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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195437/a-revised-metric-for-calculating-acoustic-dispersion-applied-to-stop-inventories
#1
Ivy Hauser
Dispersion Theory [DT; Liljencrants and Lindblom (1972). Language 12(1), 839-862] claims that acoustically dispersed vowel inventories should be typologically common. Dispersion is often quantified using triangle area between three mean vowel formant points. This approach is problematic; it ignores distributions, which affect speech perception [Clayards, Tanenhaus, Aslin, and Jacobs (2008). Cognition 108, 804-809]. This letter proposes a revised metric for calculating dispersion which incorporates covariance...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195426/acoustic-realization-of-mandarin-neutral-tone-and-tone-sandhi-in-infant-directed-speech-and-lombard-speech
#2
Ping Tang, Nan Xu Rattanasone, Ivan Yuen, Katherine Demuth
Mandarin lexical tones are modified in both infant-directed speech (IDS) and Lombard speech, resulting in tone hyperarticulation. However, it is unclear if these registers also alter contextual tones (neutral tone and tone sandhi) and if such phonetic modification might affect acquisition of these tones. This study therefore examined how neutral tone and tone sandhi are realized in IDS, and how their acoustic manifestations compare with those in Lombard speech, where the communicative needs of listeners differ...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195422/a-transfer-learning-approach-to-goodness-of-pronunciation-based-automatic-mispronunciation-detection
#3
Hao Huang, Haihua Xu, Ying Hu, Gang Zhou
Goodness of pronunciation (GOP) is the most widely used method for automatic mispronunciation detection. In this paper, a transfer learning approach to GOP based mispronunciation detection when applying maximum F1-score criterion (MFC) training to deep neural network (DNN)-hidden Markov model based acoustic models is proposed. Rather than train the whole network using MFC, a DNN is used, whose hidden layers are borrowed from native speech recognition with only the softmax layer trained according to the MFC objective function...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176886/differences-in-phonetic-discrimination-stem-from-differences-in-psychoacoustic-abilities-in-learning-the-sounds-of-a-second-language-evidence-from-erp-research
#4
Yi Lin, Ruolin Fan, Lei Mo
The scientific community has been divided as to the origin of individual differences in perceiving the sounds of a second language (L2). There are two alternative explanations: a general psychoacoustic origin vs. a speech-specific one. A previous study showed that such individual variability is linked to the perceivers' speech-specific capabilities, rather than the perceivers' psychoacoustic abilities. However, we assume that the selection of participants and parameters of sound stimuli might not appropriate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#5
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104329/voice-onset-time-vot-at-50-theoretical-and-practical-issues-in-measuring-voicing-distinctions
#6
Arthur S Abramson, D H Whalen
Just over fifty years ago, Lisker and Abramson proposed a straightforward measure of acoustic differences among stop consonants of different voicing categories, voice onset time (VOT). Since that time, hundreds of studies have used this method. Here, we review the original definition of VOT, propose some extensions to the definition, and discuss some problematic cases. We propose a set of terms for the most important aspects of VOT and a set of Praat labels that could provide some consistency for future cross-study analyses...
July 2017: Journal of Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103359/age-related-changes-in-temporal-and-spectral-cue-weights-in-speech
#7
Joseph C Toscano, Charissa R Lansing
Listeners weight acoustic cues in speech according to their reliability, but few studies have examined how cue weights change across the lifespan. Previous work has suggested that older adults have deficits in auditory temporal discrimination, which could affect the reliability of temporal phonetic cues, such as voice onset time (VOT), and in turn, impact speech perception in real-world listening environments. We addressed this by examining younger and older adults' use of VOT and onset F0 (a secondary phonetic cue) for voicing judgments (e...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094994/keep-listening-grammatical-context-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-activation-of-unexpected-words
#8
Julia F Strand, Violet A Brown, Hunter E Brown, Jeffrey J Berg
To understand spoken language, listeners combine acoustic-phonetic input with expectations derived from context (Dahan & Magnuson, 2006). Eye-tracking studies on semantic context have demonstrated that the activation levels of competing lexical candidates depend on the relative strengths of the bottom-up input and top-down expectations (cf. Dahan & Tanenhaus, 2004). In the grammatical realm, however, graded effects of context on lexical competition have been predicted (Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2008), but not demonstrated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075775/acoustics-of-clear-and-noise-adapted-speech-in-children-young-and-older-adults
#9
Rajka Smiljanic, Rachael C Gilbert
Purpose: This study investigated acoustic-phonetic modifications produced in noise-adapted speech (NAS) and clear speech (CS) by children, young adults, and older adults. Method: Ten children (11-13 years of age), 10 young adults (18-29 years of age), and 10 older adults (60-84 years of age) read sentences in conversational and clear speaking style in quiet and in noise. A number of acoustic measurements were obtained. Results: NAS and CS were characterized by a decrease in speaking rate and an increase in 1-3 kHz energy, sound pressure level (SPL), vowel space area (VSA), and harmonics-to-noise ratio...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075677/phonetic-characteristics-of-vocalizations-during-pain
#10
Stefan Lautenbacher, Melissa Salinas-Ranneberg, Oliver Niebuhr, Miriam Kunz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There have, yet, been only few attempts to phonetically characterize the vocalizations of pain, although there is wide agreement that moaning, groaning, or other nonverbal utterance can be indicative of pain. We studied the production of vowels "u," "a," "i", and "schwa" (central vowel, sounding like a darker "e" as in hesitations like "ehm")-as experimental approximations to natural vocalizations. METHODS: In 50 students vowel production and self-report ratings were assessed during painful and nonpainful heat stimulation (hot water immersion) as well as during baseline (no-stimulation)...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073618/acoustic-realization-and-inventory-size-kannada-and-malayalam-alveolar-retroflex-laterals-and-%C3%A9
#11
Marija Tabain, Alexei Kochetov
This study examines formant and spectral moment data for the apical and retroflex lateral sounds /l ɭ/ of the Dravidian languages Kannada and Malayalam, together with the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam. Data are presented for 10 male speakers of each language. We find that the first spectral moment is lower for retroflex laterals than for alveolar laterals, and lower for the rhotic /ɻ/ of Malayalam than for the retroflex lateral in the same language. Differences emerge when the retroflex lateral of Kannada is compared with the same sound in Malayalam...
October 27, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058989/unstressed-vowel-reduction-across-majorcan-catalan-dialects-production-and-spoken-word-recognition
#12
Miquel Llompart, Miquel Simonet
This study investigates the production and auditory lexical processing of words involved in a patterned phonological alternation in two dialects of Catalan spoken on the island of Majorca, Spain. One of these dialects, that of Palma, merges /ɔ/ and /o/ as [o] in unstressed position, and it maintains /u/ as an independent category, [u]. In the dialect of Sóller, a small village, speakers merge unstressed /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/ to [u]. First, a production study asks whether the discrete, rule-based descriptions of the vowel alternations provided in the dialectological literature are able to account adequately for these processes: are mergers complete? Results show that mergers are complete with regards to the main acoustic cue to these vowel contrasts, that is, F1...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968658/task-general-and-acoustic-invariant-neural-representation-of-speech-categories-in-the-human-brain
#13
Gangyi Feng, Zhenzhong Gan, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong, Bharath Chandrasekaran
A significant neural challenge in speech perception includes extracting discrete phonetic categories from continuous and multidimensional signals despite varying task demands and surface-acoustic variability. While neural representations of speech categories have been previously identified in frontal and posterior temporal-parietal regions, the task dependency and dimensional specificity of these neural representations are still unclear. Here, we asked native Mandarin participants to listen to speech syllables carrying 4 distinct lexical tone categories across passive listening, repetition, and categorization tasks while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966565/are-homophones-acoustically-distinguished-in-child-directed-speech
#14
Erin Conwell
Many approaches to early word learning posit that children assume a one-to-one mapping of form and meaning. However, children's early vocabularies contain homophones, words that violate that assumption. Children might learn such words by exploiting prosodic differences between homophone meanings that are associated with lemma frequency (Gahl, 2008). Such differences have not yet been documented in children's natural language experience and the exaggerated prosody of child-directed speech could either mask the subtle distinctions reported in adult-directed speech or enhance them...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890602/learning-a-talker-or-learning-an-accent-acoustic-similarity-constrains-generalization-of-foreign-accent-adaptation-to-new-talkers
#15
Xin Xie, Emily B Myers
Past research has revealed that native listeners use top-down information to adjust the mapping from speech sounds to phonetic categories. Such phonetic adjustments help listeners adapt to foreign-accented speech. However, the mechanism by which talker-specific adaptation generalizes to other talkers is poorly understood. Here we asked what conditions induce crosstalker generalization in talker accent adaptation. Native-English listeners were exposed to Mandarin-accented words, produced by a single talker or multiple talkers...
December 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867553/cepstral-analysis-of-normal-and-pathological-voice-in-spanish-adults-smoothed-cepstral-peak-prominence-in-sustained-vowels-versus-connected-speech
#16
Jonathan Delgado-Hernández, Nieves M León-Gómez, Laura M Izquierdo-Arteaga, Yanira Llanos-Fumero
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years, the use of cepstral measures for acoustic evaluation of voice has increased. One of the most investigated parameters is smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPs). The objectives of this paper are to establish the usefulness of this acoustic measure in the objective evaluation of alterations of the voice in Spanish and to determine what type of voice sample (sustained vowels or connected speech) is the most sensitive in evaluating the severity of dysphonia...
August 31, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863560/which-epenthetic-vowel-phonetic-categories-versus-acoustic-detail-in-perceptual-vowel-epenthesis
#17
Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Isabelle Lin, Masahiro Morii, Yasuyo Minagawa, Emmanuel Dupoux, Sharon Peperkamp
This study aims to quantify the relative contributions of phonetic categories and acoustic detail on phonotactically induced perceptual vowel epenthesis in Japanese listeners. A vowel identification task tested whether a vowel was perceived within illegal consonant clusters and, if so, which vowel was heard. Cross-spliced stimuli were used in which vowel coarticulation present in the cluster did not match the quality of the flanking vowel. Two clusters were used, /hp/ and /kp/, the former containing larger amounts of resonances of the preceding vowel...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843209/stream-segregation-of-concurrent-speech-and-the-verbal-transformation-effect-influence-of-fundamental-frequency-and-lateralization-cues
#18
Marcin Stachurski, Robert J Summers, Brian Roberts
Repeating a recorded word produces verbal transformations (VTs); perceptual regrouping of acoustic-phonetic elements may contribute to this effect. The influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and lateralization grouping cues was explored by presenting two concurrent sequences of the same word resynthesized on different F0s (100 and 178 Hz). In experiment 1, listeners monitored both sequences simultaneously, reporting for each any change in stimulus identity. Three lateralization conditions were used - diotic, ±680-μs interaural time difference, and dichotic...
August 2, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840520/five-mechanisms-of-sound-symbolic-association
#19
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization...
August 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#20
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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