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Intuitive thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#1
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881212/building-machines-that-learn-and-think-like-people
#2
Brenden M Lake, Tomer D Ullman, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Samuel J Gershman
Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it...
November 24, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#3
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
November 16, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859249/feeling-better-when-someone-is-alike-poor-emotion-regulators-profit-from-prosocial-values-and-priming-for-similarities-with-close-others
#4
Monischa B Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, And Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The dispositional inability to self-regulate own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present paper was to examine if high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826268/creativity-and-cognitive-skills-among-millennials-thinking-too-much-and-creating-too-little
#5
Brice Corgnet, Antonio M Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816844/fast-logic-examining-the-time-course-assumption-of-dual-process-theory
#6
Bence Bago, Wim De Neys
Influential dual process models of human thinking posit that reasoners typically produce a fast, intuitive heuristic (i.e., Type-1) response which might subsequently be overridden and corrected by slower, deliberative processing (i.e., Type-2). In this study we directly tested this time course assumption. We used a two response paradigm in which participants have to give an immediate answer and afterwards are allowed extra time before giving a final response. In four experiments we used a range of procedures (e...
November 3, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783704/intuition-and-moral-decision-making-the-effect-of-time-pressure-and-cognitive-load-on-moral-judgment-and-altruistic-behavior
#7
Gustav Tinghög, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Michael Kirchler, Lina Koppel, Daniel Västfjäll
Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking-induced by time pressure and cognitive load-in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782919/the-causes-of-errors-in-clinical-reasoning-cognitive-biases-knowledge-deficits-and-dual-process-thinking
#8
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Sylvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#9
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708659/genetic-diversity-rather-than-cultivar-type-determines-relative-grain-cd-accumulation-in-hybrid-rice
#10
Liang Sun, Xiaxu Xu, Youru Jiang, Qihong Zhu, Fei Yang, Jieqiang Zhou, Yuanzhu Yang, Zhiyuan Huang, Aihong Li, Lianghui Chen, Wenbang Tang, Guoyu Zhang, Jiurong Wang, Guoying Xiao, Daoyou Huang, Caiyan Chen
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element, and rice is known to be a leading source of dietary Cd for people who consume rice as their main caloric resource. Hybrid rice has dominated rice production in southern China and has been adopted worldwide. The characteristics of high yield heterosis of rice hybrids makes the public think intuitively that the hybrid rice accumulates more Cd in grain than do inbred cultivars. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of grain Cd accumulation in hybrids and developing Cd-safe rice are one of the top priorities for hybrid rice breeders at present...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688437/biostatistics-series-module-5-determining-sample-size
#11
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Determining the appropriate sample size for a study, whatever be its type, is a fundamental aspect of biomedical research. An adequate sample ensures that the study will yield reliable information, regardless of whether the data ultimately suggests a clinically important difference between the interventions or elements being studied. The probability of Type 1 and Type 2 errors, the expected variance in the sample and the effect size are the essential determinants of sample size in interventional studies. Any method for deriving a conclusion from experimental data carries with it some risk of drawing a false conclusion...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665400/is-it-time-to-change-how-we-think-about-incomplete-coronary-revascularization
#12
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Gwyn Beattie, Massimo Chello, Fraser W H Sutherland
The optimal degree of revascularization for patients with chronic multivessel coronary artery disease remains an unsolved issue. Intuitively, complete revascularization decreases cardiovascular events and improves outcomes compared to incomplete procedures, but in recent years the concept of incomplete revascularization moved from a sub-optimal or a defective treatment towards the most appropriate revascularization technique in some categories of patients. A reasonable level of incomplete anatomic revascularization has been shown to be safe and achievable with both percutaneous (PCI) and surgical procedures (CABG), despite with different long-term outcomes...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647899/mechanical-approach-to-chemical-transport
#13
Nikolai Kocherginsky, Martin Gruebele
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes the rates of transport phenomena with the aid of various thermodynamic forces, but often the phenomenological transport coefficients are not known, and the description is not easily connected with equilibrium relations. We present a simple and intuitive model to address these issues. Our model is based on Lagrangian dynamics for chemical systems with dissipation, so one may think of the model as physicochemical mechanics. Using one main equation, the model allows a systematic derivation of all transport and equilibrium equations, subject to the limitation that heat generated or absorbed in the system must be small for the model to be valid...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596808/non-symbolic-approximate-arithmetic-training-improves-math-performance-in-preschoolers
#14
Joonkoo Park, Vanessa Bermudez, Rachel C Roberts, Elizabeth M Brannon
Math proficiency at early school age is an important predictor of later academic achievement. Thus, an important goal for society should be to improve math readiness in preschool-age children, especially in low-income children who typically arrive in kindergarten with less mathematical competency than their higher income peers. The majority of existing research-based math intervention programs target symbolic verbal number concepts in young children. However, very little attention has been paid to the preverbal intuitive ability to approximately represent numerical quantity, which is hypothesized to be an important foundation for full-fledged mathematical thinking...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513305/overcoming-approach-and-withdrawal-habits-approaching-former-enemies-is-easier-than-withdrawing-from-former-friends
#15
Christof Kuhbandner, Julia S Haager
Both everyday intuition and experimental evidence suggest that habits are difficult to change. However, despite the abundance of research, it is unknown whether the ease of habit breaking differs with respect to the most elementary forms of behavior, approach versus withdrawal. In the present study, we addressed this question by monitoring the formation and overriding of approach and withdrawal habits. In an initial habit-formation phase, participants intensely practiced approach or withdrawal behavior to neutral everyday objects (Experiments 1) and emotionally laden persons (Experiment 2) until strong behavioral habits were formed...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499745/incubation-and-intuition-in-creative-problem-solving
#16
Kenneth J Gilhooly
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442764/trust-your-gut-or-think-carefully-examining-whether-an-intuitive-versus-a-systematic-mode-of-thought-produces-greater-empathic-accuracy
#17
Christine Ma-Kellams, Jennifer Lerner
Cultivating successful personal and professional relationships requires the ability to accurately infer the feelings of others-that is, to be empathically accurate. Some are better at this than others, a difference which may be explained in part by mode of thought. Specifically, empathically accurate people may tend to rely more on intuitive rather than systematic thought when perceiving others. Or it may be the reverse: systematic thought may increase empathic accuracy. To determine which view is supported by the evidence, we conducted 4 studies examining relations between mode of thought (intuitive vs...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442037/two-dimensions-of-subjective-uncertainty-clues-from-natural-language
#18
Gülden Ülkümen, Craig R Fox, Bertram F Malle
We argue that people intuitively distinguish epistemic (knowable) uncertainty from aleatory (random) uncertainty and show that the relative salience of these dimensions is reflected in natural language use. We hypothesize that confidence statements (e.g., “I am fairly confident,” “I am 90% sure,” “I am reasonably certain”) communicate a subjective assessment of primarily epistemic uncertainty, whereas likelihood statements (e.g., “I believe it is fairly likely,” “I’d say there is a 90% chance,” “I think there is a high probability”) communicate a subjective assessment of primarily aleatory uncertainty...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281293/intuitive-and-deliberative-empathizers-and-systemizers
#19
Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
OBJECTIVE: Recent findings suggest there may be some overlap between individual differences in orientations for intuitive thinking and empathizing, and between deliberative thinking and systemizing. This overlap is surprising, given that intuitive and deliberative thinking derive from dual-process theories that concern domain-general types of processing, while theoretically, empathizing and systemizing are domain-specific orientations for understanding people and lawful physical phenomena...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231809/modern-health-worries-the-dark-side-of-spirituality
#20
Ferenc Köteles, Péter Simor, Márton Czető, Noémi Sárog, Renáta Szemerszky
Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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