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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102014/phonetic-analysis-during-treatment-with-rapid-maxillary-expander
#1
E Biondi, A Bandini, L Lombardo, S Orlandi, G Siciliani, C Manfredi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible changes and/or device-related impairments in phonetic habits produced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients scheduled for RME were divided into two groups: Group A (banded two-arm Hyrax) and Group B (banded four-arm Hyrax). Speech samples were collected at six time points, before, during and after RME removal. Acoustical analysis was performed using PRAAT and BioVoice analysis tools. Ten volunteers completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of patient's speech...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056139/children-s-use-of-semantic-context-in-perception-of-foreign-accented-speech
#2
Rachael Frush Holt, Tessa Bent
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly predictable from context. The same final words were presented in the low- and high-predictability sentences. Results: Word recognition scores were better in the high- than low-predictability contexts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045838/effect-of-context-and-hearing-loss-on-time-gated-word-recognition-in-children
#3
Dawna Lewis, Judy Kopun, Ryan McCreery, Marc Brennan, Kanae Nishi, Evan Cordrey, Pat Stelmachowicz, Mary Pat Moeller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine word recognition in children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) in response to time-gated words presented in high- versus low-predictability sentences (HP, LP), where semantic cues were manipulated. Findings inform our understanding of how CHH combine cognitive-linguistic and acoustic-phonetic cues to support spoken word recognition. It was hypothesized that both groups of children would be able to make use of linguistic cues provided by HP sentences to support word recognition...
December 30, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040034/automatic-measurement-of-vowel-duration-via-structured-prediction
#4
Yossi Adi, Joseph Keshet, Emily Cibelli, Erin Gustafson, Cynthia Clopper, Matthew Goldrick
A key barrier to making phonetic studies scalable and replicable is the need to rely on subjective, manual annotation. To help meet this challenge, a machine learning algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of a widely used phonetic measure: vowel duration. Manually-annotated data were used to train a model that takes as input an arbitrary length segment of the acoustic signal containing a single vowel that is preceded and followed by consonants and outputs the duration of the vowel. The model is based on the structured prediction framework...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002838/effect-of-domain-initial-strengthening-on-vowel-height-and-backness-contrasts-in-french-acoustic-and-ultrasound-data
#5
Laurianne Georgeton, Tanja Kocjancic Antolík, Cécile Fougeron
Purpose: Phonetic variation due to domain initial strengthening was investigated with respect to the acoustic and articulatory distinctiveness of vowels within a subset of the French oral vowel system /i, e, ɛ, a, o, u/, organized along 4 degrees of height for the front vowels and 2 degrees of backness at the close and midclose height levels. Method: Acoustic and lingual ultrasound data were examined to characterize the production of vowels in intonational phrase initial position, compared with intonational phrase medial position, for 4 speakers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000516/speech-perception-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-for-continua-varying-in-formant-transition-duration
#6
Kathryn Guillot Blankenship, Ralph N Ohde, Jong Ho Won, Mark Hedrick
PURPOSE: To examine the developmental course of labial and alveolar manner of articulation contrasts, and to determine how that course may be different for typically developing (TD) children with cochlear implants (CI). METHOD: Eight young adults, eight TD 5-8 year-old children, and seven 5-8 year-old children with CIs participated. Labial /ba/-/wa/ and alveolar /da/-/ja/ continua stimuli were presented, with each continuum consisting of nine synthetic stimuli varying in F2 and F3 transition duration...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996973/perceptual-restoration-of-masked-speech-in-human-cortex
#7
Matthew K Leonard, Maxime O Baud, Matthias J Sjerps, Edward F Chang
Humans are adept at understanding speech despite the fact that our natural listening environment is often filled with interference. An example of this capacity is phoneme restoration, in which part of a word is completely replaced by noise, yet listeners report hearing the whole word. The neurological basis for this unconscious fill-in phenomenon is unknown, despite being a fundamental characteristic of human hearing. Here, using direct cortical recordings in humans, we demonstrate that missing speech is restored at the acoustic-phonetic level in bilateral auditory cortex, in real-time...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927010/the-phonetic-characteristics-in-patients-of-bilateral-vocal-fold-paralysis-without-tracheotomy
#8
Yong Tae Hong, Min Ju Park, Yu Jeong Shin, Phan Huu Ngoc Minh, Ki Hwan Hong
Objectives: Patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) theoretically have difficulty producing voiceless consonants. However, perceptual studies have revealed clear production of voiceless consonants with good articulation scores in nontracheostomized patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the production of voiceless stops during articulation in patients with BVFP compared to normal speakers. Methods: The perceptual, acoustic, and aerodynamic characteristics of patients with BVFP and those with normal speech were investigated with special reference to voiceless stop consonants...
November 17, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#9
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898342/voice-sensitive-brain-networks-encode-talker-specific-phonetic-detail
#10
Emily B Myers, Rachel M Theodore
The speech stream simultaneously carries information about talker identity and linguistic content, and the same acoustic property (e.g., voice-onset-time, or VOT) may be used for both purposes. Separable neural networks for processing talker identity and phonetic content have been identified, but it is unclear how a singular acoustic property is parsed by the neural system for talker identification versus phonetic processing. In the current study, listeners were exposed to two talkers with characteristically different VOTs...
February 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826946/phonetic-convergence-across-multiple-measures-and-model-talkers
#11
Jennifer S Pardo, Adelya Urmanche, Sherilyn Wilman, Jaclyn Wiener
This study consolidates findings on phonetic convergence in a large-scale examination of the impacts of talker sex, word frequency, and model talkers on multiple measures of convergence. A survey of nearly three dozen published reports revealed that most shadowing studies used very few model talkers and did not assess whether phonetic convergence varied across same- and mixed-sex pairings. Furthermore, some studies have reported effects of talker sex or word frequency on phonetic convergence, but others have failed to replicate these effects or have reported opposing patterns...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819457/more-than-a-boundary-shift-perceptual-adaptation-to-foreign-accented-speech-reshapes-the-internal-structure-of-phonetic-categories
#12
Xin Xie, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
The literature on perceptual learning for speech shows that listeners use lexical information to disambiguate phonetically ambiguous speech sounds and that they maintain this new mapping for later recognition of ambiguous sounds for a given talker. Evidence for this kind of perceptual reorganization has focused on phonetic category boundary shifts. Here, we asked whether listeners adjust both category boundaries and internal category structure in rapid adaptation to foreign accents. We investigated the perceptual learning of Mandarin-accented productions of word-final voiced stops in English...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794357/effects-of-obstruent-voicing-on-vowel-f0-evidence-from-true-voicing-languages
#13
James P Kirby, D Robert Ladd
This study investigates consonant-related F0 perturbations ("CF0") in French and Italian by comparing the effects of voiced and voiceless obstruents on F0 to those of voiced sonorants. The voiceless obstruents /p f/ in both languages are found to have F0-raising properties similar to American English voiceless obstruents, while F0 following the (pre)voiced obstruents /b v/ in French and Italian patterns together with /m/, again similar to English [Hanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(1), 425-441]. In both languages, F0 is significantly depressed, relative to sonorants, during the closure for voiced obstruents, but cannot be differentiated from sonorants following the release of oral constriction...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794292/lexically-guided-perceptual-tuning-of-internal-phonetic-category-structure
#14
Julia R Drouin, Rachel M Theodore, Emily B Myers
Listeners use lexical information to retune the mapping between the acoustic signal and speech sound representations, resulting in changes to phonetic category boundaries. Other research shows that phonetic categories have a rich internal structure; within-category variation is represented in a graded fashion. The current work examined whether lexically informed perceptual learning promotes a comprehensive reorganization of internal category structure. The results showed a reorganization of internal structure for one but not both of the examined categories, which may reflect an attenuation of learning for distributions with extensive category overlap...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768175/exploring-the-clinical-utility-of-relative-fundamental-frequency-as-an-objective-measure-of-vocal-hyperfunction
#15
Nelson Roy, Rebecca A Fetrow, Ray M Merrill, Christopher Dromey
Purpose: Vocal hyperfunction, related to abnormal laryngeal muscle activity, is considered the proximal cause of primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD). Relative fundamental frequency (RFF) has been proposed as an objective acoustic marker of vocal hyperfunction. This study examined (a) the ability of RFF to track changes in vocal hyperfunction after treatment for pMTD and (b) the influence of dysphonia severity, among other factors, on the feasibility of RFF computation. Method: RFF calculations and dysphonia severity ratings were derived from pre- and posttreatment recordings from 111 women with pMTD and 20 healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736242/bias-in-the-perception-of-phonetic-detail-in-children-s-speech-a-comparison-of-categorical-and-continuous-rating-scales
#16
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669107/mental-representations-of-vowel-features-asymmetrically-modulate-activity-in-superior-temporal-sulcus
#17
Mathias Scharinger, Ulrike Domahs, Elise Klein, Frank Domahs
Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e...
September 23, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649413/shifting-perceptual-weights-in-l2-vowel-identification-after-training
#18
Wei Hu, Lin Mi, Zhen Yang, Sha Tao, Mingshuang Li, Wenjing Wang, Qi Dong, Chang Liu
Difficulties with second-language vowel perception may be related to the significant challenges in using acoustic-phonetic cues. This study investigated the effects of perception training with duration-equalized vowels on native Chinese listeners' English vowel perception and their use of acoustic-phonetic cues. Seventeen native Chinese listeners were perceptually trained with duration-equalized English vowels, and another 17 native Chinese listeners watched English videos as a control group. Both groups were tested with English vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination before training, immediately after training, and three months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648210/normal-hearing-listeners-and-cochlear-implant-users-perception-of-pitch-cues-in-emotional-speech
#19
Steven Gilbers, Christina Fuller, Dicky Gilbers, Mirjam Broersma, Martijn Goudbeek, Rolien Free, Deniz Başkent
In cochlear implants (CIs), acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study's aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings' pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners' and 20 CI users' emotion recognition...
October 2015: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622923/phonetic-detail-and-lateralization-of-reading-related-inner-speech-and-of-auditory-and-somatosensory-feedback-processing-during-overt-reading
#20
Christian A Kell, Maritza Darquea, Marion Behrens, Lorenzo Cordani, Christian Keller, Susanne Fuchs
Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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