covert-errors-in-persistent-velar-fronting
#13
Joanne Cleland, James M Scobbie, Cornelia Heyde, Zoe Roxburgh, Alan A Wrench
Acoustic and articulatory studies demonstrate covert contrast in perceptually neutralised phonemic contrasts in both typical children and children with speech disorders. These covert contrasts are thought to be relatively common and symptomatic of phonetic speech disorders. However, clinicians in the speech therapy clinic have had no easy way of identifying this covertness. This study uses ultrasound tongue imaging to compare tongue contours for /t/and /k/in seven children with persistent velar fronting. We present a method of overlaying tongue contours to identify covert contrast at the articulatory level...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595118/sentential-influences-on-acoustic-phonetic-processing-a-granger-causality-analysis-of-multimodal-imaging-data
#14
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
Sentential context influences the way that listeners identify phonetically ambiguous or perceptual degraded speech sounds. Unfortunately, inherent inferential limitations on the interpretation of behavioral or BOLD imaging results make it unclear whether context influences perceptual processing directly, or acts at a post-perceptual decision stage. In this paper, we use Kalman-filter enabled Granger causation analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to distinguish between these possibilities. Using a retrospective probe verification task, we found that sentential context strongly affected the interpretation of words with ambiguous initial voicing (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586751/across-formant-integration-and-speech-intelligibility-effects-of-acoustic-source-properties-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-a-contralateral-interferer
#15
Robert J Summers, Peter J Bailey, Brian Roberts
The role of source properties in across-formant integration was explored using three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences (targets). In experiment 1, F1+F3 were harmonic analogues (H1+H3) generated using a monotonous buzz source and second-order resonators; in experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). Target formants were always presented monaurally; the receiving ear was assigned randomly on each trial. In some conditions, only the target was present; in others, a competitor for F2 (F2C) was presented contralaterally...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539001/the-influence-of-voice-sample-length-in-the-auditory-perceptual-judgment-of-overall-voice-quality
#16
Ben Barsties, Youri Maryn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of voice sample lengths (VSLs) on the perceived degree of severity of overall voice quality. To increase a valid judgment in voice quality, a consistent rating is essential to estimate the presence and degree of severity of a voice. METHODS: Three VSLs were defined by varying only the length of continuous speech followed by constant duration of 3 seconds of the mid-vowel portion sustained vowel [a:]...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537983/the-development-of-voiceless-sibilant-fricatives-in-putonghua-speaking-children
#17
Fangfang Li, Benjamin Munson
PURPOSE: The aims of the present study are (a) to quantify the developmental sequence of fricative mastery in Putonghua-speaking children and discuss the observed pattern in relation to existing theoretical positions, and (b) to describe the acquisition of the fine-articulatory/acoustic details of fricatives in the multidimensional acoustic space. METHOD: Twenty adults and 97 children participated in a speech-production experiment, repeating a list of fricative-initial words...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475179/dynamic-acoustic-properties-of-monophthongs-and-diphthongs-in-western-sydney-australian-english
#18
Jaydene Elvin, Daniel Williams, Paola Escudero
This study provides a thorough acoustic analysis of the 18 Australian English monophthongs and diphthongs produced in a variety of phonetic contexts by young adult speakers from Western Sydney. The 18 vowels are well separated by duration and dynamic formant trajectory information. Vowel durations and formant trajectories were affected by the consonantal context in which the vowels were produced, particularly those produced in the /hVd/ context. Finally, the results indicate that capturing aspects of vowel inherent spectral change may be useful in future cross-dialectal and cross-linguistic studies...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475159/-fake-gemination-in-suffixed-words-and-compounds-in-english-and-german
#19
Sandra Kotzor, Benjamin J Molineaux, Elanor Banks, Aditi Lahiri
In languages with an underlying consonantal length contrast, the most salient acoustic cue differentiating singletons and geminates is duration of closure. When concatenation of identical phonemes through affixation or compounding produces "fake" geminates, these may or may not be realized phonetically as true geminates. English and German no longer have a productive length contrast in consonants, but do allow sequences of identical consonants in certain morphological contexts, e.g., suffixation (green-ness; zahl-los "countless") or compounding (pine nut; Schul-leiter "headmaster")...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475128/distinct-neural-systems-recruited-when-speech-production-is-modulated-by-different-masking-sounds
#20
Sophie Meekings, Samuel Evans, Nadine Lavan, Dana Boebinger, Katya Krieger-Redwood, Martin Cooke, Sophie K Scott
When talkers speak in masking sounds, their speech undergoes a variety of acoustic and phonetic changes. These changes are known collectively as the Lombard effect. Most behavioural research and neuroimaging research in this area has concentrated on the effect of energetic maskers such as white noise on Lombard speech. Previous fMRI studies have argued that neural responses to speaking in noise are driven by the quality of auditory feedback-that is, the audibility of the speaker's voice over the masker. However, we also frequently produce speech in the presence of informational maskers such as another talker...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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