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diabetic nephropathy review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931336/potential-benefits-and-harms-of-nadph-oxidase-type-4-in-the-kidneys-and-cardiovascular-system
#1
Renuga D Rajaram, Romain Dissard, Vincent Jaquet, Sophie de Seigneux
The main function of NADPH oxidases is to catalyse the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is expressed at high levels in kidney tubular cells, and at lower levels in endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and other cell types under physiological conditions. NOX4 is constitutively active producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the prevalent ROS detected, whereas other NOX isoforms present in the renal and cardiovascular systems (i.e. NOX1, NOX2 and NOX5) generate superoxide radical anions as main products...
June 21, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914534/efficacy-of-low-protein-diet-for-diabetic-nephropathy-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Huan-Gao Zhu, Zhao-Shun Jiang, Pi-Yun Gong, Dong-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Wei Zou, Qian-Zhang, Hui-Mei Ma, Zhen-Gang Guo, Jun-Yu Zhao, Jian-Jun Dong, Lin-Liao
BACKGROUND: A low-protein diet (LPD) is believed to be beneficial in slowing the progression of kidney disease. It is reported that low protein diet can improve protein, sugar and lipid metabolism, and reduce the symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency. However, there has been controversial regarding the effects of protein restriction on diabetic nephropathy (DN). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of LPD on renal function in patients with type 1 or 2 DN by meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
June 19, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911393/renal-and-cardiac-implications-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-the-state-of-the-science
#3
Joseph E Cruz, Tania Ahuja, Mary Barna Bridgeman
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including the effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE databases (1964 through May 2018) was conducted utilizing key words sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and diabetes; additional limits for drug names were added. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Available English-language data from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of use of SGLT2 therapy specifically detailing outcomes on CV and renal disease in humans were reviewed...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911044/advanced-diabetic-nephropathy-with-clean-eyes-an-extreme-phenotype
#4
Debmalya Sanyal, Sudip Chatterjee
Introduction: It is generally accepted that renal and eye changes in diabetes are concordant. There are however a fair number of patients with diabetes who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) without any of the typical eye changes. The present study highlights the discordance between retinopathy and nephropathy and describes a series of patients of long-standing diabetes undergoing renal transplant who had little or no evidence of retinopathy. Methods: All patients with ESRD undergoing renal transplants underwent comprehensive fundus evaluation including dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907545/differential-proteome-analysis-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-and-its-pathophysiological-complications
#5
REVIEW
Waleed Sohail, Fatimah Majeed, Amber Afroz
The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM 2) is increasing every passing year due to some global changes in lifestyles of people. The exact underlying mechanisms of the progression of this disease are not yet known. However recent advances in the combined omics more particularly in proteomics and genomics have opened a gateway towards the understanding of predetermined genetic factors, progression, complications and treatment of this disease. Here we shall review the recent advances in proteomics that have led to an early and better diagnostic approaches in controlling DM 2 more importantly the comparison of structural and functional protein biomarkers that are modified in the diseased state...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895977/immunoregulatory-mechanisms-of-mesenchymal-stem-and-stromal-cells-in-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Yufang Shi, Yu Wang, Qing Li, Keli Liu, Jianquan Hou, Changshun Shao, Ying Wang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells) have attracted much attention for their ability to regulate inflammatory processes. Their therapeutic potential is currently being investigated in various degenerative and inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease, graft-versus-host disease, diabetic nephropathy and organ fibrosis. The mechanisms by which MSCs exert their therapeutic effects are multifaceted, but in general, these cells are thought to enable damaged tissues to form a balanced inflammatory and regenerative microenvironment in the presence of vigorous inflammation...
June 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883668/age-rage-axis-blockade-in-diabetic-nephropathy-current-status-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Davoud Sanajou, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Hassan Argani, Somayeh Aslani
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent micro-vascular complications both in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Although disparate mechanisms give rise to the development of diabetic nephropathy, prevailing evidence accentuates that hyperglycemia-associated generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays a central role in the disease pathophysiology. Engagement of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) with its ligands provokes oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in renal tissues, ending up with losses in kidney function...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880432/renal-protection-by-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Akira Mima
AIM: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most frequent cause of mortality and morbidity, leading a global health burden. This review will focus on the potential therapeutic interventions using Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors that could prevent the development and progression of DKD. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors have been widely used as anti-diabetic drugs. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that these drugs, which improve glycemic control and hypertension and decrease body weight, decrease the risk of renal function impairment and heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863264/the-activity-and-role-of-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
W-J Liu, W-F Huang, L Ye, R-H Chen, C Yang, H-L Wu, Q-J Pan, H-F Liu
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggested that deficiency of autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, some recent studies have also shown that autophagy is activated in renal cells under diabetic conditions. In this review, we discuss whether autophagy is inactivated in renal cells in DN as well as the therapeutic potential of autophagy for treating DN, in order to aid future investigation in this field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information, original research articles and reviews, were gathered primarily through a search in PubMed and Cochrane database...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858985/predisposing-factors-to-heart-failure-in-diabetic-nephropathy-a-look-at-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-hyperactivity
#10
REVIEW
Klara Komici, Grazia Daniela Femminella, Claudio de Lucia, Alessandro Cannavo, Leonardo Bencivenga, Graziamaria Corbi, Dario Leosco, Nicola Ferrara, Giuseppe Rengo
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF) are frequent comorbidities among elderly patients. HF, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, is characterized by sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly growing and the risk of developing HF is higher among DM patients. DM is responsible for several macro- and micro-angiopathies that contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and diabetic nephropathy (DN) as well...
June 1, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846140/cardiovascular-risk-in-chronic-kidney-disease-what-is-new-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#11
Angelika Bazyluk, J Malyszko, Edyta Zbroch
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has increased markedly over past decades due to the aging of the worldwide population. Despite the progress in the prevention and treatment, the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains high among patients with chronic kidney disease. Although chronic kidney disease is a progressive and irreversible condition, it is possible to slow decreasing kidney function, as well as the development and progression of associated with kidney disease comorbidities. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become major cause of chronic kidney disease worldwide...
May 30, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805343/proteomic-and-bioinformatic-discovery-of-biomarkers-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#12
REVIEW
Chadinee Thippakorn, Nalini Schaduangrat, Chanin Nantasenamat
Diabetes is associated with numerous metabolic and vascular risk factors that contribute to a high rate of micro-vascular and macro-vascular disorders leading to mortality and morbidity from diabetic complications. In this case, the major cause of death in overall diabetic patients results from diabetic nephropathy (DN) or renal failure. The risk factors and mechanisms that correspond to the development of DN are not fully understood and so far, no specific and sufficient diagnostic biomarkers are currently available other than micro- or macroalbuminuria...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796992/brain-glucose-sensing-mechanism-and-energy-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
A J López-Gambero, F Martínez, K Salazar, M Cifuentes, F Nualart
The metabolic and energy state of the organism depends largely on the availability of substrates, such as glucose for ATP production, necessary for maintaining physiological functions. Deregulation in glucose levels leads to the appearance of pathological signs that result in failures in the cardiovascular system and various diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Particularly, the brain relies on glucose as fuel for the normal development of neuronal activity. Regions adjacent to the cerebral ventricles, such as the hypothalamus and brainstem, exercise central control in energy homeostasis...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782263/-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-diabetic-nephropathy-epidemiology-prognosis-and-choice-of-anticoagulant-therapy
#14
N A Koziolova, E A Polyanskaya, M V Surovtseva, P G Karavaev
In this review we present data on prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with nonvalvular AF and T2D combined with CKD have elevated risk of both bleeding and thromboembolic complications, as well as of all cause death. Efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) depend on comorbidities and can be determined by the presence of T2D and/or diabetic nephropathy. Use of warfarin in CKD in some cases provides no preventive effect relative to risk of stroke and is characterized by increased risk of bleeding because of poor INR control, and possibly development of calcification of arteries...
April 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779164/update-on-endothelin-receptor-antagonists-in-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Michel Burnier
To review the most recent data on the development of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) for the treatment of hypertension and the management of diabetic nephropathy RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reviews and meta-analyses of experimental and clinical data obtained with ERAs confirmed that endothelin receptor blockade is associated with significant decreases in blood pressure in essential hypertension but also in resistant hypertension. In addition, in patients with diabetic nephropathy, ERAs induce significant 30-40% decreases in albuminuria when administered on top of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774648/the-prevalence-of-nephropathy-of-type-1-diabetes-in-the-arab-world-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ussama M Abdel-Motal, Akila G, Essam M Abdelalim, Chinnaiyan Ponnuraja C, Khadija Iken, Mohamed Jahromi, George Priya Doss C, Rajaa El Bekay, Hatem Zayed
AIMS: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis and to determine the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among Arab patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) METHODS: Four different literature databases were used (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and EMBASE) to capture all relevant data about Arab patients with T1D and nephropathy. Meta-analysis and systematic review were performed using the random effect model, and the heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the Q-test, I2 index and Tau-squared statistics...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765562/a-myriad-of-roles-of-mir-25-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Kahán, Tamás Csont
Small non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently recognized as important regulators of gene expression. MicroRNAs play myriads of roles in physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases by translational repression or mRNA destabilization of numerous target genes. The miR-106b-25 cluster is highly conserved in vertebrates and consists of three members including miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25. MiR-106b and miR-93 share the same seed sequences; however, miR-25 has only a similar seed sequence resulting in different predicted target mRNAs...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764908/management-of-endocrine-disease-which-metabolic-procedure-comparing-outcomes-in-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#18
Adrian T Billeter, Javier de la Garza Herrera, Katharina M Scheurlen, Felix Nickel, Franck Billmann, Beat Müller-Stich
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become one of the largest challenges for health care in the near future. Conservative therapy for obesity and related comorbidities have a very high failure rate and poor long-term results. Similarly, the conservative and medical management of the majority of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are only able to slow down disease progression but have no causal effect on the disease process. Obesity surgery has evolved as a highly effect therapy for severe obesity achieving long-lasting weight loss...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745908/local-use-of-granulocyte-macrophages-colony-stimulating-factor-in-treatment-of-chronic-diabetic-neuropathic-ulcer-case-review
#19
E Karlafti, Ch Savopoulos, A Hatzitolios, T Didangelos
One of the main causes of amputations in patients with Diabetes Mellitus patients is a chronic diabetic foot ulcer. The authors present a clinical case and discussion of a successful use of Granulocyte-Macrophages Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) treatment for the promotion of healing of a chronic diabetic foot ulcer. A 65 year-old woman was admitted to the Diabetes Center with complaints of a deep non-healing chronic foot ulcer for the last 18 months. At the examination a 5 cm ulcer on the plantar surface of the right foot was revealed...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745907/diabetic-nephropathy-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-multiple-cases-review-and-discussion
#20
D Popovic, S Pejakovic, O Rankov, E Stokic, M Mitrovic
Pregnancy in women with pre-existing diabetes is associated with a doubled, or even up to four-fold increased risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality compared to the risk observed in a background population. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive disease that affects about one third of diabetic patients and is among the most frequent causes of the end stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. In the random population, it is present in up to 7% of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and it represents the most common chronic kidney disease occurring in graviditas, complicating between 2...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
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