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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824734/targeted-muscle-reinnervation-for-transradial-amputation-description-of-operative-technique
#1
Emily N Morgan, Benjamin Kyle Potter, Jason M Souza, Scott M Tintle, George P Nanos
Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a revolutionary surgical technique that, together with advances in upper extremity prostheses and advanced neuromuscular pattern recognition, allows intuitive and coordinated control in multiple planes of motion for shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputees. TMR also may provide improvement in neuroma-related pain and may represent an opportunity for sensory reinnervation as advances in prostheses and haptic feedback progress. Although most commonly utilized following shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputations, TMR techniques also represent an exciting opportunity for improvement in integrated prosthesis control and neuroma-related pain improvement in patients with transradial amputations...
December 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812370/post-gwas-prioritization-through-data-integration-provides-novel-insights-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Qiongshi Lu, Chentian Jin, Jiehuan Sun, Russell Bowler, Katerina Kechris, Naftali Kaminski, Hongyu Zhao
Rich collections of genomic and epigenomic annotations, availabilities of large population cohorts for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and advancements in data integration techniques provide the unprecedented opportunity to accelerate discoveries in complex disease studies through integrative analyses. In this paper, we apply a variety of approaches to integrate GWAS summary statistics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with functional annotations to illustrate how data integration could help researchers understand complex human diseases...
2016: Statistics in Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802374/genetic-variations-leading-to-familial-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#3
REVIEW
Kae Won Cho, Jongsung Lee, Youngjo Kim
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction...
October 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549872/bottom-up-fabrication-of-artery-mimicking-tubular-co-cultures-in-collagen-based-microchannel-scaffolds
#4
A Tan, K Fujisawa, Y Yukawa, Y T Matsunaga
We developed a robust bottom-up approach to construct open-ended, tubular co-culture constructs that simulate the human vascular morphology and microenvironment. By design, these three-dimensional artificial vessels mimic the basic architecture of an artery: a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (as the tunica externa), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (as the tunica media), and an endothelial cell (EC) lining (as the tunica interna). A versatile needle-based fabrication technique was employed to achieve controllable arterial layouts within a PDMS-hosted collagen microchannel scaffold (330 ± 10 μm in diameter): (direct co-culture) a SMC/EC bilayer to follow the structure of an arteriole-like segment; and (encapsulated co-culture) a lateral SMC multilayer covered by an EC monolayer lining to simulate the architecture of a larger artery...
October 20, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451385/when-where-and-how-focus-on-neuronal-calcium-dysfunctions-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Mario Agostini, Cristina Fasolato
Alzheimer's disease (AD), since its characterization as a precise form of dementia with its own pathological hallmarks, has captured scientists' attention because of its complexity. The last 30 years have been filled with discoveries regarding the elusive aetiology of this disease and, thanks to advances in molecular biology and live imaging techniques, we now know that an important role is played by calcium (Ca(2+)). Ca(2+), as ubiquitous second messenger, regulates a vast variety of cellular processes, from neuronal excitation and communication, to muscle fibre contraction and hormone secretion, with its action spanning a temporal scale that goes from microseconds to hours...
July 9, 2016: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103630/translational-and-emerging-clinical-applications-of-metabolomics-in-cardiovascular-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Anthony C Dona, Sean Coffey, Gemma Figtree
Numerous molecular screening strategies have recently been developed to measure the chemical diversity of a population's biofluids with the ultimate aim to provide clinicians, medical scientists and epidemiologists with a clearer picture of the presence and severity of cardiovascular disease; prognosis; and response to treatment. Current cardiology practice integrates clinical history and examination with state-of-the-art imaging, invasive measures, and electrical interrogation. Biomarkers in common clinical use are relatively limited to troponin and brain natriuretic peptide, dependent on damage to heart muscle, or myocyte 'stretch' respectively...
October 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935781/basic-principles-and-recent-trends-of-transcranial-motor-evoked-potentials-in-intraoperative-neurophysiologic-monitoring
#7
Shunji Tsutsui, Hiroshi Yamada
Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), which are muscle action potentials elicited by transcranial brain stimulation, have been the most popular method for the last decade to monitor the functional integrity of the motor system during surgery. It was originally difficult to record reliable and reproducible potentials under general anesthesia, especially when inhalation-based anesthetic agents that suppressed the firing of anterior horn neurons were used. Advances in anesthesia, including the introduction of intravenous anesthetic agents, and progress in stimulation techniques, including the use of pulse trains, improved the reliability and reproducibility of TcMEP responses...
August 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910696/global-aesthetics-consensus-botulinum-toxin-type-a-evidence-based-review-emerging-concepts-and-consensus-recommendations-for-aesthetic-use-including-updates-on-complications
#8
REVIEW
Hema Sundaram, Massimo Signorini, Steven Liew, Ada R Trindade de Almeida, Yan Wu, André Vieira Braz, Steven Fagien, Greg J Goodman, Gary Monheit, Hervé Raspaldo
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A injection remains the leading nonsurgical cosmetic procedure worldwide, with a high rate of efficacy and patient satisfaction. METHODS: A multinational, multidisciplinary group of plastic surgeons and dermatologists convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to develop updated consensus recommendations with a worldwide perspective for botulinum toxin and hyaluronic acid fillers. This publication on botulinum toxin type A considers advances in facial analysis, injection techniques, and avoidance and management of complications...
March 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26859296/strategies-for-rapid-muscle-fatigue-reduction-during-fes-exercise-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Morufu Olusola Ibitoye, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nazirah Hasnan, Ahmad Khairi Abdul Wahab, Glen M Davis
BACKGROUND: Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26467108/functional-heart-valve-scaffolds-obtained-by-complete-decellularization-of-porcine-aortic-roots-in-a-novel-differential-pressure-gradient-perfusion-system
#10
Leslie Neil Sierad, Eliza Laine Shaw, Alexander Bina, Bryn Brazile, Nicholas Rierson, Sourav S Patnaik, Allison Kennamer, Rebekah Odum, Ovidiu Cotoi, Preda Terezia, Klara Branzaniuc, Harrison Smallwood, Radu Deac, Imre Egyed, Zoltan Pavai, Annamaria Szanto, Lucian Harceaga, Horatiu Suciu, Victor Raicea, Peter Olah, Agneta Simionescu, Jun Liao, Ionela Movileanu, Marius Harpa, Dan Teodor Simionescu
There is a great need for living valve replacements for patients of all ages. Such constructs could be built by tissue engineering, with perspective of the unique structure and biology of the aortic root. The aortic valve root is composed of several different tissues, and careful structural and functional consideration has to be given to each segment and component. Previous work has shown that immersion techniques are inadequate for whole-root decellularization, with the aortic wall segment being particularly resistant to decellularization...
December 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26455485/design-evaluation-and-application-of-engineered-skeletal-muscle
#11
REVIEW
Mark Juhas, Jean Ye, Nenad Bursac
For over two decades, research groups have been developing methods to engineer three-dimensional skeletal muscle tissues. These tissues hold great promise for use in disease modeling and pre-clinical drug development, and have potential to serve as therapeutic grafts for functional muscle repair. Recent advances in the field have resulted in the engineering of regenerative muscle constructs capable of survival, vascularization, and functional maturation in vivo as well as the first-time creation of functional human engineered muscles for screening of therapeutics in vitro...
April 15, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437937/advances-in-the-anatomic-study-of-the-interscapular-region-of-the-cat
#12
Maurizio Longo, Silvia Clotilde Modina, Andrea Bellotti, Mauro Di Giancamillo
BACKGROUND: New clinical oriented approaches are supported by the integration of advanced imaging techniques, e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance, with gross anatomy imaging. The interscapular region of the cat is a typical site of a highly invasive infiltrative pathology, i.e. Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma. Even if chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been considered as pre-surgical therapies, extensive surgery is still the recommended treatment. Evidence suggested that the relationships between muscles, infiltrative mass and adjacent musculoskeletal structures could change according to the forelimb positions: a fact to be duly considered while planning the surgical approach...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053301/pathophysiology-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-new-understanding-in-a-new-era
#13
REVIEW
T V K Herregods, A J Bredenoord, A J P M Smout
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has increased in the last decades and it is now one of the most common chronic diseases. Throughout time our insight in the pathophysiology of GERD has been characterized by remarkable back and forth swings, often prompted by new investigational techniques. Even today, the pathophysiology of GERD is not fully understood but it is now recognized to be a multifactorial disease. Among the factors that have been shown to be involved in the provocation or increase of reflux, are sliding hiatus hernia, low lower esophageal sphincter pressure, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, the acid pocket, obesity, increased distensibility of the esophagogastric junction, prolonged esophageal clearance, and delayed gastric emptying...
September 2015: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25992068/ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials
#14
Lilian Felipe, Herman Kingma
Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research...
January 2014: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25923980/sensorimotor-transformation-via-sparse-coding
#15
Ken Takiyama
Sensorimotor transformation is indispensable to the accurate motion of the human body in daily life. For instance, when we grasp an object, the distance from our hands to an object needs to be calculated by integrating multisensory inputs, and our motor system needs to appropriately activate the arm and hand muscles to minimize the distance. The sensorimotor transformation is implemented in our neural systems, and recent advances in measurement techniques have revealed an important property of neural systems: a small percentage of neurons exhibits extensive activity while a large percentage shows little activity, i...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25663551/organ-sparing-and-clinical-outcome-with-step-and-shoot-imrt-for-head-and-neck-cancer-a-mono-institutional-experience
#16
Rosario Mazzola, Giuseppe Ferrera, Filippo Alongi, Mariella Mannino, Boris Abbate, Teresa Cucchiara, Giuseppina Iacoviello, Francesco Sciumè, Gioacchino Di Paola, Manuela Federico, Livio Blasi, Antonio Lo Casto, Roberto Lagalla, Domenico Messana
PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy has been suggested as the technique of choice for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. In the last decade, most radiotherapy departments have focused their efforts in programs to implement this technique. We report our experience for parotid gland and constrictor muscle sparing with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer using a step-and-shoot technique. METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx treated between June 2008 and June 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
August 2015: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25658424/monitoring-radiofrequency-ablation-using-real-time-ultrasound-nakagami-imaging-combined-with-frequency-and-temporal-compounding-techniques
#17
Zhuhuang Zhou, Shuicai Wu, Chiao-Yin Wang, Hsiang-Yang Ma, Chung-Chih Lin, Po-Hsiang Tsui
Gas bubbles induced during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tissues can affect the detection of ablation zones (necrosis zone or thermal lesion) during ultrasound elastography. To resolve this problem, our previous study proposed ultrasound Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal-induced bubble formation to evaluate ablation zones. To prepare for future applications, this study (i) created a novel algorithmic scheme based on the frequency and temporal compounding of Nakagami imaging for enhanced ablation zone visualization, (ii) integrated the proposed algorithm into a clinical scanner to develop a real-time Nakagami imaging system for monitoring RFA, and (iii) investigated the applicability of Nakagami imaging to various types of tissues...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25610835/clinical-and-molecular-classification-of-cardiomyopathies
#18
REVIEW
Franco Cecchi, Benedetta Tomberli, Iacopo Olivotto
The term "cardiomyopathies" was used for the first time 55 years ago, in 1957. Since then awareness and knowledge of this important and complex group of heart muscle diseases have improved substantially. Over these past five decades a large number of definitions, nomenclature and schemes, have been advanced by experts and consensus panel, which reflect the fast and continued advance of the scientific understanding in the field. Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of inherited myocardial diseases, which represent an important cause of disability and adverse outcome...
2012: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25549186/rational-design-and-engineering-of-a-modified-adeno-associated-virus-aav1-based-vector-system-for-enhanced-retrograde-gene-delivery
#19
Adam S Davis, Thais Federici, William C Ray, Nicholas M Boulis, Deirdre OʼConnor, K Reed Clark, Jeffrey S Bartlett
BACKGROUND: After injection into muscle and peripheral nerves, a variety of viral vectors undergo retrograde transport to lower motor neurons. However, because of its attractive safety profile and durable gene expression, adeno-associated virus (AAV) remains the only vector to have been applied to the human nervous system for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Nonetheless, only a very small fraction of intramuscularly injected AAV vector arrives at the spinal cord. OBJECTIVE: To engineer a novel AAV vector by inserting a neuronal targeting peptide (Tet1), with binding properties similar to those of tetanus toxin, into the AAV1 capsid...
February 2015: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25487963/segmentation-of-tongue-muscles-from-super-resolution-magnetic-resonance-images
#20
Bulat Ibragimov, Jerry L Prince, Emi Z Murano, Jonghye Woo, Maureen Stone, Boštjan Likar, Franjo Pernuš, Tomaž Vrtovec
Imaging and quantification of tongue anatomy is helpful in surgical planning, post-operative rehabilitation of tongue cancer patients, and studying of how humans adapt and learn new strategies for breathing, swallowing and speaking to compensate for changes in function caused by disease, medical interventions or aging. In vivo acquisition of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) images with clearly visible tongue muscles is currently not feasible because of breathing and involuntary swallowing motions that occur over lengthy imaging times...
February 2015: Medical Image Analysis
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