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acoustic phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968658/task-general-and-acoustic-invariant-neural-representation-of-speech-categories-in-the-human-brain
#1
Gangyi Feng, Zhenzhong Gan, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong, Bharath Chandrasekaran
A significant neural challenge in speech perception includes extracting discrete phonetic categories from continuous and multidimensional signals despite varying task demands and surface-acoustic variability. While neural representations of speech categories have been previously identified in frontal and posterior temporal-parietal regions, the task dependency and dimensional specificity of these neural representations are still unclear. Here, we asked native Mandarin participants to listen to speech syllables carrying 4 distinct lexical tone categories across passive listening, repetition, and categorization tasks while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966565/are-homophones-acoustically-distinguished-in-child-directed-speech
#2
Erin Conwell
Many approaches to early word learning posit that children assume a one-to-one mapping of form and meaning. However, children's early vocabularies contain homophones, words that violate that assumption. Children might learn such words by exploiting prosodic differences between homophone meanings that are associated with lemma frequency (Gahl, 2008). Such differences have not yet been documented in children's natural language experience and the exaggerated prosody of child-directed speech could either mask the subtle distinctions reported in adult-directed speech or enhance them...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890602/learning-a-talker-or-learning-an-accent-acoustic-similarity-constrains-generalization-of-foreign-accent-adaptation-to-new-talkers
#3
Xin Xie, Emily B Myers
Past research has revealed that native listeners use top-down information to adjust the mapping from speech sounds to phonetic categories. Such phonetic adjustments help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech. However, the mechanism by which talker-specific adaptation generalizes to other talkers is poorly understood. Here we asked what conditions induce crosstalker generalization in talker accent adaptation. Native-English listeners were exposed to Mandarin-accented words, produced by a single talker or multiple talkers...
December 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867553/cepstral-analysis-of-normal-and-pathological-voice-in-spanish-adults-smoothed-cepstral-peak-prominence-in-sustained-vowels-versus-connected-speech
#4
Jonathan Delgado-Hernández, Nieves M León-Gómez, Laura M Izquierdo-Arteaga, Yanira Llanos-Fumero
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, the use of cepstral measures for acoustic evaluation of voice has increased. One of the most investigated parameters is smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPs). The objectives of this paper are to establish the usefulness of this acoustic measure in the objective evaluation of alterations of the voice in Spanish and to determine what type of voice sample (sustained vowels or connected speech) is the most sensitive in evaluating the severity of dysphonia...
August 31, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863560/which-epenthetic-vowel-phonetic-categories-versus-acoustic-detail-in-perceptual-vowel-epenthesis
#5
Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Isabelle Lin, Masahiro Morii, Yasuyo Minagawa, Emmanuel Dupoux, Sharon Peperkamp
This study aims to quantify the relative contributions of phonetic categories and acoustic detail on phonotactically induced perceptual vowel epenthesis in Japanese listeners. A vowel identification task tested whether a vowel was perceived within illegal consonant clusters and, if so, which vowel was heard. Cross-spliced stimuli were used in which vowel coarticulation present in the cluster did not match the quality of the flanking vowel. Two clusters were used, /hp/ and /kp/, the former containing larger amounts of resonances of the preceding vowel...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843209/stream-segregation-of-concurrent-speech-and-the-verbal-transformation-effect-influence-of-fundamental-frequency-and-lateralization-cues
#6
Marcin Stachurski, Robert J Summers, Brian Roberts
Repeating a recorded word produces verbal transformations (VTs); perceptual regrouping of acoustic-phonetic elements may contribute to this effect. The influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and lateralization grouping cues was explored by presenting two concurrent sequences of the same word resynthesized on different F0s (100 and 178 Hz). In experiment 1, listeners monitored both sequences simultaneously, reporting for each any change in stimulus identity. Three lateralization conditions were used - diotic, ±680-μs interaural time difference, and dichotic...
August 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840520/five-mechanisms-of-sound-symbolic-association
#7
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization...
August 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#8
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764479/analyzing-dialect-variation-in-historical-speech-corpora
#9
Margaret E L Renwick, Rachel M Olsen
The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764450/the-articulatory-dynamics-of-pre-velar-and-pre-nasal-%C3%A3-raising-in-english-an-ultrasound-study
#10
Jeff Mielke, Christopher Carignan, Erik R Thomas
Most dialects of North American English exhibit /æ/-raising in some phonological contexts. Both the conditioning environments and the temporal dynamics of the raising vary from region to region. To explore the articulatory basis of /æ/-raising across North American English dialects, acoustic and articulatory data were collected from a regionally diverse group of 24 English speakers from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A method for examining the temporal dynamics of speech directly from ultrasound video using EigenTongues decomposition [Hueber, Aversano, Chollet, Denby, Dreyfus, Oussar, Roussel, and Stone (2007)...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756027/key-considerations-in-designing-a-speech-brain-computer-interface
#11
Florent Bocquelet, Thomas Hueber, Laurent Girin, Stéphan Chabardès, Blaise Yvert
Restoring communication in case of aphasia is a key challenge for neurotechnologies. To this end, brain-computer strategies can be envisioned to allow artificial speech synthesis from the continuous decoding of neural signals underlying speech imagination. Such speech brain-computer interfaces do not exist yet and their design should consider three key choices that need to be made: the choice of appropriate brain regions to record neural activity from, the choice of an appropriate recording technique, and the choice of a neural decoding scheme in association with an appropriate speech synthesis method...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717151/what-drives-sound-symbolism-different-acoustic-cues-underlie-sound-size-and-sound-shape-mappings
#12
Klemens Knoeferle, Jixing Li, Emanuela Maggioni, Charles Spence
Sound symbolism refers to the non-arbitrary mappings that exist between phonetic properties of speech sounds and their meaning. Despite there being an extensive literature on the topic, the acoustic features and psychological mechanisms that give rise to sound symbolism are not, as yet, altogether clear. The present study was designed to investigate whether different sets of acoustic cues predict size and shape symbolism, respectively. In two experiments, participants judged whether a given consonant-vowel speech sound was large or small, round or angular, using a size or shape scale...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679267/acoustic-characteristics-of-punjabi-retroflex-and-dental-stops
#13
Qandeel Hussain, Michael Proctor, Mark Harvey, Katherine Demuth
The phonological category "retroflex" is found in many Indo-Aryan languages; however, it has not been clearly established which acoustic characteristics reliably differentiate retroflexes from other coronals. This study investigates the acoustic phonetic properties of Punjabi retroflex /ʈ/ and dental /ʈ̪/ in word-medial and word-initial contexts across /i e a o u/, and in word-final context across /i a u/. Formant transitions, closure and release durations, and spectral moments of release bursts are compared in 2280 stop tokens produced by 30 speakers...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653556/supra-segmental-changes-in-speech-production-as-a-result-of-spectral-feedback-degradation-comparison-with-lombard-speech
#14
Elizabeth D Casserly, Yeling Wang, Nicholas Celestin, Lily Talesnick, David B Pisoni
Perturbations to acoustic speech feedback have been typically localized to specific phonetic characteristics, for example, fundamental frequency (F0) or the first two formants (F1/F2), or affect all aspects of the speech signal equally, for example, via the addition of background noise. This paper examines the consequences of a more selective global perturbation: real-time cochlear implant (CI) simulation of acoustic speech feedback. Specifically, we examine the potential similarity between speakers' response to noise vocoding and the characteristics of Lombard speech...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639708/young-infants-word-comprehension-given-an-unfamiliar-talker-or-altered-pronunciations
#15
Elika Bergelson, Daniel Swingley
To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618810/enhancement-effects-of-clear-speech-and-word-initial-position-in-korean-glides
#16
Seung-Eun Chang
The current study investigated the enhancement effect in Korean speakers' clear speech and word-initial position, using acoustic analyses of the Korean glides /w/ and /j/. The results showed that the transitions of glides /w/ and /j/ at onset were enhanced in clear speech with an expanded vowel space. An expanded vowel space was also observed in the word-initial position, but the expansion was not statistically significant. However, the significant interaction between speaking style and word position revealed that the articulatory and global modifications in clear speech were noticeably greater at onset in the word-medial compared to the word-initial position...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601721/a-universal-bias-in-adult-vowel-perception-by-ear-or-by-eye
#17
Matthew Masapollo, Linda Polka, Lucie Ménard
Speech perceivers are universally biased toward "focal" vowels (i.e., vowels whose adjacent formants are close in frequency, which concentrates acoustic energy into a narrower spectral region). This bias is demonstrated in phonetic discrimination tasks as a directional asymmetry: a change from a relatively less to a relatively more focal vowel results in significantly better performance than a change in the reverse direction. We investigated whether the critical information for this directional effect is limited to the auditory modality, or whether visible articulatory information provided by the speaker's face also plays a role...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599541/prosodic-exaggeration-within-infant-directed-speech-consequences-for-vowel-learnability
#18
Frans Adriaans, Daniel Swingley
Perceptual experiments with infants show that they adapt their perception of speech sounds toward the categories of the native language. How do infants learn these categories? For the most part, acoustic analyses of natural infant-directed speech have suggested that phonetic categories are not presented to learners as separable clusters of sounds in acoustic space. As a step toward explaining how infants begin to solve this problem, the current study proposes that the exaggerated prosody characteristic of infant-directed speech may highlight for infants certain speech-sound tokens that collectively form more readily identifiable categories...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595176/individual-talker-and-token-covariation-in-the-production-of-multiple-cues-to-stop-voicing
#19
Meghan Clayards
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous research found that individual talkers have consistent differences in the production of segments impacting the perception of their speech by others. Speakers also produce multiple acoustic-phonetic cues to phonological contrasts. Less is known about how multiple cues covary within a phonetic category and across talkers. We examined differences in individual talkers across cues and whether token-by-token variability is a result of intrinsic factors or speaking style by examining within-category correlations...
June 9, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575731/empirical-test-of-the-performance-of-an-acoustic-phonetic-approach-to-forensic-voice-comparison-under-conditions-similar-to-those-of-a-real-case
#20
Ewald Enzinger, Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In a 2012 case in New South Wales, Australia, the identity of a speaker on several audio recordings was in question. Forensic voice comparison testimony was presented based on an auditory-acoustic-phonetic-spectrographic analysis. No empirical demonstration of the validity and reliability of the analytical methodology was presented. Unlike the admissibility standards in some other jurisdictions (e.g., US Federal Rule of Evidence 702 and the Daubert criteria, or England & Wales Criminal Practice Directions 19A), Australia's Unified Evidence Acts do not require demonstration of the validity and reliability of analytical methods and their implementation before testimony based upon them is presented in court...
May 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
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