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acoustic phonetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409649/lexical-stress-contrast-marking-in-fluent-and-non-fluent-aphasia-in-spanish-the-relationship-between-acoustic-cues-and-compensatory-strategies
#1
Lorraine Baqué
This study sought to investigate stress production in Spanish by patients with Broca's (BA) and conduction aphasia (CA) as compared to controls. Our objectives were to assess whether: a) there were many abnormal acoustic correlates of stress as produced by patients, b) these abnormalities had a phonetic component and c) ability for articulatory compensation for stress marking was preserved. The results showed abnormal acoustic values in both BA and CA's productions, affecting not only duration but also F0 and intensity cues, and an interaction effect of stress pattern and duration on intensity cubes in BA, but not in CA or controls...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406683/evaluating-the-sources-and-functions-of-gradiency-in-phoneme-categorization-an-individual-differences-approach
#2
Efthymia C Kapnoula, Matthew B Winn, Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards, Bob McMurray
During spoken language comprehension listeners transform continuous acoustic cues into categories (e.g., /b/ and /p/). While long-standing research suggests that phonetic categories are activated in a gradient way, there are also clear individual differences in that more gradient categorization has been linked to various communication impairments such as dyslexia and specific language impairments (Joanisse, Manis, Keating, & Seidenberg, 2000; López-Zamora, Luque, Álvarez, & Cobos, 2012; Serniclaes, Van Heghe, Mousty, Carré, & Sprenger-Charolles, 2004; Werker & Tees, 1987)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384645/perception-of-japanese-pitch-accent-without-f0
#3
Yukiko Sugiyama
Phonological contrasts are typically encoded with multiple acoustic correlates to ensure efficient communication. Studies have shown that such phonetic redundancy is found not only in segmental contrasts, but also in suprasegmental contrasts such as tone. In Japanese, fundamental frequency (F0) is the primary cue for pitch accent. However, little is known about its secondary cues. In the present study, a perception experiment was conducted to examine whether any secondary cues exist for Japanese accent. First, minimal pairs of final-accented and unaccented words were identified using a database, resulting in 14 pairs of words...
April 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326994/effects-of-lexical-competition-and-dialect-exposure-on-phonological-priming
#4
Cynthia G Clopper, Abby Walker
A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#5
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268213/the-nature-of-phonetic-gradience-across-a-dialect-continuum-evidence-from-modern-greek-vowels
#6
Charalambos Themistocleous
This study investigates the acoustic properties of vowels in 2 Modern Greek varieties: Standard Modern Greek (SMG) and Cypriot Greek (CG). Both varieties contain in their phonetic inventories the same 5 vowels. Forty-five female speakers between 19 and 29 years old participated in this study: 20 SMG speakers and 25 CG speakers, born and raised in Athens and Nicosia, respectively. Stimuli consisted of a set of nonsense CVCV and VCV words, each containing 1 of the 5 Greek vowels in stressed and unstressed position...
March 7, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241209/compensatory-strategies-in-the-developmental-patterns-of-english-s-gender-and-vowel-context-effects
#7
Hye-Young Bang, Meghan Clayards, Heather Goad
Purpose: The developmental trajectory of English /s/ was investigated to determine the extent to which children's speech productions are acoustically fine-grained. Given the hypothesis that young children have adultlike phonetic knowledge of /s/, the following were examined: (a) whether this knowledge manifests itself in acoustic spectra that match the gender-specific patterns of adults, (b) whether vowel context affects the spectra of /s/ in adults and children similarly, and (c) whether children adopt compensatory production strategies to match adult acoustic targets...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213999/application-of-the-acoustic-voice-quality-index-for-objective-measurement-of-dysphonia-severity
#8
Faustino Núñez-Batalla, Estefanía Díaz-Fresno, Andrea Álvarez-Fernández, Gabriela Muñoz Cordero, José Luis Llorente Pendás
INTRODUCTION: Over the past several decades, many acoustic parameters have been studied as sensitive to and to measure dysphonia. However, current acoustic measures might not be sensitive measures of perceived voice quality. A meta-analysis which evaluated the relationship between perceived overall voice quality and several acoustic-phonetic correlates, identified measures that do not rely on the extraction of the fundamental period, such the measures derived from the cepstrum, and that can be used in sustained vowel as well as continuous speech samples...
February 14, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208148/local-and-global-cues-in-the-prosodic-realization-of-broad-and-narrow-focus-in-bulgarian
#9
Bistra Andreeva, William John Barry, Jacques Koreman
In this study, local and global prosodic cues for information structure are examined in the elicited production of six Bulgarian sentences. The sentences were produced in response to different questions, devised to prompt different focus realizations (broad focus and non-contrastive and contrastive narrow focus). Results show that speakers consistently differentiate broad and narrow focus by means of both local and global acoustic cues, by producing different pitch accent types on the nuclear syllable and reducing the 'phonetic strength' of the default pre-nuclear accent in the narrow focus condition...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169421/n1-response-attenuation-and-the-mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-within-and-across-category-phonetic-contrasts
#10
Daniel M R Silva, Danilo B Melges, Rui Rothe-Neves
According to the neural adaptation model of the mismatch negativity (MMN), the sensitivity of this event-related response to both acoustic and categorical information in speech sounds can be accounted for by assuming that (a) the degree of overlapping between neural representations of two sounds depends on both the acoustic difference between them and whether or not they belong to distinct phonetic categories, and (b) a release from stimulus-specific adaptation causes an enhanced N1 obligatory response to infrequent deviant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166843/the-emergence-of-phonetic-categories-in-korean-english-bilingual-children
#11
Sue Ann S Lee, Gregory K Iverson
The present study examined the speech production of three-year-old Korean-English bilingual (KEB) children. English and Korean stops, as well as front vowels in both languages, were compared acoustically among the KEB children, then also measured against those of their age-equivalent monolingual counterparts. Evidence of distinctive phonetic categorization in bilingual children was more salient in vowels than in stops. Vowels and stops produced by the bilingual children were not significantly different from those of their monolingual counterparts...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129059/speaking-style-influences-the-brain-s-electrophysiological-response-to-grammatical-errors-in-speech-comprehension
#12
Malte C Viebahn, Mirjam Ernestus, James M McQueen
This electrophysiological study asked whether the brain processes grammatical gender violations in casual speech differently than in careful speech. Native speakers of Dutch were presented with utterances that contained adjective-noun pairs in which the adjective was either correctly inflected with a word-final schwa (e.g., een spannende roman, "a suspenseful novel") or incorrectly uninflected without that schwa (een spannend roman). Consistent with previous findings, the uninflected adjectives elicited an electrical brain response sensitive to syntactic violations when the talker was speaking in a careful manner...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119400/dynamic-encoding-of-acoustic-features-in-neural-responses-to-continuous-speech
#13
Bahar Khalighinejad, Guilherme Cruzatto da Silva, Nima Mesgarani
Humans are unique in their ability to communicate using spoken language. However, it remains unclear how the speech signal is transformed and represented in the brain at different stages of the auditory pathway. In this study, we characterized electroencephalography responses to continuous speech by obtaining the time-locked responses to phoneme instances (phoneme-related potential). We showed that responses to different phoneme categories are organized by phonetic features. We found that each instance of a phoneme in continuous speech produces multiple distinguishable neural responses occurring as early as 50 ms and as late as 400 ms after the phoneme onset...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112017/word-level-prominence-in-persian-an-experimental-study
#14
Vahid Sadeghi
Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types...
January 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102014/phonetic-analysis-during-treatment-with-rapid-maxillary-expander
#15
E Biondi, A Bandini, L Lombardo, S Orlandi, G Siciliani, C Manfredi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible changes and/or device-related impairments in phonetic habits produced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients scheduled for RME were divided into two groups: Group A (banded two-arm Hyrax) and Group B (banded four-arm Hyrax). Speech samples were collected at six time points, before, during and after RME removal. Acoustical analysis was performed using PRAAT and BioVoice analysis tools. Ten volunteers completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of patient's speech...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056139/children-s-use-of-semantic-context-in-perception-of-foreign-accented-speech
#16
Rachael Frush Holt, Tessa Bent
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly predictable from context. The same final words were presented in the low- and high-predictability sentences. Results: Word recognition scores were better in the high- than low-predictability contexts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045838/effect-of-context-and-hearing-loss-on-time-gated-word-recognition-in-children
#17
Dawna Lewis, Judy Kopun, Ryan McCreery, Marc Brennan, Kanae Nishi, Evan Cordrey, Pat Stelmachowicz, Mary Pat Moeller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine word recognition in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) in response to time-gated words presented in high- versus low-predictability sentences (HP, LP), where semantic cues were manipulated. Findings inform our understanding of how CHH combine cognitive-linguistic and acoustic-phonetic cues to support spoken word recognition. It was hypothesized that both groups of children would be able to make use of linguistic cues provided by HP sentences to support word recognition...
December 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040034/automatic-measurement-of-vowel-duration-via-structured-prediction
#18
Yossi Adi, Joseph Keshet, Emily Cibelli, Erin Gustafson, Cynthia Clopper, Matthew Goldrick
A key barrier to making phonetic studies scalable and replicable is the need to rely on subjective, manual annotation. To help meet this challenge, a machine learning algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of a widely used phonetic measure: vowel duration. Manually-annotated data were used to train a model that takes as input an arbitrary length segment of the acoustic signal containing a single vowel that is preceded and followed by consonants and outputs the duration of the vowel. The model is based on the structured prediction framework...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002838/effect-of-domain-initial-strengthening-on-vowel-height-and-backness-contrasts-in-french-acoustic-and-ultrasound-data
#19
Laurianne Georgeton, Tanja Kocjancic Antolík, Cécile Fougeron
Purpose: Phonetic variation due to domain initial strengthening was investigated with respect to the acoustic and articulatory distinctiveness of vowels within a subset of the French oral vowel system /i, e, ɛ, a, o, u/, organized along 4 degrees of height for the front vowels and 2 degrees of backness at the close and midclose height levels. Method: Acoustic and lingual ultrasound data were examined to characterize the production of vowels in intonational phrase initial position, compared with intonational phrase medial position, for 4 speakers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000516/speech-perception-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-for-continua-varying-in-formant-transition-duration
#20
Kathryn Guillot Blankenship, Ralph N Ohde, Jong Ho Won, Mark Hedrick
PURPOSE: To examine the developmental course of labial and alveolar manner of articulation contrasts, and to determine how that course may be different for typically developing (TD) children with cochlear implants (CI). METHOD: Eight young adults, eight TD 5-8 year-old children, and seven 5-8 year-old children with CIs participated. Labial /ba/-/wa/ and alveolar /da/-/ja/ continua stimuli were presented, with each continuum consisting of nine synthetic stimuli varying in F2 and F3 transition duration...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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