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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329945/-genomic-analysis-of-wenzhou-virus-in-rodents-from-zhejiang-province
#1
K Li, X D Lin, M H Li, M R Wang, X Y Sun, Y Z Zhang
Objective: Arenavirus is a negative single-stranded RNA virus and an important human pathogen, mainly harbored and transmitted by rodents, causing severe diseases, including hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic arenavirus (Wenzhou virus, WENV), the prevalence of WENV in local small rodents was investigated. Methods: By using RT-PCR, WENV was screened in 48 and 156 rodents sampled from Wenzhou and Longquan, respectively. Results: Consequently, WENV was detected in 5 (10...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328082/microrna-488-3p-sensitizes-malignant-melanoma-cells-to-cisplatin-by-targeting-prkdc
#2
Ning Li, Yue Ma, Li Ma, Yu Guan, Liang Ma, Daping Yang
Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in drug resistance in various types of cancers, including malignant melanoma (MM). MiR-488-3p has been reported as a tumor suppressor in several cancers. However, the exact expression patterns of miR-488-3p and the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its role in MM remain largely unknown and require further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-488-3p is significantly down regulated in MM clinical specimens and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-488-3p resulted in markedly increased drug sensitivity of MM cells in vitro and in vivo...
March 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327787/overexpression-of-mir-484-and-mir-744-in-vero-cells-alters-dengue-virus-replication
#3
Juan Camilo Castrillón-Betancur, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
BACKGROUND: Dengue is considered one of the world's most important mosquito-borne diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Although miRNAs possess antiviral activity against many mammalian-infecting viruses, their involvement in Dengue virus (DENV) replication remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of miR-484 and miR-744 in DENV infection and to examine whether DENV infection alters the expression of both miRNAs...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325872/small-rna-mediated-repair-of-uv-induced-dna-lesions-by-the-dna-damage-binding-protein-2-and-argonaute-1
#4
Catherine Schalk, Valérie Cognat, Stéfanie Graindorge, Timothée Vincent, Olivier Voinnet, Jean Molinier
As photosynthetic organisms, plants need to prevent irreversible UV-induced DNA lesions. Through an unbiased, genome-wide approach, we have uncovered a previously unrecognized interplay between Global Genome Repair and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in the recognition of DNA photoproducts, prevalently in intergenic regions. Genetic and biochemical approaches indicate that, upon UV irradiation, the DNA DAMAGE-BINDING PROTEIN 2 (DDB2) and ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1) of Arabidopsis thaliana form a chromatin-bound complex together with 21-nt siRNAs, which likely facilitates recognition of DNA damages in an RNA/DNA complementary strand-specific manner...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325765/caenorhabditis-elegans-rig-i-homolog-mediates-antiviral-rna-interference-downstream-of-dicer-dependent-biogenesis-of-viral-small-interfering-rnas
#5
Stephanie R Coffman, Jinfeng Lu, Xunyang Guo, Jing Zhong, Hongshan Jiang, Gina Broitman-Maduro, Wan-Xiang Li, Rui Lu, Morris Maduro, Shou-Wei Ding
Dicer enzymes process virus-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to initiate specific antiviral defense by related RNA interference (RNAi) pathways in plants, insects, nematodes, and mammals. Antiviral RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans requires Dicer-related helicase 1 (DRH-1), not found in plants and insects but highly homologous to mammalian retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), intracellular viral RNA sensors that trigger innate immunity against RNA virus infection...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325296/an-atelocollagen-coating-for-efficient-local-gene-silencing-by-using-small-interfering-rna
#6
Olivia Koenig, Dimitrios Nothdurft, Nadja Perle, Bernd Neumann, Andreas Behring, Ilka Degenkolbe, Tobias Walker, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Andrea Nolte
In the last decades, many efforts have been made to counteract adverse effects after stenting atherosclerotic coronary arteries. A breakthrough in better vascular wall regeneration was noted in the new era of drug-eluting stents. A novel personalized approach is the development of gene-eluting stents promising an alteration in gene expression involved in regeneration. We investigated a coating system consisting of the polymer atelocollagen (ATCOL) and a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) found on the surface of defective endothelial cells (ECs)...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325295/aptamers-for-cd-antigens-from-cell-profiling-to-activity-modulation
#7
REVIEW
Amin Nozari, Maxim V Berezovski
Nucleic acid-based aptamers are considered to be a promising alternative to antibodies because of their strong and specific binding to diverse targets, fast and inexpensive chemical synthesis, and easy labeling with a fluorescent dye or therapeutic agent. Cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins are among the most popular antigens for aptamers on the cell surface. These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325293/a-pirna-like-small-rna-induces-chemoresistance-to-cisplatin-based-therapy-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Yuyan Wang, Tyler Gable, Mark Z Ma, David Clark, Jun Zhao, Yi Zhang, Wei Liu, Li Mao, Yuping Mei
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although advanced drugs have benefitted patients, therapeutic success has largely been hampered because of rapid development of resistance. Here we report that PIWI-interacting RNA likes (piR-Ls), a novel type of functional sncRNAs, play key roles in chemoresistance to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). piR-L-138 was upregulated upon CDDP-based chemotherapy both in LSCC cells and in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) LSCC models...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325284/type-i-interferons-impede-short-hairpin-rna-mediated-rnai-via-inhibition-of-dicer-mediated-processing-to-small-interfering-rna
#9
Mitsuhiro Machitani, Fuminori Sakurai, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Kosuke Takayama, Masashi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
RNAi by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a powerful tool not only for studying gene functions in various organisms, including mammals, but also for the treatment of severe disorders. However, shRNA-expressing vectors can induce type I interferon (IFN) expression by activation of innate immune responses, leading to off-target effects and unexpected side effects. Several strategies have been developed to prevent type I IFN induction. On the other hand, it has remained unclear whether type I IFNs have effects on shRNA-mediated RNAi...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325283/silencing-of-carbohydrate-sulfotransferase-15-hinders-murine-pulmonary-fibrosis-development
#10
Yoshiro Kai, Koichi Tomoda, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Masahiro Kitabatake, Atsuhiro Nakamura, Toshihiro Ito, Masanori Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kimura
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disorder characterized by interstitial fibrosis, for which no effective treatments are available. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be a mediator, but the specific component of glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPG has not been explored. We show that chondroitin sulfate E-type (CS-E) is involved in fibrogenesis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15) was designed to inhibit CHST15 mRNA and its product, CS-E...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#11
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325145/nanotechnology-as-potential-tool-for-sirna-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Hernán Cortés, Sergio Alcalá-Alcalá, Arturo Ávalos-Fuentes, Nestor Mendoza-Muñoz, David Quintanar-Guerrero, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez, Benjamín Florán
The lack of an outright treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) is a pivotal concern in medicine and has driven the search for novel alternatives for treating the disease. Among the proposed approaches, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy is attracting significant attention as a potential method for the treatment of PD; however, siRNAs delivery possesses potential drawbacks, such as reduced stability in blood circulation and low capacity for reaching the target site. Therefore, siRNA delivery to the brain is a key issue that remains unsolved to date...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324594/polymers-in-the-delivery-of-sirna-for-the-treatment-of-virus-infections
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas Reynolds, Megan Dearnley, Tracey M Hinton
Viral diseases remain a major cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in vaccine and antiviral drug technology, each year over three million people die from a range of viral infections. Predominant viruses include human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, and gastrointestinal and respiratory viruses. Now more than ever, robust, easily mobilised and cost-effective antiviral strategies are needed to combat both known and emerging disease threats. RNA interference and small interfering (si)RNAs were initially hailed as a "magic bullet", due to their ability to inhibit the synthesis of any protein via the degradation of its complementary messenger RNA sequence...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323887/involvement-of-small-g-protein-rhob-in-the-regulation-of-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-by-dexamethasone-in-osteoblastic-cells
#14
Fei Diao, Kangyao Chen, Yan Wang, Yidong Li, Weidong Xu, Jian Lu, Yu-Xia Chen
Long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) results in bone remodeling, which frequently causes osteoporosis and fracture healing retardation because of the abnormality of osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms of GCs' effect on osteoblasts are largely unknown. In this present study, we found that dexamethasone (Dex) could induce the expression of the small G protein, RhoB, in mRNA and protein levels in the osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63. The up-regulation of RhoB mRNA by Dex mainly occurs at posttranscriptional level by increasing its mRNA stability through PI-3K/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323872/expression-maturation-and-turnover-of-drrs-an-unusually-stable-dosr-regulated-small-rna-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Alexandra Moores, Ana B Riesco, Stefan Schwenk, Kristine B Arnvig
Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on the ability to adjust to stresses encountered in a range of host environments, adjustments that require significant changes in gene expression. Small RNAs (sRNAs) play an important role as post-transcriptional regulators of prokaryotic gene expression, where they are associated with stress responses and, in the case of pathogens, adaptation to the host environment. In spite of this, the understanding of M. tuberculosis RNA biology remains limited. Here we have used a DosR-associated sRNA as an example to investigate multiple aspects of mycobacterial RNA biology that are likely to apply to other M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323406/affinity-selection-mass-spectrometry-identifies-a-novel-antibacterial-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#16
Scott S Walker, David Degen, Elliott Nickbarg, Donna Carr, Aileen Soriano, Mihir Baran Mandal, Ronald E Painter, Payal R Sheth, Li Xiao, Xinwei Sher, Nicholas Murgolo, Jing Su, David B Olsen, Richard H Ebright, Katherine Young
The growing prevalence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a significant global threat to human health. Rifampicin, an RNA polymerase-targeting agent, is an important part of the antibacterial armamentarium; however the emergence of resistance requires that it be used against only certain infections and usually in combination with another antibiotic. While rifampicin has significant clinical limitations, it does show that bacterial RNA polymerase can be an effective target for antibacterial intervention...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323069/minicircle-classes-heterogeneity-within-the-tciii-and-tciv-discrete-typing-units-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#17
S Ortiz, G Osorio, A Solari
The taxon Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, is composed of several discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI-TcVI, and Tcbat. The history of the taxon T. cruzi is known, even though several controversial aspects remain as the relationships between TcIII and TcIV. We analyzed cloned T. cruzi stocks pertaining to the seven DTUs by filter hybridization tests of PCR amplicons from minicircle variable regions and kinetoplast DNA probes. Minicircle DNA blots from the cloned stocks and filter hybridization with one TcI, one TcII, one TcV, one TcVI, three TcIII, one TcIV from North America and one TcIV kinetoplast DNA probes from South America revealed minicircle variable region cross-reaction in some T...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322785/puromycin-resistant-lentiviral-control-shrna-vector-plko-1-induces-unexpected-cellular-differentiation-of-p19-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Jyotshna Kanungo
RNA silencing is used as a common method for investigating loss-of-function effects of genes of interest. In mammalian cells, RNA interference (RNAi) or RNA silencing can be achieved by transient siRNA (small or short interfering RNA) transfection or by stable shRNA (short hairpin RNA) systems. Various vectors are used for efficient delivery of shRNA. Lentiviral vectors offer an efficient delivery system for stable and long-term expression of the shRNA in mammalian cells. The widely used lentiviral pLKO.1 plasmid vector is very popular in RNAi studies...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#19
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322247/tricyclic-antidepressants-promote-ceramide-accumulation-to-regulate-collagen-production-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#20
Jennifer Y Chen, Benjamin Newcomb, Chan Zhou, Joshua V Pondick, Sarani Ghoshal, Samuel R York, Daniel L Motola, Nicolas Coant, Jae Kyo Yi, Cungui Mao, Kenneth K Tanabe, Irina Bronova, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Bryan C Fuchs, Yusuf Hannun, Raymond T Chung, Alan C Mullen
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to injury is a key step in hepatic fibrosis, and is characterized by trans-differentiation of quiescent HSCs to HSC myofibroblasts, which secrete extracellular matrix proteins responsible for the fibrotic scar. There are currently no therapies to directly inhibit hepatic fibrosis. We developed a small molecule screen to identify compounds that inactivate human HSC myofibroblasts through the quantification of lipid droplets. We screened 1600 compounds and identified 21 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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