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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340321/exploring-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-functional-verbal-reasoning-in-adults-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-at-six-months-post-injury
#1
Petra Avramović, Belinda Kenny, Emma Power, Skye McDonald, Robyn Tate, Louise Hunt, Sheila MacDonald, Rob Heard, Leanne Togher
OBJECTIVE(S): This study aims to determine the association between cognitive impairment and functional verbal reasoning in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), at six months post-injury. METHOD(S): 38 participants with severe TBI were assessed using the four tasks on the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES) [1] and a battery of neuropsychological tests at 6 months post injury in a cross-sectional observational study...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340167/factors-influencing-cognitive-impairment-in-neuropathic-and-musculoskeletal-pain-and-fibromyalgia
#2
Begoña Ojeda, María Dueñas, Alejandro Salazar, Juan Antonio Mico, Luis Miguel Torres, Inmaculada Failde
Objective.:  To assess cognitive performance of chronic pain (CP) patients diagnosed with three types of pain-neuropathic pain (NP), musculoskeletal (MSK), and fibromyalgia (FM)-and to analyze the factors influencing cognitive difficulties in each group. Methods.:  Two hundred fifty-four CP patients-104 NP, 99 MSK, 51 FM-and 72 pain-free subjects were included in the study. The "Test Your Memory" (TYM) scale was used to assess cognitive performance. Pain intensity was measured by means of the visual analog scale (VAS); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale was used to assess mental status, and the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) sleep scale to assess sleep quality...
March 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339416/improving-vocational-outcomes-in-first-episode-psychosis-by-addressing-cognitive-impairments-using-cognitive-adaptation-training
#3
Kelly A Allott, Eoin Killackey, Pamela Sun, Warrick J Brewer, Dawn I Velligan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) uses compensatory strategies and environmental supports to support cognitive impairments and improve functioning. CAT may be useful for addressing vocational recovery in first-episode psychosis (FEP) because cognitive impairments are common and vocational recovery is a key goal of young people with FEP. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical observations and practice experience when delivering CAT with FEP clients and explore potential benefits via objective outcome measures for improving vocational outcomes...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339397/cognitive-status-gray-matter-atrophy-and-lower-orthostatic-blood-pressure-in-older-adults
#4
Celia O'Hare, Rose-Anne Kenny, Howard Aizenstein, Robert Boudreau, Anne Newman, Lenore Launer, Suzanne Satterfield, Kristine Yaffe, Caterina Rosano
BACKGROUND: Associations between orthostatic blood pressure and cognitive status (CS) have been described with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that long-term exposure to lower orthostatic blood pressure is related to having worse CS later in life and that atrophy of regions involved in central regulation of autonomic function mediate these associations. METHODS: Three-to-four measures of orthostatic blood pressure were obtained from 1997-2003 in a longitudinal cohort of aging, and average systolic orthostatic blood pressure response (ASOBPR) was computed as % change in systolic blood pressure from sit-to-stand measured at one minute post stand...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#5
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334883/selective-impairment-of-hippocampus-and-posterior-hub-areas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-an-meg-based-multiplex-network-study
#6
Meichen Yu, Marjolein M A Engels, Arjan Hillebrand, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Charlotte Teunissen, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Cornelis J Stam
Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334749/ctg-repeat-targeting-oligonucleotides-for-down-regulating-huntingtin-expression
#7
Eman M Zaghloul, Olof Gissberg, Pedro M D Moreno, Lee Siggens, Mattias Hällbrink, Anna S Jørgensen, Karl Ekwall, Rula Zain, Jesper Wengel, Karin E Lundin, C I Edvard Smith
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disorder in which patients suffer from mobility, psychological and cognitive impairments. Existing therapeutics are only symptomatic and do not significantly alter the disease progression or increase life expectancy. HD is caused by expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat region in exon 1 of the Huntingtin gene (HTT), leading to the formation of mutant HTT transcripts (muHTT). The toxic gain-of-function of muHTT protein is a major cause of the disease...
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334403/cognitive-estimation-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Federica Scarpina, Alessandro Mauro, Guido E D'Aniello, Giovani Albani, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Erika Ambiel, Sarah E MacPherson
Objective: The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used in clinical and research settings to assess the ability to produce reasonable estimates to items that individuals would not know that the exact answer (e.g., "How fast do race horses run?"). We examined the performance of non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients on the CET, because previous studies reported heterogeneous results about possible cognitive estimation impairments in PD. We also examined whether PD patients improve their performance if given the chance to reconsider their initial CET responses...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334392/validation-of-the-nih-toolbox-in-individuals-with-neurologic-disorders
#9
N E Carlozzi, S Goodnight, K B Casaletto, A Goldsmith, R K Heaton, A W K Wong, C M Baum, R Gershon, A W Heinemann, D S Tulsky
Objective: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke experience a variety of neurologically related deficits across multiple domains of function. The NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) examines motor, sensation, cognition, and emotional functioning. The purpose of this paper is to establish the validity of the NIHTB in individuals with neurologic conditions. Methods: Community-dwelling individuals with SCI (n = 209), TBI (n = 184), or stroke (n = 211) completed the NIHTB...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334378/patterns-of-false-memory-in-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#10
I-Wen Chen, Chiung-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Mau-Sun Hua
Objective: Increased false memory recognition in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) has been widely reported; however, the underlying memory constructive processes remain unclear. The present study explored gist memory, item-specific memory, and monitoring ability in patients with HD. Method: Twenty-five patients (including 13 patients with mild HD and 12 patients with moderate-to-severe HD) and 30 healthy comparison participants (HC) were recruited. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to investigate participants' false recognition patterns, along with neuropsychological tests to assess general cognitive function...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334244/cognitive-screening-tests-versus-comprehensive-neuropsychological-test-batteries-a-national-academy-of-neuropsychology-education-paper%C3%A2
#11
Tresa M Roebuck-Spencer, Tannahill Glen, Antonio E Puente, Robert L Denney, Ronald M Ruff, Gayle Hostetter, Kevin J Bianchini
The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334170/multiple-types-of-memory-and-everyday-functional-assessment-in-older-adults
#12
Jenna Beaver, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objective: Current proxy measures for assessing everyday functioning (e.g., questionnaires, performance-based measures, and direct observation) show discrepancies in their rating of functional status. The present study investigated the relationship between multiple proxy measures of functional status and content memory (i.e., memory for information), temporal order memory, and prospective memory in an older adult sample. Method: A total of 197 community-dwelling older adults who did (n = 45) or did not meet (n = 152) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), completed six different assessments of functional status (two questionnaires, two performance-based tasks, and two direct observation tasks) as well as experimental measures of content memory, prospective memory, and temporal order memory...
February 23, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334149/higher-striatal-iron-concentration-is-linked-to-frontostriatal-underactivation-and-poorer-memory-in-normal-aging
#13
Grégoria Kalpouzos, Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Carmel Heiland, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson, Lars Bäckman
In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#14
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334072/the-lateral-habenula-as-a-relay-of-cortical-information-to-process-working-memory
#15
Victor Mathis, Alexandra Barbelivien, Monique Majchrzak, Chantal Mathis, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Lucas Lecourtier
Working memory is a cognitive ability allowing the temporary storage of information to solve problems or adjust behavior. While working memory is known to mainly depend on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), very few is known about how cortical information are relayed subcortically. By its connectivity, the lateral habenula (lHb) might act as a subcortical relay for cortical information. Indeed, the lHb receives inputs from several mPFC subregions, and recent findings suggest a role for the lHb in online processing of spatial information, a fundamental aspect of working memory...
October 13, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334053/new-insights-of-altered-lipid-profile-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Artuela Çaku, Nabil G Seidah, Audrey Lortie, Nancy Gagné, Patrice Perron, Jean Dubé, Francois Corbin
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency resulting the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Clinical picture is characterized by cognitive impairment associated with a broad spectrum of psychiatric comorbidities including autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Some of these disorders have been associated with lipid abnormalities and lower cholesterol levels. Since lipids are important for neuronal development, we aim to investigate the lipid profile of French Canadian-FXS individuals and to identify the altered components of cholesterol metabolism as well as their association with clinical profile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333946/structural-and-functional-connectional-fingerprints-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#17
Seong-Jin Son, Jonghoon Kim, Hyunjin Park
Regional volume atrophy and functional degeneration are key imaging hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We jointly explored regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity to better characterize neuroimaging data of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). All data were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We compared regional volume atrophy and functional connectivity in 10 subcortical regions using structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333849/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-males-with-sex-chromosome-aneuploidy-xxy-klinefelter-syndrome-xyy-and-xxyy
#18
Nicole R Tartaglia, Rebecca Wilson, Judith S Miller, Jessica Rafalko, Lisa Cordeiro, Shanlee Davis, David Hessl, Judith Ross
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental concerns in males with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) (XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, XXYY) include symptoms seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as language impairments and social difficulties. We aimed to: (1) evaluate ASD characteristics in research cohorts of SCA males under DSM-IV compared to DSM-5 criteria, and (2) analyze factors associated with ASD diagnoses in SCA. METHODS: Evaluation of participants with XXY/KS (n=20), XYY (n=57) and XXYY (n=21) included medical history, cognitive/adaptive testing, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and DSM ASD criteria...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333613/collaborative-management-of-neurocognitive-disorders-in-primary-care-explorations-of-an-attempt-at-culture-change
#19
Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy
INTRODUCTION: Minor neurocognitive disorder (MiND; previously mild cognitive impairment) is a transitional zone between normal cognitive function and early stages of major neurocognitive disorder (previously called dementia). Of people with MiND, 5% to 10% progress to major neurocognitive disorder. Simple interventions such as memory activities, balance exercises, and anti-inflammatory diets have been shown to improve cognitive ability. Also, education and support in group settings have proved beneficial for patients with MiND...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333492/perceptual-and-memory-inhibition-deficits-in-clinically-healthy-older-adults-are-associated-with-region-specific-doubly-dissociable-patterns-of-cortical-thinning
#20
Teal S Eich, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
Converging evidence suggests that the cognitive control processes that enable the inhibition of irrelevant information on a perceptual versus a memorial basis are qualitatively different and are underlain by unique neural systems that may be affected differentially in aging. In the current study, we investigated whether individual differences in performance on these 2 types of inhibitory processes were attributable to region-specific patterns of cortical thinning. Clinically healthy older adults completed a pair of behavioral memory and perceptual inhibition tasks and then underwent structural brain imaging...
March 23, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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