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advanced muscle integration technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938330/temporal-scalp-thickness-body-mass-index-and-suprafascial-placement-of-receiver-coil-of-the-cochlear-implant
#1
Orhan Ozturan, Alper Yenigun, Erol Senturk, Omer Faruk Calim, Fadlullah Aksoy, Sabri Baki Eren
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the relationship between the thickness of the temporal scalp and body mass index (BMI), age, and sex, and to present the surgical technique which we perform in patients with a thick scalp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. This study was performed in a tertiary referral center. Cranial computed tomography images of 469 subjects were included in the study. These subjects were evaluated according to BMI, age, and sex...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882000/integrative-deep-models-for-alternative-splicing
#2
Anupama Jha, Matthew R Gazzara, Yoseph Barash
Motivation: Advancements in sequencing technologies have highlighted the role of alternative splicing (AS) in increasing transcriptome complexity. This role of AS, combined with the relation of aberrant splicing to malignant states, motivated two streams of research, experimental and computational. The first involves a myriad of techniques such as RNA-Seq and CLIP-Seq to identify splicing regulators and their putative targets. The second involves probabilistic models, also known as splicing codes, which infer regulatory mechanisms and predict splicing outcome directly from genomic sequence...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844055/what-is-mr-spectroscopy
#3
Karen Angela Manias, Andrew Peet
(1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a novel advanced imaging technique used as an adjunct to MRI to reveal complementary non-invasive information about the biochemical composition of imaged tissue. Clinical uses in paediatrics include aiding diagnosis of brain tumours, neonatal disorders such as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases, traumatic brain injury, demyelinating conditions and infectious brain lesions. MRS has potential to improve diagnosis and treatment monitoring of childhood brain tumours and other CNS diseases, facilitate biopsy and surgical planning, and provide prognostic biomarkers...
August 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675678/3d-bioprinting-and-the-current-applications-in-tissue-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Ying Huang, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Guifang Gao, Tomo Yonezawa, Xiaofeng Cui
Bioprinting as an enabling technology for tissue engineering possesses the promises to fabricate highly mimicked tissue or organs with digital control. As one of the biofabrication approaches, bioprinting has the advantages of high throughput and precise control of both scaffold and cells. Therefore, this technology is not only ideal for translational medicine but also for basic research applications. Bioprinting has already been widely applied to construct functional tissues such as vasculature, muscle, cartilage, and bone...
July 4, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460192/proton-density-fat-fraction-of-rotator-cuff-muscles-is-associated-with-isometric-strength-10-years-after-rotator-cuff-repair-a-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-the-shoulder
#5
Dimitrios C Karampinos, Christian Holwein, Stefan Buchmann, Thomas Baum, Stefan Ruschke, Alexandra S Gersing, Reto Sutter, Andreas B Imhoff, Ernst J Rummeny, Pia M Jungmann
BACKGROUND: Quantitative muscle fat-fraction magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques correlate with semiquantitative Goutallier scores with failure after rotator cuff (RC) repair. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of the RC muscles with semiquantitative MR scores, cartilage T2 relaxation times, and clinical isometric strength measurements in patients 10 years after unilateral RC repair. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453512/a-reproducible-semi-automatic-method-to-quantify-the-muscle-lipid-distribution-in-clinical-3d-ct-images-of-the-thigh
#6
Alexander Mühlberg, Oleg Museyko, Jean-Denis Laredo, Klaus Engelke
Many studies use threshold-based techniques to assess in vivo the muscle, bone and adipose tissue distribution of the legs using computed tomography (CT) imaging. More advanced techniques divide the legs into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), anatomical muscle (muscle tissue and adipocytes within the muscle border) and intra- and perimuscular adipose tissue. In addition, a so-called muscle density directly derived from the CT-values is often measured. We introduce a new integrated approach to quantify the muscle-lipid system (MLS) using quantitative CT in patients with sarcopenia or osteoporosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363767/time-scaling-based-sliding-mode-control-for-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-under-uncertain-relative-degrees
#8
Tiago Roux Oliveira, Luiz Rennó Costa, João Marcos Yamasaki Catunda, Alexandre Visintainer Pino, William Barbosa, Márcio Nogueira de Souza
This paper addresses the application of the sliding mode approach to control the arm movements by artificial recruitment of muscles using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Such a technique allows the activation of motor nerves using surface electrodes. The goal of the proposed control system is to move the upper limbs of subjects through electrical stimulation to achieve a desired elbow angular displacement. Since the human neuro-motor system has individual characteristics, being time-varying, nonlinear and subject to uncertainties, the use of advanced robust control schemes may represent a better solution than classical Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers and model-based approaches, being simpler than more sophisticated strategies using fuzzy logic or neural networks usually applied in this control problem...
March 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242166/dysphagia-optimised-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-techniques-in-pharyngeal-cancers-is-anyone-going-to-swallow-it
#9
I Petkar, S Bhide, K Newbold, K Harrington, C Nutting
Dysphagia after primary chemoradiotherapy or radiation alone in pharyngeal cancers can have a devastating impact on a patient's physical, social and emotional state. Establishing and validating efficient dysphagia-optimised radiotherapy techniques is, therefore, of paramount importance in an era where health-related quality of life measures are increasingly influential determinants of curative management strategies, particularly as the incidence of good prognosis, human papillomavirus-driven pharyngeal cancer in younger patients continues to rise...
July 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161207/a-simplified-surgical-algorithm-for-flap-reconstruction-of-eyebrow-defects
#10
Hai-Peng Liu, Ying Shao, Xiao-Jie Yu, Duo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Partial or total eyebrow defects after trauma or tumor excisions have been repaired by several surgical technique and algorithms. However, these algorithms are often complicated and difficult to apply clinically. We therefore established a simplified surgical algorithm for the treatment of eyebrow defects using flap reconstruction. METHODS: During the period between January 2009 and December 2015, a total of 21 Chinese patients (12 males, 9 females) with eyebrow defects were treated with eyebrow flap reconstruction...
April 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-with-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#11
Danny A Spampinato, Hannah J Block, Pablo A Celnik
One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to-cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the cerebellum before a test pulse over motor cortex...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824734/targeted-muscle-reinnervation-for-transradial-amputation-description-of-operative-technique
#12
Emily N Morgan, Benjamin Kyle Potter, Jason M Souza, Scott M Tintle, George P Nanos
Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a revolutionary surgical technique that, together with advances in upper extremity prostheses and advanced neuromuscular pattern recognition, allows intuitive and coordinated control in multiple planes of motion for shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputees. TMR also may provide improvement in neuroma-related pain and may represent an opportunity for sensory reinnervation as advances in prostheses and haptic feedback progress. Although most commonly utilized following shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputations, TMR techniques also represent an exciting opportunity for improvement in integrated prosthesis control and neuroma-related pain improvement in patients with transradial amputations...
December 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812370/post-gwas-prioritization-through-data-integration-provides-novel-insights-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Qiongshi Lu, Chentian Jin, Jiehuan Sun, Russell Bowler, Katerina Kechris, Naftali Kaminski, Hongyu Zhao
Rich collections of genomic and epigenomic annotations, availabilities of large population cohorts for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and advancements in data integration techniques provide the unprecedented opportunity to accelerate discoveries in complex disease studies through integrative analyses. In this paper, we apply a variety of approaches to integrate GWAS summary statistics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with functional annotations to illustrate how data integration could help researchers understand complex human diseases...
2016: Statistics in Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802374/genetic-variations-leading-to-familial-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#14
REVIEW
Kae Won Cho, Jongsung Lee, Youngjo Kim
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction...
October 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549872/bottom-up-fabrication-of-artery-mimicking-tubular-co-cultures-in-collagen-based-microchannel-scaffolds
#15
A Tan, K Fujisawa, Y Yukawa, Y T Matsunaga
We developed a robust bottom-up approach to construct open-ended, tubular co-culture constructs that simulate the human vascular morphology and microenvironment. By design, these three-dimensional artificial vessels mimic the basic architecture of an artery: a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (as the tunica externa), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (as the tunica media), and an endothelial cell (EC) lining (as the tunica interna). A versatile needle-based fabrication technique was employed to achieve controllable arterial layouts within a PDMS-hosted collagen microchannel scaffold (330 ± 10 μm in diameter): (direct co-culture) a SMC/EC bilayer to follow the structure of an arteriole-like segment; and (encapsulated co-culture) a lateral SMC multilayer covered by an EC monolayer lining to simulate the architecture of a larger artery...
October 20, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451385/when-where-and-how-focus-on-neuronal-calcium-dysfunctions-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Mario Agostini, Cristina Fasolato
Alzheimer's disease (AD), since its characterization as a precise form of dementia with its own pathological hallmarks, has captured scientists' attention because of its complexity. The last 30 years have been filled with discoveries regarding the elusive aetiology of this disease and, thanks to advances in molecular biology and live imaging techniques, we now know that an important role is played by calcium (Ca(2+)). Ca(2+), as ubiquitous second messenger, regulates a vast variety of cellular processes, from neuronal excitation and communication, to muscle fibre contraction and hormone secretion, with its action spanning a temporal scale that goes from microseconds to hours...
July 9, 2016: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103630/translational-and-emerging-clinical-applications-of-metabolomics-in-cardiovascular-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Anthony C Dona, Sean Coffey, Gemma Figtree
Numerous molecular screening strategies have recently been developed to measure the chemical diversity of a population's biofluids with the ultimate aim to provide clinicians, medical scientists and epidemiologists with a clearer picture of the presence and severity of cardiovascular disease; prognosis; and response to treatment. Current cardiology practice integrates clinical history and examination with state-of-the-art imaging, invasive measures, and electrical interrogation. Biomarkers in common clinical use are relatively limited to troponin and brain natriuretic peptide, dependent on damage to heart muscle, or myocyte 'stretch' respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935781/basic-principles-and-recent-trends-of-transcranial-motor-evoked-potentials-in-intraoperative-neurophysiologic-monitoring
#18
REVIEW
Shunji Tsutsui, Hiroshi Yamada
Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), which are muscle action potentials elicited by transcranial brain stimulation, have been the most popular method for the last decade to monitor the functional integrity of the motor system during surgery. It was originally difficult to record reliable and reproducible potentials under general anesthesia, especially when inhalation-based anesthetic agents that suppressed the firing of anterior horn neurons were used. Advances in anesthesia, including the introduction of intravenous anesthetic agents, and progress in stimulation techniques, including the use of pulse trains, improved the reliability and reproducibility of TcMEP responses...
August 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910696/global-aesthetics-consensus-botulinum-toxin-type-a-evidence-based-review-emerging-concepts-and-consensus-recommendations-for-aesthetic-use-including-updates-on-complications
#19
REVIEW
Hema Sundaram, Massimo Signorini, Steven Liew, Ada R Trindade de Almeida, Yan Wu, André Vieira Braz, Steven Fagien, Greg J Goodman, Gary Monheit, Hervé Raspaldo
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A injection remains the leading nonsurgical cosmetic procedure worldwide, with a high rate of efficacy and patient satisfaction. METHODS: A multinational, multidisciplinary group of plastic surgeons and dermatologists convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to develop updated consensus recommendations with a worldwide perspective for botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers. This publication on botulinum toxin type A considers advances in facial analysis, injection techniques, and avoidance and management of complications...
March 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859296/strategies-for-rapid-muscle-fatigue-reduction-during-fes-exercise-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Morufu Olusola Ibitoye, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nazirah Hasnan, Ahmad Khairi Abdul Wahab, Glen M Davis
BACKGROUND: Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise...
2016: PloS One
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