Read by QxMD icon Read


Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder, causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming numbers of brain injuries, and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associate with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies, because there is often neuron loss...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Ming Li, Dan Feng, Kui Zhang, Shan Gao, Juming Lu
Objective. To study the characteristics of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR) in the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of T2DM in Chinese population and to examine the usefulness of proinsulin (PI) for evaluating β-cell dysfunction. Methods. 229 subjects of nondiabetic FDRs, 71 newly diagnosed T2DM, and 114 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) but not FDRs (NGT-non-FDRs) were verified by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Specific insulin (SI) and PI were measured by highly sensitive ELISA. Results...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Pernille Henriksen, Malene Landbo Børresen, Kathrin Dahl
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a rare non-IgE mediated condition. Symptoms of acute FPIES include vomiting, diarrhoea and dehydration. Symptoms are often misread as acute abdomen or sepsis. The condition can be fatal. There are no biomarkers for FPIES, and skin prick test for cow milk is often negative. Treatment is hydrolysed formula milk. This case story describes a one-month-old boy with diarrhoea and an output of up till 2.3 l per day. With this case story we wish to increase the knowledge of FPIES and emphasize the importance of having the diagnosis in mind when confronted with the very ill, dehydrated infant...
October 10, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Judith Barasche, Fabiola Stollar, Marcel M Bergmann, Jean-Christoph Caubet
In infants, the causes of acute repetitive vomiting and severely altered-consciousness status include a broad differential diagnosis, that is, primarly sepsis, infectious gastroenteritis, head injury, and intoxication, as well as neurologic, metabolic, and cardiologic condition diseases. In patients developing such symptoms, allergy as an etiological cause is often not considered by primary care physicians. With this case report, we aim to draw the attention of general pediatricians, emergency physicians, and intensivists to the fact that non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergic gastrointestinal disorders such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome should be considered in patients with sepsis-like symptoms...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jalal Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Baradaran Ghasemi, Hamid Latifi
The ability to accurately measure the flow rate, concentration, and temperature in real-time in micro total analysis systems (μTAS) is crucial when improving their practical sensing capabilities within extremely small volumes. Our label-free infrared (1500-1600 nm) opto-fluidic method, presented in this study, utilizes a cantilever-based flow meter integrated with two parallel optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs). The first FPI serves as an ultra-sensitive flow meter and includes a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) tip for localized temperature sensing...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jonathan Lifshitz, Rachel K Rowe, Daniel R Griffiths, Megan N Evilsizor, Theresa C Thomas, P David Adelson, Tracy K McIntosh
BACKGROUND: After 30 years of characterisation and implementation, fluid percussion injury (FPI) is firmly recognised as one of the best-characterised reproducible and clinically relevant models of TBI, encompassing concussion through diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Depending on the specific injury parameters (e.g. injury site, mechanical force), FPI can model diffuse TBI with or without a focal component and may be designated as mild-to-severe according to the chosen mechanical forces and resulting acute neurological responses...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Mahdi Sepidarkish, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Fatemeh Shokri, Samira Vesali, Elaheh Karimi, Reza Omani Samani
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood)...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Stacy L Sell, Kathia M Johnson, Douglas DeWitt, Donald S Prough
Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is now considered a chronic disease, few studies have investigated the long-term behavioral deficits elicited by a well-established rodent model of injury. Here we evaluate behavioral measures, commonly used in TBI research, to determine which tests are useful for studying long-term effects of brain injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were handled and pre-trained to neurological, balance and motor coordination tests prior to receiving parasagittal fluid-percussion-injury (FPI), sham-injury or maintenance as naïve cohorts...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Michael Bernhard, André Gries, Alexandra Ramshorn-Zimmer, Volker Wenzel, Bjoern Hossfeld
Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jean-Christoph Caubet, Hania Szajewska, Raanan Shamir, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FA) including food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) are relatively uncommon in infants and young children, but are likely under-diagnosed. Non-IgE-GI-FA have a favorable prognosis, with majority resolving by age 3-5 years. Diagnosis relies on the recognition of symptoms pattern in FPIAP and FPIES and biopsy in FPE. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the pathomechanism, which will lead eventually to the development of diagnostic tests and treatments...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Mitsuaki Kimura, Masaki Shimomura, Hideaki Morishita, Takaaki Meguro, Shiro Seto
BACKGROUND: Many Japanese infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) show eosinophilia, which has been thought to be a characteristic of food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP). METHODS: To elucidate the characteristics of eosinophilia in Japanese FPIES patients, 113 infants with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy due to cow's milk were enrolled and classified into FPIES (n = 94) and FPIP (n = 19). RESULTS: The percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils (Eo) was increased in most FPIES patients (median, 7...
September 10, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
P M Abdul-Muneer, Adriano Andrea Conte, Debanjan Haldar, Mathew Long, Rachel Patel, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Christopher M Overall, Bryan J Pfister
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), even at mild levels, can activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the induction of neuroinflammation that can result in blood brain barrier breakdown and neurodegeneration. MMP2 has a significant role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration by modulating the chemokine CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor SDF-1α) signaling pathway and the induction of apoptosis. SDF-1α is responsible for cell proliferation and differentiation throughout the nervous system and is also implicated in various neurodegenerative illnesses...
September 7, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ying Deng-Bryant, Lai Yee Leung, Krista Caudle, Frank Tortella, Deborah Shear
The Morris water maze (MWM) task is one of the most widely used and versatile tools in behavioral neuroscience for evaluating spatial learning and memory. With regard to detecting cognitive deficits following central nervous system (CNS) injuries, MWM has been commonly utilized in various animal models of neurotrauma, such as fluid percussion injury (FPI), cortical controlled impact (CCI) injury, weight-drop impact injury, and penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). More importantly, it serves as a therapeutic index for assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions on cognitive performance following neurotrauma...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rachel K Rowe, Daniel R Griffiths, Jonathan Lifshitz
Research models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) hold significant validity towards the human condition, with each model replicating a subset of clinical features and symptoms. After 30 years of characterization and implementation, fluid percussion injury (FPI) is firmly recognized as a clinically relevant model of TBI, encompassing concussion through severe injury. The midline variation of FPI may best represent mild and diffuse clinical brain injury, because of the acute behavioral deficits, the late onset of subtle behavioral morbidities, and the absence of gross histopathology...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been named the most complex disease in the most complex organ of the body. It is the most common cause of death and disability in the Western world in people <40 years old and survivors commonly suffer from persisting cognitive deficits, impaired motor function, depression and personality changes. TBI may vary in severity from uniformly fatal to mild injuries with rapidly resolving symptoms and without doubt, it is a markedly heterogeneous disease. Its different subtypes differs in their pathophysiology, treatment options and long-term consequences and to date, there are no pharmacological treatments with proven clinical benefit available to TBI patients...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mélanie Rigard, Jeanette E Bröms, Amandine Mosnier, Maggy Hologne, Amandine Martin, Lena Lindgren, Claire Punginelli, Claire Lays, Olivier Walker, Alain Charbit, Philippe Telouk, Wayne Conlan, Laurent Terradot, Anders Sjöstedt, Thomas Henry
The virulence of Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, relies on an atypical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by a genomic island termed the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI). While the importance of the FPI in F. tularensis virulence is clearly established, the precise role of most of the FPI-encoded proteins remains to be deciphered. In this study, using highly virulent F. tularensis strains and the closely related species F. novicida, IglG was characterized as a protein featuring a unique α-helical N-terminal extension and a domain of unknown function (DUF4280), present in more than 250 bacterial species...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Taizo Wada, Yusuke Matsuda, Tomoko Toma, Eiko Koizumi, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Akihiro Yachie
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon, non-IgE-mediated food allergy. We recently described a significant increase in fecal eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) after ingestion of the causative food. However, little is known about the activation status of circulating eosinophils in patients with an acute FPIES reaction. METHODS: Surface CD69 expression was assessed by flow cytometry on peripheral eosinophils from 5 patients with FPIES before and after ingestion of the causative food...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Bai-Yu Lee, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Marcus A Horwitz
A safer and more effective vaccine than the unlicensed Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) is needed to protect against the biowarfare agent F. tularensis. Previously, we developed an LVS ΔcapB mutant that is significantly safer than LVS and provides potent protective immunity against F. tularensis respiratory challenge when administered intranasally but limited protection when administered intradermally unless as part of a prime-boost vaccination strategy. To improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of LVS ΔcapB, we developed recombinant LVS ΔcapB (rLVS ΔcapB) strains overexpressing various F...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Stefano Miceli Sopo, Giulia Bersani, Serena Monaco, Giuseppe Cerchiara, Eric Lee, Dianne Campbell, Sam Mehr
BACKGROUND: Therapy for moderate to severe acute food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) typically consists of intravenous fluids and corticosteroids (traditional therapy). Ondansetron has been suggested as an adjunctive treatment. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the parenteral (intravenous or intramuscular) ondansetron vs. traditional therapy to resolve symptoms of acute FPIES. METHODS: Cases of FPIES who had a positive oral food challenge (OFC) were retrospectively examined at two major hospitals over a 2 year period (Rome, Italy and Sydney, Australia)...
August 22, 2016: Allergy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"