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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679944/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-attenuates-microcystin-lr-induced-apoptosis-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-through-activation-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#1
Jun Shi, Min Zhang, Libin Zhang, Huipin Deng
Our previous study showed that the tea extract, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects against microcystin-LR (MC-LR) -mediated apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); however, the mechanism underlying MC-LR-induced HUVEC apoptosis remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated whether the nuclear factor erythroid-like 2 (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway, which regulates antioxidant transcriptional regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis, is involved in this process...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679926/peripheral-artery-disease-a-micro-rna-related-condition
#2
REVIEW
Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Spyridon Deftereos, Gerasimos Siasos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis and is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many studies have tried to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in PAD. Lately, highly stable circulating small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), seem to have disease-specific expression. Thus, miRNAs are emerging as new measurable diagnostic biomarkers and a start point for individualized treatment. To date, the association of miRNA regulation in angiogenesis and maintenance of vascular integrity in PAD has attracted little interest...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679055/towards-annotating-the-plant-epigenome-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-small-rna-locus-map
#3
Thomas J Hardcastle, Sebastian Y Müller, David C Baulcombe
Based on 98 public and internal small RNA high throughput sequencing libraries, we mapped small RNAs to the genome of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana and defined loci based on their expression using an empirical Bayesian approach. The resulting loci were subsequently classified based on their genetic and epigenetic context as well as their expression properties. We present the results of this classification, which broadly conforms to previously reported divisions between transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing small RNAs, and to PolIV and PolV dependencies...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678959/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-content-in-bioactive-lipid-mediators-more-than-a-sack-of-microrna
#4
Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678924/sirnas-and-pirnas-collaborate-for-transposon-control-in-the-two-spotted-spider-mite
#5
Mosharrof Mondal, Kody Mansfield, Alex Flynt
RNAi has revolutionized genetic research, and is being commercialized as an insect pest control technology. Mechanisms exploited for this purpose are antiviral and therefore rapidly evolving. Ideally, RNAi will also be used for non-insect pests, however, differences in RNAi biology makes this uncertain. Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) is a destructive non-insect pest, which has a proclivity to develop pesticide resistance. Here we provide a comprehensive study of the endogenous RNAi pathways of spider mites to inform design of exogenous RNAi triggers...
April 20, 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678912/characterizing-the-ecology-of-vibrio-in-the-neuse-river-estuary-north-carolina-using-heat-shock-protein-60-hsp60-next-generation-amplicon-sequencing
#6
Kelsey J Jesser, Rachel T Noble
Of marine eubacteria, the genus Vibrio is intriguing because member species are relevant to both marine ecology and human health. Many have touted the relationships of Vibrio to environmental factors, especially temperature and salinity, to predict total Vibrio abundance, but these studies lacked the taxonomic resolution to identify relationships among species and key drivers of Vibrio dynamics. In order to improve NGS surveys of Vibrio, we have conducted both 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and heat shock protein 60 ( hsp60 ) amplicon sequencing of water samples collected at two well-studied locations in the Neuse River Estuary, NC...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678883/ribosome-maturation-by-the-endoribonuclease-ybey-stabilises-a-type-iii-secretion-system-transcript-required-for-virulence-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#7
Sean P McAteer, Brandon M Sy, Julia L Wong, David Tollervey, David L Gally, Jai J Tree
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a significant human pathogen that colonizes humans and its reservoir host, cattle. Colonization requires the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system that injects a cocktail of effector proteins into host cells, to promote bacterial attachment and disease progression. The T3S system is tightly regulated by a complex network of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators. Using transposon mutagenesis, here we identified the ybeZYX-int operon as being required for normal T3S levels...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678826/rna-binding-protein-hur-regulates-scn5a-expression-through-stabilizing-mef2c-transcription-factor-mrna
#8
Anyu Zhou, Guangbin Shi, Gyeoung-Jin Kang, An Xie, Hong Liu, Ning Jiang, Man Liu, Euy-Myoung Jeong, Samuel C Dudley
BACKGROUND: Although transcription is the initial process of gene expression, posttranscriptional gene expression regulation has also played a critical role for fine-tuning gene expression in a fast, precise, and cost-effective manner. Although the regulation of sodium channel α-subunit ( SCN5A ) mRNA expression has been studied at both transcriptional and pre-mRNA splicing levels, the molecular mechanisms governing SCN5A mRNA expression are far from clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Herein, we show that, as evidenced by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation assay, RNA binding protein Hu antigen R/ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR/ELAVL1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2C (MEF2C) transcription factor mRNA are associated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677546/bacitracin-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-stimulating-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-smad-axis
#9
Hui Li, Bin'en Nie, Zhe Du, Shutao Zhang, Teng Long, Bing Yue
Bacitracin, a widely used metallopeptide antibiotic, has been reported to be locally used in treating wounds without systemic adverse reactions. Our preliminary study showed that bacitracin might enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). The present study investigated whether bacitracin affects the osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. The proliferation of HBMSCs in the presence of bacitracin was examined using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677441/homologous-mirna-analyses-using-a-combinatorial-nanosensor-array-with-two-dimensional-nanoparticles
#10
Mustafa Salih Hizir, Nidhi Nandu, Mehmet Veysel Yigit
A novel combinatorial nanosensor array for miRNA analyses was assembled using the intrinsic non-covalent interactions of unmodified two-dimensional nanoparticles. Discrimination of nine miRNA analogs with as little as a single nucleotide difference was demonstrated under four hours. All nine targets were identified simultaneously with 95% confidence. The developed nanotechnology offered identification and quantification of unknown targets with unknown concentration. Discrimination of target mixtures from low-to-high ratios was demonstrated...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677213/ifn-%C3%AE-and-micrornas-are-important-modulators-of-the-pulmonary-innate-immune-response-against-influenza-a-h1n2-infection-in-pigs
#11
Louise Brogaard, Lars E Larsen, Peter M H Heegaard, Christian Anthon, Jan Gorodkin, Ralf Dürrwald, Kerstin Skovgaard
The innate immune system is paramount in the response to and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in non-immune individuals. Known factors include type I and III interferons and antiviral pathogen recognition receptors, and the cascades of antiviral and pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression they induce. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized to participate in post-transcriptional modulation of these responses, but the temporal dynamics of how these players of the antiviral innate immune response collaborate to combat infection remain poorly characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676910/5-phosphorothiolate-dinucleotide-cap-analogs-reagents-for-mrna-modification-and-potent-small-molecular-inhibitors-of-decapping-enzymes
#12
Blazej Andrzej Wojtczak, Pawel J Sikorski, Kaja Fac-Dabrowska, Anna Nowicka, Marcin Warminski, Dorota Kubacka, Elzbieta Nowak, Marcin Nowotny, Joanna Kowalska, Jacek Jemielity
The 5' cap consists of 7-methylguanosine (m7G) linked by a 5'-5'-triphosphate bridge to mRNA and acts as the master regu-lator of mRNA turnover and translation initiation in eukaryotes. Cap analogs that influence mRNA translation and turnover (either as small molecules or as part of an RNA transcript) are valuable tools for studying gene expression, which is often also of therapeutic relevance. Here, we synthesized a series of 15 dinucleotide cap (m7GpppG) analogs containing a 5'-phosphorothiolate (5'-PSL) moiety (i...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676650/the-pluripotency-factor-musashi-2-is-a-novel-target-for-lung-cancer-therapy
#13
Mary R Zhang, Sichuan Xi, Vivek Shukla, Julie A Hong, Haobin Chen, Yin Xiong, R Taylor Ripley, Chuong D Hoang, David S Schrump
Previously we reported that mithramycin represses multiple pathways critical for stem cell signaling and pluripotency in lung cancer cells. This phenomenon coincided with decreased side population fraction and dramatic dose-dependent growth arrest of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot experiments were performed to further examine the effects of mithramycin on stem cell gene expression in lung cancer cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676637/epigenomic-alterations-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells-mediated-by-hookah-and-cigarette-smoke
#14
Yin Xiong, Sichuan Xi, Jigui Shan, Elvin Hekimoglu, Shih-Hsin Hsiao, Mary Zhang, Julie A Hong, Chris Tao, Haobin Chen, R Taylor Ripley, Chuong D Hoang, David S Schrump
RATIONALE: The effects of hookah smoke on respiratory epithelia have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare the effects of hookah tobacco smoke and conventional cigarette smoke on the epigenome and transcriptome of human respiratory epithelia. METHODS: Normal human small airway epithelial cells and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured for 5 days in normal media in the presence or absence of water pipe condensates or cigarette smoke condensates under relevant exposure conditions...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676176/effect-of-mecp2-on-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-extracellular-matrix-production-in-nasal-polyp-derived-fibroblasts
#15
Jae-Min Shin, Ji-Young Um, Seoung-Ae Lee, Il-Ho Park, Soo-Hyung Lee, Heung-Man Lee
Purpose Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), known as a transcriptional regulator, has been suggested to play an important role in myofibroblast differentiation in the lung. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of MeCP2 in transforming growth factor (TGF)- β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs). Methods To identify the expression of MeCP2 in nasal polyp tissues, immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot were performed...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676068/trpv1-blocking-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-a-chronic-asthma-murine-model
#16
Joon Young Choi, Hwa Young Lee, Jung Hur, Kyung Hoon Kim, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee
PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. There is emerging interest in the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in the pathophysiology of asthma. This study examined whether TRPV1 antagonism alleviates asthma features in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged by ovalbumin to develop chronic asthma...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675549/snai1-an-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-transcription-factor-promotes-the-early-phase-of-ocular-neovascularization
#17
Jia-Xing Sun, Tian-Fang Chang, Man-Hong Li, Li-Juan Sun, Xian-Chun Yan, Zi-Yan Yang, Yuan Liu, Wen-Qin Xu, Yang Lv, Jing-Bo Su, Liang Liang, Hua Han, Guo-Rui Dou, Yu-Sheng Wang
Ocular neovascularization is a comprehensive process involved in retinal vascular development and several blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regarded as the master regulator. However, the qualified effect of anti-VEGF therapy reveals that the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly identified. To initialize angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo a phenotype switching to generate highly migratory and invasive cells...
April 19, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675002/mutational-analysis-of-eggplant-latent-viroid-rna-circularization-by-the-eggplant-trna-ligase-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Teresa Cordero, Beltrán Ortolá, José-Antonio Daròs
Eggplant latent viroid (ELVd) is a relatively small non-coding circular RNA that induces asymptomatic infections in eggplants ( Solanum melongena L.). Like other viroid species that belong to the family Avsunviroidae , ELVd contains hammerhead ribozymes in the strands of both polarities that self-cleave RNAs producing terminal 5'-hydroxyl and 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester groups. Available experimental data indicate that ELVd replicates in the chloroplasts of infected cells through a symmetric rolling-circle mechanism, in which RNA circularization is catalyzed by the chloroplastic isoform of the tRNA ligase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674749/analysis-of-microrna-reveals-cleistogamous-and-chasmogamous-floret-divergence-in-dimorphic-plant
#19
Fan Wu, Daiyu Zhang, Blaise Pascal Muvunyi, Qi Yan, Yufei Zhang, Zhuanzhuan Yan, Mingshu Cao, Yanrong Wang, Jiyu Zhang
Cleistogenes songorica, a grass species that exhibits two spatially different type of inflorescence, chastogamy (CH), flowers localized at the top, and cleistogamy (CL) flowers embedded in leaf sheath. This study aimed at dissecting reasons underlying these distinct floral development patterns at morphological and microRNA level. Phenotyping for CH and CL was conducted and four small RNA libraries were constructed from the CH and CL flowers for high-throughput sequencing to identify the differentiated miRNAs...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674665/the-proximal-tubular-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-attenuates-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury-through-akt-pkc-signaling-mediated-ho-1-induction
#20
Hwajin Kim, So Ra Kim, Jihyun Je, Kyuho Jeong, Sooji Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Ki Churl Chang, Sang Won Park
Activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been shown to attenuate excessive inflammation by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines during ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury; however, the underlying kidney-specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The protective action of α7nAChR against renal IR injury was investigated using a selective α7nAChR agonist and antagonist. α7nAChR activation reduced plasma creatinine levels and tubular cell damage, whereas α7nAChR inhibition aggravated the IR-induced phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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