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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151830/antihypertensive-properties-of-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-frame-and-skin-enzymatic-protein-hydrolysates
#1
Hsin-Chieh Lin, Adeola M Alashi, Rotimi E Aluko, Bonnie Sun Pan, Yu-Wei Chang
Proteins from tilapia frame and skin can potentially be precursors of antihypertensive peptides according to the result of BIOPEP analyses. The aim was to generate peptides with inhibitory effects against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin from tilapia frame and skin protein isolates (FPI and SPI). The most active hydrolysate was then tested for blood pressure-lowering ability in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Tilapia frame and skin protein hydrolysates (FPHs and SPHs) were respectively produced from FPI and SPI hydrolysis using pepsin, papain, or bromelain...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149385/pre-clinical-models-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#2
REVIEW
Patrick M Kochanek, Jessica S Wallisch, Hülya Bayır, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE: Despite the enormity of the problem and the lack of new therapies, research in the pre-clinical arena specifically using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) models is limited. In this review, some of the key models addressing both the age spectrum of pediatric TBI and its unique injury mechanisms will be highlighted. Four topics will be addressed, namely, (1) unique facets of the developing brain important to TBI model development, (2) a description of some of the most commonly used pre-clinical models of severe pediatric TBI including work in both rodents and large animals, (3) a description of the pediatric models of mild TBI and repetitive mild TBI that are relatively new, and finally (4) a discussion of challenges, gaps, and potential future directions to further advance work in pediatric TBI models...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138990/non-ige-mediated-adverse-food-reactions
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie A Leonard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update what is currently known about the major non-IgE-mediated food allergies: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). These conditions are similar in that symptoms are regulated to the gastrointestinal tract; therefore understanding their specific features is important for diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The most progress has been made in understanding FPIES with several recent large cohorts being described...
November 14, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132670/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Theresa A Bingemann, Puja Sood, Kirsi M Järvinen
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that usually presents in infancy. Cow's milk, soy, and grains are the most common food triggers. FPIES can present as a medical emergency with symptoms including delayed persistent emesis or diarrhea that can lead to severe dehydration and hemodynamic instability with abnormal laboratory markers. Diagnosis can often be made based on clinical history and noted improvement in symptoms once the suspected triggers have been removed from the diet, with oral food challenge as the gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis in unclear cases...
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131657/variability-of-the-dynamic-stiffness-of-foot-joints-effect-of-gait-velocity-variation
#5
Enrique Sanchis, Joaquín Luis Sancho-Bru, Alba Roda-Sales, Javier Pascual Huerta
BACKGROUND: Comparison of dynamic stiffness of foot joints was previously proposed to investigate pathological situations with changes in the properties of muscle and passive structures. Samples must be controlled to reduce the variability within groups being compared, which may arise from different sources, such as gait speed or foot posture index (FPI). METHODS: In this work, variability in the measurement of the dynamic stiffness of ankle, midtarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints was studied in a controlled sample of healthy adult male subjects with normal FPI, and the effect of gait speed was analyzed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#6
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095536/increased-serum-cortisol-levels-on-oral-food-challenge-in-infants-with-fpies
#7
Masaki Shimomura, Yasunori Ito, Hiroki Tanaka, Takaaki Meguro, Mitsuaki Kimura
BACKGROUND: An increase in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is seen after an oral food challenge test (OFC) in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). Although it has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-8 is involved in this phenomenon, a possible role for cortisol has not yet been studied. METHODS: Six OFCs with positive responses in 5 patients with FPIES due to cows' milk (CM) proteins and 2 OFCs with negative responses in 2 patients suspected of FPIES were analyzed...
November 2, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054135/alterations-in-the-timing-of-huperzine-a-cerebral-pharmacodynamics-in-the-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-setting
#8
Ugur Damar, Roman Gersner, Joshua T Johstone, Kush Kapur, Stephen D Collins, Steven Schachter, Alexander Rotenberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical GABA-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally-occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI), and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052246/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-by-fish-not-necessarily-a-restricted-diet
#9
S Infante, G Marco-Martín, M Sánchez-Domínguez, A Rodríguez-Fernández, V Fuentes-Aparicio, A Alvarez-Perea, P Cabrera-Freitag, C Morales-Cabeza, J M Zubeldia, L Zapatero
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity usually due to cow's milk or soy. Recent researches show that fish is 1 of the most important triggers of FPIES in the Mediterranean countries. Due to the risk of multiple-food FPIES, avoiding foods in the same category or that often occur together may be reasonable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution and follow-up of FPIES related to fish over a period of 20 years. We describe the clinical features of our population, discuss different approaches to oral food challenges, and analyze the possibility of introducing the culprit fish or other nonrelated fish to avoid unnecessary restricted diets...
October 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046194/the-role-of-intravenous-access-during-oral-food-challenges-in-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#10
Laura E Pena, Danielle Guffey, Charles G Minard, Sara Anvari, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobulin E mediated food hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by profuse vomiting and diarrhea, which leads to lethargy, dehydration, and hypotension. Given the potential severity of reactions, resolution of FPIES is confirmed via oral food challenge (OFC) during which intravenous (IV) access is recommended to facilitate IV fluids (IVF) and steroid therapy. Risk factors for IV treatment are not well characterized...
November 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041080/strain-sensor-based-on-gourd-shaped-single-mode-multimode-single-mode-hybrid-optical-fibre-structure
#11
Ke Tian, Gerald Farrell, Xianfan Wang, Wenlei Yang, Yifan Xin, Haidong Liang, Elfed Lewis, Pengfei Wang
A fibre-optic strain sensor based on a gourd-shaped joint multimode fibre (MMF) sandwiched between two single-mode fibres (SMFs) is described both theoretically and experimentally. The cladding layers of the two MMFs are reshaped to form a hemisphere using an electrical arc method and spliced together, yielding the required gourd shape. The gourd-shaped section forms a Fabry-Perot cavity between the ends of two adjacent but non-contacting multimode fibres' core. The effectiveness of the multimode interference based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) formed within the multimode inter-fibre section is greatly improved resulting in an experimentally determined strain sensitivity of -2...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036852/rehabilitation-modality-and-onset-differentially-influence-whisker-sensory-hypersensitivity-after-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#12
Theresa Currier Thomas, Ellen Magee Stockhausen, L Matthew Law, Aida Khodadad, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: As rehabilitation strategies advance as therapeutic interventions, the modality and onset of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are critical to optimize treatment. Our laboratory has detected and characterized a late-onset, long-lasting sensory hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation in diffuse brain-injured rats; a deficit that is comparable to visual or auditory sensory hypersensitivity in humans with an acquired brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the modality and onset of rehabilitation therapies will differentially influence sensory hypersensitivity in response to the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) as well as WNT-induced corticosterone (CORT) stress response in diffuse brain-injured rats and shams...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034854/whole-genome-transcriptomics-reveals-global-effects-including-up-regulation-of-francisella-pathogenicity-island-gene-expression-during-active-stringent-response-in-the-highly-virulent-francisella-tularensis-subsp-tularensis-schu-s4
#13
Amber L Murch, Paul J Skipp, Peter L Roach, Petra C F Oyston
During conditions of nutrient limitation bacteria undergo a series of global gene expression changes to survive conditions of amino acid and fatty acid starvation. Rapid reallocation of cellular resources is brought about by gene expression changes coordinated by the signalling nucleotides' guanosine tetraphosphate or pentaphosphate, collectively termed (p)ppGpp and is known as the stringent response. The stringent response has been implicated in bacterial virulence, with elevated (p)ppGpp levels being associated with increased virulence gene expression...
October 16, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966265/the-endothelin-etb-receptor-antagonist-bq788-protects-against-brain-edema-after-fluid-percussion-injury-by-decreasing-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-expression-in-mice
#14
Shotaro Michinaga
Brain edema is a severe morbid complication of brain injury, characterized by excessive fluid accumulation and an elevation of intracranial pressure. However, effective anti-brain edema drugs are lacking. One of the causes of brain edema is disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, which results in extravasation of intravascular fluid. After brain damage, astrocytes are activated, and astrocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce BBB dysfunction. Therefore maintaining BBB integrity by regulating astrocyte function is a potentially effective strategy for treating brain edema...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937509/non-ige-mediated-gastrointestinal-food-allergies
#15
Priscille Biermé, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Jean-Christoph Caubet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We focus on recent advances regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and managements of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies (non-IgE-GI-FAs), particularly food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). RECENT FINDINGS: The first international FPIES diagnostic and management guidelines have been recently published. Although FPIES largely remains a diagnosis of exclusion, it may be more prevalent than previously thought...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933223/genetic-and-histological-alterations-reveal-key-role-of-prostaglandin-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-moderate-fluid-percussion-injury
#16
Hideki Shojo, Cesario V Borlongan, Tadashi Mabuchi
After the initial insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI), secondary neurodegeneration occurs that is intimately associated with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin (PG) synthases and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 may contribute to inflammation in the brain. Temporal and spatial expression features of PG and COX1 and 2 following trauma may guide the development of antineuroinflammation strategies. Here, we examined PG synthase signaling and COX1 and 2 gene expression levels and COX-1- and 2-positive cell types and their temporal localization in TBI-induced brain in an effort to reveal their participation in the disease's evolving neuroinflammation...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933222/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming number of brain injuries and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associated with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies because there is often loss of neurons...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906253/latest-insights-on-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-an-emerging-medical-condition
#18
REVIEW
L Vila Sexto
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity, characterized by profuse vomiting, frequently associated to pallor or/and lethargy that appears within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the offending food. There is a less frequent chronic form of FPIES, presenting with protracted vomiting, diarrhea or both, accompanied by poor growth. Although FPIES is considered a rare allergic disorder, in the last few years there have been an increasing number of reports about it indicating if not a real increase in incidence, at least an increased awareness of this condition by pediatricians...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888865/changes-in-foot-posture-during-pregnancy-and-their-relation-with-musculoskeletal-pain-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#19
Francisco Javier Vico Pardo, Andres López Del Amo, Manuel Pardo Rios, Gabriel Gijon-Nogueron, Cristina Castro Yuste
AIM: To examine foot posture changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to determine whether there is a relationship between these changes and the pain experienced in this period. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 62 pregnant women who attended the Gynaecology Service at Hospital ​Santa María del Puerto (Cádiz, Spain), between January 2013 and May 2014. In their first visit, the following sociodemographic and anthropometric data were recorded: age, weight, height and foot size...
September 6, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864445/dissection-of-the-molecular-circuitry-controlling-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#20
Bonnie J Cuthbert, Wilma Ross, Amy E Rohlfing, Simon L Dove, Richard L Gourse, Richard G Brennan, Maria A Schumacher
Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacteria known. Because of its extreme pathogenicity, F. tularensis is classified as a category A bioweapon by the US government. F. tularensis virulence stems from genes encoded on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). An unusual set of Francisella regulators-the heteromeric macrophage growth locus protein A (MglA)-stringent starvation protein A (SspA) complex and the DNA-binding protein pathogenicity island gene regulator (PigR)-activates FPI transcription and thus is essential for virulence...
August 1, 2017: Genes & Development
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