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Psychosis in parkinson

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331324/update-on-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-role-of-pimavanserin
#1
REVIEW
Brianna L Combs, Arthur G Cox
Parkinson's disease (PD) has a prevalence of nearly 1 million people in the USA, with increasing incidence in the elderly population. Generally, the age of presentation is between 55 and 65 years, with the likelihood of diagnosis increasing as patients reach the age of 80 years or above. Some of the common treatments for PD increase dopamine levels in the brain. Dopaminergic therapy helps to improve motor and non-motor symptoms, but it is not without risks. Dopaminergic therapy can cause confusion, delirium, and psychotic-like behavior...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315846/risk-factors-for-early-psychosis-in-pd-insights-from-the-parkinson-s-progression-markers-initiative
#2
Dominic H Ffytche, Joana B Pereira, Clive Ballard, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) psychosis refers to the spectrum of illusions, formed hallucinations and delusions that occur in PD. Visual hallucinations and illusions are thought to be caused by specific cognitive and higher visual function deficits and patients who develop such symptoms early in the disease course have greater rates of cognitive decline and progression to dementia. To date, no studies have investigated whether such deficits are found prior to the onset of PD psychosis...
April 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276873/the-hidden-niemann-pick-type-c-patient-clinical-niches-for-a-rare-inherited-metabolic-disease
#3
Christian J Hendriksz, Mathieu Anheim, Peter Bauer, Olivier Bonnot, Anupam Chakrapani, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Tom J de Koning, Anna Degtyareva, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Sarah Doss, Thomas Duning, Paola Giunti, Rosa Iodice, Tracy Johnston, Dierdre Kelly, Hans-Hermann Klünemann, Stefan Lorenzl, Alessandro Padovani, Miguel Pocovi, Matthis Synofzik, Alta Terblanche, Florian Then Bergh, Meral Topçu, Christine Tranchant, Mark Walterfang, Christian Velten, Stefan A Kolb
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease of impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. Clinical symptoms are highly heterogeneous, including neurological, visceral, or psychiatric manifestations. The incidence of NP-C is under-estimated due to under-recognition or misdiagnosis across a wide range of medical fields. New screening and diagnostic methods provide an opportunity to improve detection of unrecognized cases in clinical sub-populations associated with a higher risk of NP-C...
March 2, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271905/a-comprehensive-overview-of-the-neuropsychiatry-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#4
Muhammad Adnan Khan, Syed A Quadri, Hassaan Tohid
Parkinson's disease is a widespread neurological illness. However, its psychiatric links have also been discussed lately by many authors, which has brought more depth to the specialized field of neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatric complications are commonly seen in Parkinson's patients, including major depression, anxiety, psychosis and hallucination, and cognitive abnormality. Almost all of these complications have a distinct pathophysiology and treatment. In this article we review the most recent studies about the association of these symptoms with Parkinson's disease and highlight the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of the neuropsychiatric complications, with more emphasis on the pathophysiology of these complications...
2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264738/the-dark-side-of-dopaminergic-therapies-in-parkinson-s-disease-shedding-light-on-aberrant-salience
#5
Michele Poletti
Psychotic subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) "on" dopaminergic drugs, especially on dopamine agonists, present a hyperdopaminergic state that interferes with learning processing. These clinical populations present with distinct alterations of learning that share an increased potential motivational significance of stimuli: psychotic subjects may attribute salience to neutral stimuli, while medicated PD patients may overvalue rewards. Herein is discussed the speculative hypothesis that the hyperdopaminergic state induced by dopaminergic treatments, especially with dopamine agonists, may also facilitate the attribution of salience to neutral stimuli in PD patients, altering the physiological attribution of salience...
March 7, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263800/the-role-of-the-retina-in-visual-hallucinations-a-review-of-the-literature-and-implications-for-psychosis
#6
REVIEW
Florent Bernardin, Raymund Schwan, Laurence Lalanne, Fabienne Ligier, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Thomas Schwitzer, Vincent Laprevote
Visual hallucinations are a psychotic symptom present in numerous clinical conditions such as eye disease, Parkinsonian syndromes, neurodegenerative disorders and psychosis. Alteration of low level visual processing is a common feature in these clinical conditions, and various stages of processing from the retina to visual cortices are involved. We undertook a literature review of abnormalities of the retina and their potential link with the occurrence of VHs in these clinical conditions of interest. We found that structural and functional abnormalities of the retina are frequently present...
March 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259697/antipsychotic-use-and-physical-morbidity-in-parkinson-disease
#7
Daniel Weintraub, Claire Chiang, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Jayne Wilkinson, Connie Marras, Barbara Stanislawski, Eugenia Mamikonyan, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVE: To determine if antipsychotic (AP) use in Parkinson disease (PD) patients is associated with increased physical morbidity. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration data (1999-2010) was used to examine physical morbidity risk associated with AP use in idiopathic PD patients with stable recent physical health. We compared 180-day morbidity rates in patients initiating an AP with matched non-AP users who survived for 180 days (matched on age, sex, race, index year, presence and duration of dementia, PD duration, delirium, hospitalization, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and new non-psychiatric medications; covarying for psychosis)...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243833/current-understanding-of-methamphetamine-associated-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-and-psychotoxic-behaviors
#8
REVIEW
Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, The-Vinh Tran, Hai-Quyen Tran, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Kiyofumi Yamada, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that chronic methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with extensive neurodegeneration, psychosis, and cognitive impairment. Evidence from animal models has suggested a considerable role of excess dopamine or glutamate, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis in MA-induced neurotoxicity, and that protein kinase Cδ might mediate the interaction among these factors. In addition, the relatively long-lasting and recurrent nature of MA psychosis has been reproduced in animals treated with various dosing regimens of MA, which have shown behavioral sensitization, sociability deficits, and impaired prepulse inhibition...
February 28, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#9
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220718/the-big-imitator-strikes-again-a-case-report-of-neurosyphilis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv
#10
Sévérine de Bruijn, Chris Kenyon, Nicolas Léonard, Erika Vlieghe
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression...
February 21, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208916/delirium-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-cocktail-diagnosis
#11
Robin George Manappallil
Mental disturbances have been described in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Of these, the common conditions are delirium and psychosis. Delirium has been attributed to change of environment, especially hospital stay and infections; while psychosis is due to drugs like dopamine agonists. This is a case of a 75-year-old male, on levodopa therapy for PD, who presented with delirium and ended up with a cocktail diagnosis: Cryptococcal meningitis, Hashimoto's Encephalopathy (HE), Urinary tract infection with acute renal failure, Uremic encephalopathy and Levodopa induced psychosis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168521/does-apolipoprotein-a1-predict-microstructural-changes-in-subgenual-cingulum-in-early-parkinson
#12
Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Higher plasma cholesterol levels are associated with lower Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) is a surface marker of brain HDL-like particles associated with the time of PD onset. Clinical correlates of serum Apolipoprotein A1 levels with structural brain connectivity in PD-related disorders remains unclear. Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach [Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Connectometry] to explore the association between ApoA-1 and structural brain connectivity in PD...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141621/high-incidence-and-prevalence-of-drug-related-movement-disorders-in-young-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#13
Thierry Q Mentzel, Ritsaert Lieverse, Oswald Bloemen, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Peter N van Harten
BACKGROUND: Drug-related movement disorders (DRMDs) reduce quality of life and contribute to medication noncompliance of patients with psychotic disorders. Little is known about the epidemiology of DRMDs in relatively young patients a few years after onset of psychosis. This is an important period to study, as the impact of the antipsychotic treatment on the long-term potentiation of the neural pathways associated with psychotic disorders and DRMDs is still minimal. This study investigated the prevalence, incidence, persistence, and clinical correlates of DRMDs in patients during their first years after disease onset...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131182/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-behavioural-disorders-and-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Roberta Balestrino, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, with neuropsychiatric manifestations among the most frequent non-motor symptoms. Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that reflects the impact of the disease on physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and on other aspects of patient' life. Although older studies on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease mainly investigated the role of the motor impairment, recent research focused on non-motor symptoms has highlighted the critical role that behavioural disturbances due to neuropsychiatric symptoms play in determining health related quality of life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130646/the-effect-of-mirtazapine-on-dopaminergic-psychosis-and-dyskinesia-in-the-parkinsonian-marmoset
#15
Adjia Hamadjida, Stephen G Nuara, Nicolas Veyres, Imane Frouni, Cynthia Kwan, Lamia Sid-Otmane, Mery-Jane Harraka, Jim C Gourdon, Philippe Huot
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) psychosis is encountered in as many as 50% of patients with advanced disease. Treatment options for PD psychosis are few. In fact, only clozapine and pimavanserin have shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials. Clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe the former, due to the risk of agranulocytosis, while the latter is not widely available yet. Because it is already clinically available and exhibits high affinity for serotonin 2A receptors, a target with which both clozapine and pimavanserin interact, we hypothesised that the anti-depressant mirtazapine might be effective to alleviate PD psychosis...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127577/parkinsonian-motor-impairment-predicts-personality-domains-related-to-genetic-risk-and-treatment-outcomes-in-schizophrenia
#16
Juan L Molina, María Calvó, Eduardo Padilla, Mara Balda, Gabriela González Alemán, Néstor V Florenzano, Gonzalo Guerrero, Danielle Kamis, Beatriz Molina Rangeon, Mercedes Bourdieu, Sergio A Strejilevich, Horacio A Conesa, Javier I Escobar, Igor Zwir, C Robert Cloninger, Gabriel A de Erausquin
Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113102/key-clinical-milestones-15-years-and-onwards-after-dbs-stn-surgery-a-retrospective-analysis-of-patients-that-underwent-surgery-between-1993-and-2001
#17
Radu Constantinescu, Barbro Eriksson, Yvonne Jansson, Bo Johnels, Björn Holmberg, Thordis Gudmundsdottir, Annika Renck, Peter Berglund, Filip Bergquist
OBJECTIVE: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD), but does not halt disease progression. The long-term deterioration of key functions such as cognition, speech, ability to swallow, gait, urinary bladder control, orientation and reality perception is decisive for patients' independency in daily life. In this paper we investigated patients with advanced PD operated at our center with STN-DBS for at least 15 years ago, in respect to key clinical milestones reflecting their overall function in daily living...
March 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109579/reprint-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-behavioural-disorders-and-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Roberta Balestrino, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, with neuropsychiatric manifestations among the most frequent non-motor symptoms. Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that reflects the impact of the disease on physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and on other aspects of patient' life. Although older studies on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease mainly investigated the role of the motor impairment, recent research focused on non-motor symptoms has highlighted the critical role that behavioural disturbances due to neuropsychiatric symptoms play in determining health related quality of life...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108020/hallucinations-and-the-spectrum-of-psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong
Hallucinations and psychosis can be a part of Parkinson's disease and are considered to be a nonmotor symptom or a neuropsychiatric complication of the disease. Hallucinations of different modalities and delusions can occur beyond the common visual hallucinations. The various types of hallucinations and psychotic symptoms comprising the spectrum of Parkinson's disease psychosis is the subject of this review article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106066/the-psychosis-spectrum-in-parkinson-disease
#20
REVIEW
Dominic H Ffytche, Byron Creese, Marios Politis, K Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
In 2007, the clinical and research profile of illusions, hallucinations, delusions and related symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) was raised with the publication of a consensus definition of PD psychosis. Symptoms that were previously deemed benign and clinically insignificant were incorporated into a continuum of severity, leading to the rapid expansion of literature focusing on clinical aspects, mechanisms and treatment. Here, we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Key topics include the prospective risk of dementia in individuals with PD psychosis, and the causal and modifying effects of PD medication...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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