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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150233/management-of-first-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-episode-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-systematic-metareview
#2
Damien Driot, Michel Bismuth, Adrien Maurel, Julie Soulie-Albouy, Jordan Birebent, Stéphane Oustric, Julie Dupouy
CONTEXT: General Practitioners (GPs) are the leading antidepressants prescribers in Europe and in France. Difficulties in implementing existing recommendations in daily practice have been described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elaborate two algorithms to guide GPs in the patient management for a first major depressive disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) episode in primary care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were explored using mainly the following keywords: depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, antidepressive agents or antidepressant...
November 14, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150139/visual-working-memory-performance-in-aphantasia
#3
Christianne Jacobs, Dietrich S Schwarzkopf, Juha Silvanto
Aphantasia, i.e., the congenital inability to experience voluntary mental imagery, offers a new model for studying the functional role of mental imagery in (visual) cognition. However, until now, there have been no studies investigating whether aphantasia can be linked to specific impairments in cognitive functioning. Here, we assess visual working memory performance in an aphantasic individual. We find that she performs significantly worse than controls on the most difficult (i.e., requiring the highest degree of precision) visual working memory trials...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149906/forebrain-specific-conditional-silencing-of-staufen2-alters-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#4
Stefan M Berger, Iván Fernández-Lamo, Kai Schönig, Sandra M Fernández Moya, Janina Ehses, Rico Schieweck, Stefano Clementi, Thomas Enkel, Sascha Grothe, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Inmaculada Segura, José María Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart, Michael A Kiebler, Dusan Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Dendritic messenger RNA (mRNA) localization and subsequent local translation in dendrites critically contributes to synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Little is known, however, about the contribution of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to these processes in vivo. RESULTS: To delineate the role of the double-stranded RBP Staufen2 (Stau2), we generate a transgenic rat model, in which Stau2 expression is conditionally silenced by Cre-inducible expression of a microRNA (miRNA) targeting Stau2 mRNA in adult forebrain neurons...
November 17, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149901/development-and-exploration-of-the-content-validity-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-migraine-the-migraine-physical-function-impact-diary-mpfid
#5
Asha Hareendran, Sally Mannix, Anne Skalicky, Martha Bayliss, Andrew Blumenfeld, Dawn C Buse, Pooja R Desai, Brian G Ortmeier, Sandhya Sapra
BACKGROUND: Adults with migraine experience substantial reductions in quality of life during and in-between migraine attacks. Clinical and regulatory guidelines encourage the inclusion of patient reported outcomes for the evaluation of benefits of interventions for migraine. METHODS: The conceptual framework and items for a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary (MPFID), were developed using scientific methods recommended to ensure content validity of PRO instruments...
November 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149717/usefulness-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-to-monitor-cognitive-impairments-in-depressed-patients-receiving-electroconvulsive-therapy
#6
Rémi Moirand, Filipe Galvao, Maxime Lecompte, Emmanuel Poulet, Frédéric Haesebaert, Jerome Brunelin
There is a lack of consensual tools for evaluating the cognitive side-effects in patients with depression who are treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to monitor cognitive changes in patients with depression receiving ECT. Cognitive functioning was assessed prospectively in 48 patients with unipolar or bipolar depression before and after an ECT course...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149177/new-brain-lesions-with-no-impact-on-physical-disability-can-impact-cognition-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-a-ten-year-longitudinal-study
#8
D Wybrecht, F Reuter, F Pariollaud, W Zaaraoui, A Le Troter, A Rico, S Confort-Gouny, E Soulier, M Guye, A Maarouf, J-P Ranjeva, J Pelletier, B Audoin
OBJECTIVE: In early multiple sclerosis, although brain T2 lesions accrual are hallmark of the disease, only weak correlations were found between T2 lesions accrual and EDSS progression, the disability scale commonly used in multiple sclerosis studies. This may be related to the very poor sensitivity of EDSS to cognitive dysfunctions that may occur and progress from the first stage of the disease. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate that cognitive deficits progress during the first ten years of MS and are significantly impacted by new T2 lesions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148855/effects-of-virtual-reality-based-training-with-bts-nirvana-on-functional-recovery-in-stroke-patients-preliminary-considerations
#9
Rosaria De Luca, Margherita Russo, Antonino Naro, Provvidenza Tomasello, Simona Leonardi, Floriana Santamaria, Latella Desireè, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Silvestri, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
AIM OF THE STUDY: cognitive impairment occurs frequently in post-stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of a virtual reality training (VRT) with BTs-Nirvana (BTsN) on the recovery of cognitive functions in stroke patients, using the Interactive-Semi-Immersive Program (I-SIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 12 subjects (randomly divided into two groups: experimental group -EG; and control group -CG), who attended the Laboratory of Robotic and Cognitive Rehabilitation of IRCCS Neurolesi of Messina from January to June 2016...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148076/subjective-cognitive-complaints-psychosocial-factors-and-nursing-work-function-in-nurses-providing-direct-patient-care
#10
Tammy Barbe, Laura P Kimble, Cynthia Rubenstein
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care. BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is a critical component for nurses in the assurance of error prevention, identification and correction when caring for patients. Negative changes in nurses' cognitive and psychosocial functioning can adversely affect nursing care and patient outcomes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147958/ginsenoside-rg1-decreases-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-akt-mtor-signalling-to-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-in-mice-and-senescence-of-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-d-galactose
#11
Linbo Chen, Hui Yao, Xiongbin Chen, Ziling Wang, Yue Xiang, Jieyu Xia, Ying Liu, Yaping Wang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a pivotal role in learning and memory. The suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an increase of oxidative stress is closely related to cognitive impairment. Neural stem cells which persist in the adult vertebrate brain keep up the production of neurons over the lifespan. The balance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants is important for function and surviving of neural stem cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most active components of Panax ginseng, and many studies suggest that ginsenosides have antioxidant properties...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#12
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147148/the-effects-of-depression-anxiety-and-sleep-disturbances-on-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
Yesim Güzey Aras, Abdülkadir Tunç, Belma Doğan Güngen, Adil Can Güngen, Yusuf Aydemir, Bekir Enes Demiyürek
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances on cognitive functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. In this prospective case-control study, demographic data, smoking history, depression, anxiety, sleep quality and cognitive status of 48 COPD patients and 36 healthy volunteers aged 40-90 years were recorded. The Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to assess depression, anxiety and sleep quality, respectively in COPD patients...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146572/cognitive-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-following-birth-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Dieter Wolke, Helen O'Reilly, Joan K Morris, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Neil Marlow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trajectory of cognitive test scores from infancy to adulthood in individuals born extremely preterm compared with term-born individuals. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: 276 maternity units in the UK and Ireland. PATIENTS: 315 surviving infants born less than 26 completed weeks of gestation recruited at birth in 1995 and 160 term-born classroom controls recruited at age 6...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146299/functional-connectivity-during-affective-mentalizing-in-criminal-offenders-with-psychotic-disorders-associations-with-clinical-symptoms
#15
Carla L Harenski, Vince D Calhoun, Juan R Bustillo, Brian W Haas, Jean Decety, Keith A Harenski, Michael F Caldwell, Gregory J Van Rybroek, Michael Koenigs, David M Thornton, Kent A Kiehl
Psychotic disorders are associated with neurobehavioral impairments in mental state attribution (mentalizing). These impairments are most severe in psychotic patients with elevated symptom levels, particularly negative and cognitive symptoms. There have been few studies of functional connectivity related to mentalizing in psychotic disorders and associations with symptoms. We conducted a functional MRI study of affective mentalizing in individuals with psychotic disorders and varying symptom levels (positive, negative, cognitive)...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145913/goal-setting-deficits-at-13-years-in-very-preterm-born-children
#16
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Rachel Ellis, Alice C Burnett, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Preterm children demonstrate deficits in executive functions including inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility; however, their goal setting abilities (planning, organization, strategic reasoning) remain unclear. This study compared goal setting abilities between very preterm (VP: <30 weeks/<1250 grams) and term born controls during late childhood. Additionally, early risk factors (neonatal brain abnormalities, medical complications, and sex) were examined in relationship to goal setting outcomes within the VP group...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145207/determinants-prevalence-and-trajectory-of-long-term-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-results-from-a-4-year-follow-up-of-the-auckland-stroke-regional-outcomes-study-iv-study
#17
Susan Mahon, Priya Parmar, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Rita Krishnamurthi, Kelly Jones, Alice Theadom, Valery Feigin
BACKGROUND: The long-term (>12 months) prevalence, predictors, and trajectory of post-stroke cognitive deficits are not well established, especially at a community level. This study investigated the longitudinal course and prevalence of cognitive impairment in an incidence cohort, identifying factors associated with declining cognition. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-seven participants (mean age = 67.93 ± 13.59) of first-ever stroke survivors, completed cognitive assessments within 2 weeks post stroke, and/or 1, 6, 12, and 48-month...
November 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145205/decline-in-search-speed-and-verbal-memory-over-26-years-of-midlife-in-a-british-birth-cohort
#18
Daniel Davis, Rebecca Bendayan, Graciela Muniz Terrera, Rebecca Hardy, Marcus Richards, Diana Kuh
BACKGROUND: Cognitive capabilities change in later life, although their onset and rate of decline, and how they are shaped by lifetime socioeconomic position, childhood cognition and adult health status are all unclear. METHODS: From the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, we analysed 3,192 participants undergoing one or more cognitive assessments at ages 43, 53, 60-64 and 69. Linear mixed models described cognitive trajectories, adjusting for factors across the life course...
November 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144220/is-low-cognitive-functioning-a-predictor-or-consequence-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-test-in-two-longitudinal-birth-cohorts
#19
Jonathan D Schaefer, Matthew A Scult, Avshalom Caspi, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Ahmad R Hariri, Honalee Harrington, Renate Houts, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E Moffitt
Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested two theories regarding the association between MDD and cognitive functioning using data from longitudinal cohort studies. One theory, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, suggests that higher cognitive ability in childhood decreases risk of later MDD. The second, the scarring hypothesis, instead suggests that MDD leads to persistent cognitive deficits following disorder onset. We tested both theories in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative cohort followed from birth to midlife and assessed repeatedly for both cognitive functioning and psychopathology...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#20
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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