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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353280/microstructure-of-strategic-white-matter-tracts-and-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-vascular-brain-injury
#1
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Alexander Leemans, Hanna den Bakker, Marco Duering, Benno Gesierich, Huiberdina L Koek, Esther van den Berg, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: White matter injury is an important factor for cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients. We determined the added value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of strategic white matter tracts in explaining variance in cognition in memory clinic patients with vascular brain injury. METHODS: We included 159 patients. Conventional MRI markers (white matter hyperintensity volume, lacunes, nonlacunar infarcts, brain atrophy, and microbleeds), and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) of the whole brain white matter and of 18 white matter tracts were related to cognition using linear regression and Bayesian network analysis...
January 19, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353214/effects-of-poor-sleep-quality-on-brain-functional-connectivity-revealed-by-wavelet-based-coherence-analysis-using-nirs-methods-in-elderly-subjects
#2
Lingguo Bu, Dawei Wang, Congcong Huo, Gongcheng Xu, Zengyong Li, Jianfeng Li
OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep quality, which is typically related to impairments in cognitive control, is pervasive among the elderly. However, the brain function mechanisms underlying the association between sleep and elderly behavior remain elusive. This study aims to assess the effects of poor sleep quality on low-frequency neural oscillations based on the wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) and wavelet amplitude (WA) of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes (Delta [HbO2]) measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353213/multiple-cortical-thickness-sub-networks-and-cognitive-impairments-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-late-life-depression-a-graph-theory-analysis
#3
Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Yu Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim, Joon-Kyung Seong
BACKGROUND: Coordinated and pattern-wise changes in large scale gray matter structural networks reflect neural circuitry dysfunction in late life depression (LLD), which in turn is associated with emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments. However, due to methodological limitations, there have been few attempts made to identify individual-level structural network properties or sub-networks that are involved in important brain functions in LLD. METHODS: In this study, we sought to construct individual-level gray matter structural networks using average cortical thicknesses of several brain areas to investigate the characteristics of the gray matter structural networks in normal controls and LLD patients...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353101/amyloid-pathology-in-the-progression-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Philip S Insel, Oskar Hansson, R Scott Mackin, Michael Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
The objective of this study was to determine the cognitive and functional decline and development of brain injury in individuals progressing from preclinical (β-amyloid positive cognitively normal) to prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), and compare this with individuals who progress to MCI in the absence of significant amyloid pathology. Seventy-five cognitively healthy participants who progressed to MCI were followed for 4 years on average and up to 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353053/conditional-inactivation-of-npy1r-gene-in-mice-induces-behavioural-inflexibility-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-hyperactivity-that-are-reversed-by-escitalopram
#5
Angela Longo, Melissa Fadda, Claudio Brasso, Paolo Mele, Paola Palanza, Ishira Nanavaty, Ilaria Bertocchi, Alessandra Oberto, Carola Eva
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to rapidly adapt established patterns of behaviour in the face of changing circumstance and depends critically on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Impaired flexibility also results from altered serotonin transmission in the OFC. The Y1 (Y1R) and Y5 (Y5R) receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY) colocalize in several brain regions and have overlapping functions in regulating cognition and emotional behaviour. The targeted disruption of gene encoding Y1R (Npy1r gene) in Y5R containing neurons (Npy1rY5R-/- mice) increases anxiety-like behaviour and spatial reference memory...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353052/evidence-for-altered-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Chelsea M Griffith, Tore Eid, Gregory M Rose, Peter R Patrylo
Epidemiological data have shown that metabolic disease can increase the propensity for developing cognitive decline and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this interaction is not completely understood, clinical studies suggest that both hyper- and hypoinsulinemia are associated with an increased risk for developing AD. Indeed, insulin signaling is altered in post-mortem brain tissue from AD patients and treatments known to enhance insulin signaling, can improve cognitive function. Further, clinical evidence has shown that AD patients and mouse models of AD often display alterations in peripheral metabolism...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#7
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352445/effect-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-brain-is-mediated-by-lncrna-hotair
#8
Jian-Yue Wang, Yong Feng, Yan-Hong Fu, Guang-Li Liu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients has been related to neurodegenerative disorders and mortality. Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages of using inhaled anesthetics like sevoflurane, it is important to understand how their usage results in neurotoxicity and subsequently devise ways to circumvent or attenuate the anesthetic-mediated induction in neurotoxicity. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are a group of > 200 bp long RNAs and show specific spatiotemporal expression profiles...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352051/long-term-cognitive-functioning-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumor-survivors
#9
Michal Chovanec, Lucia Vasilkova, Lucia Setteyova, Jana Obertova, Patrik Palacka, Katarina Rejlekova, Zuzana Sycova-Mila, Katarina Kalavska, Daniela Svetlovska, Silvia Cingelova, Beata Mladosievicova, Jozef Mardiak, Michal Mego
BACKGROUND: Treatment for cancer may lead to development of cognitive difficulties in cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate long-term cognitive functioning (CogF) in germ-cell tumor (GCT) survivors. Subjects, Materials, and Methods. GCT survivors (n = 155) from the National Cancer Institute of Slovakia completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognitive Function at a median of 10 years of follow-up (range: 5-32). The study group consisted of survivors receiving a cisplatin-based chemotherapy, radiotherapy to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, or both, whereas the control group included survivors treated with orchiectomy only...
January 19, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351872/low-cortical-iron-and-high-entorhinal-cortex-volume-promote-cognitive-functioning-in-the-oldest-old
#10
Jiri M G van Bergen, Xu Li, Frances C Quevenco, Anton F Gietl, Valerie Treyer, Sandra E Leh, Rafael Meyer, Alfred Buck, Philipp A Kaufmann, Roger M Nitsch, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Paul G Unschuld
The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351791/efficacy-of-electrical-acupuncture-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-with-no-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Tian Li, Huangan Wu, Franscisca Soto-Aguliar, Li Huang, Wentao Li, Lixing Lao, Shifen Xu
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND), manifested mainly as mild impairment of concentration and executive function, is the early phase of vascular dementia (VD). Currently, there is no specific treatment for VCIND. We hypothesize that electrical acupuncture can improve the mental and motor functions of patients with VCIND. Thus, we designed this randomized controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing the therapeutic effect of electrical acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in patients with VCIND...
January 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351787/scl20a2-mutation-presenting-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-case-report
#12
Xiaoyu Zhang, Gaoting Ma, Zhangning Zhao, Meijia Zhu
BACKGROUND: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare disorder characterized by distinctive bilateral brain calcification and variable clinical presentations. However, cerebrovascular attack was rarely reported in PFBC patients. We here reported a SLC20A2 mutation patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56 years old man was transferred to our hospital because of 6 days of melena and 3 days of somnolence, agitation and mood changes...
January 19, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351469/inhibition-of-mtor-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Angela B Olson, Naomi L Sayre, Stacy A Hussong, Zoltan I Ungvari, James D Lechleiter, Veronica Galvan
An intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic blood-derived factors into the brain parenchyma. The BBB is damaged in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which contributes significantly to the progression of AD pathologies and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB breakdown in AD remain elusive and no interventions are available for treatment or prevention. We and others recently established that inhibition of the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway with rapamycin yields significant neuroprotective effects, improving cerebrovascular and cognitive function in mouse models of AD...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350556/rehabilitation-of-a-young-athlete-with-extension-based-low-back-pain-addressing-motor-control-impairments-and-central-sensitization
#14
John J Winslow, Mark Jackson, Andrew Getzin, Michael Costello
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the conservative management of a young athlete with extension-based (EB) low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND:   We present the case of a 15-year-old female high school gymnast with a 4-year history of EB LBP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a healed spondylolysis and significant lumbar multifidi muscle (LMM) atrophy with fatty infiltrate. She had several courses of outpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation that focused on core muscle strengthening (improving activation and strength of the LMM and transversus abdominus muscle in a neutral pelvic position) without long-lasting improvement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350337/baseline-neurocognitive-functioning-predicts-viral-load-suppression-at-1-year-follow-up-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-patients
#15
Lokesh Shahani, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun
The current prospective observational study evaluated the impact of baseline neurocognitive impairment on future viral load suppression among antiretroviral medication naive persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score less than 26, to identify patients with neurocognitive deficits. Of the 138 patients enrolled; virologic suppression was seen in 61% of the participants, while 72% of the participants had a MoCA score less than 26 at baseline. Variables significantly associated with low MoCA score included higher age (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350085/divergent-classification-methods-of-post-concussion-syndrome-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-prevalence-rates-risk-factors-and-functional-outcome
#16
Daphne Cloë Voormolen, Maryse C Cnossen, Suzanne Polinder, Nicole von Steinbuechel, Pieter E Vos, Juanita Antje Haagsma
Mild Traumatic Brian Injury (mTBI) is a common diagnosis and approximately one third of mTBI patients experience a variety of cognitive, emotional, psychosocial and behavioral post-concussion symptoms. When a cluster of these symptoms persists for more than three months they are often classified as post-concussion syndrome (PCS). The objective of this study was to determine prevalence rates, risk factors and functional outcome associated with PCS six months after mTBI applying divergent classification methods...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348624/soy-food-and-isoflavone-intake-reduces-the-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-in-elderly-japanese-women
#17
Mariko Nakamoto, Rei Otsuka, Yukiko Nishita, Chikako Tange, Makiko Tomida, Yuki Kato, Tomoko Imai, Tohru Sakai, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 403 men and 373 women aged 60-81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study at least once. Bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSE scores of ≤23 were used to define cognitive impairment. The relationship between bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake and cognitive impairment was assessed using a generalized estimating equation...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348374/-neurologic-abnormalities-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-review
#18
Anthony L Komaroff, Ryosuke Takahashi, Takashi Yamamura, Masanori Sawamura
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an illness characterized by fatigue lasting for at least six months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive impairment and orthostatic intolerance. ME/CFS has been a controversial illness because it is defined exclusively by subjective complaints. However, recent studies of neuroimaging as well as analysis of blood markers, energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have revealed many objective biological abnormalities. Specifically, it is suspected that the symptoms of ME/CFS may be triggered by immune activation - either inside or outside the brain - through release of inflammatory cytokines...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348039/face-processing-measures-of-social-cognition-a%C3%A2-dimensional-approach-to-developmental-psychopathology
#19
Raquel E Gur, Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Social cognition impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders impact functioning. Face processing is the most extensively studied aspect of social cognition, commonly indexing this construct in neuropsychiatric disorders compared with typically developing youths. Applying social cognition measures as a Research Domain Criteria concept in the clinical arena requires establishing cutoffs for intervention and identifying vulnerability for psychopathology across disorders. This can be accomplished by comparing extreme performers across multiple clinical symptom features...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347865/the-influence-of-multimorbidity-on-leading-causes-of-death-in-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairment
#20
Nicholas K Schiltz, David F Warner, Jiayang Sun, Kathleen A Smyth, Stefan Gravenstein, Kurt C Stange, Siran M Koroukian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of leading causes of death with gradients of cognitive impairment and multimorbidity. METHOD: This is a population-based study using data from the linked 1992-2010 Health and Retirement Study and National Death Index ( n = 9,691). Multimorbidity is defined as a combination of chronic conditions, functional limitations, and geriatric syndromes. Regression trees and Random Forest identified which combinations of multimorbidity associated with causes of death...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
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