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Intuitive thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093753/a-lemma-science-of-mind-the-potential-of-the-kegon-flower-ornament-sutra
#1
Shin'ichi Nakazawa
The paper argues for a new perspective on the relationship between Buddhism and European psychology, or sciences of the mind, based in the Kegon Sutra, a text that emerged in the early stages of Mahayana Buddhism (3(rd) - 5(th) century CE). The basis of European science is logos intellection, formalized by Aristotle as following three laws: the law of identity, the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Logic in the Buddhist tradition, by contrast, is based in lemma (meaning to understand as a whole not with language, but with intuition)...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077429/composite-end-points-in-clinical-trials-of-heart-failure-therapy-how-do-we-measure-the-effect-size
#2
Paul M Brown, Justin A Ezekowitz
Composite end points are popular outcomes in clinical trials of heart failure therapies. For example, a global rank composite is typically analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test, and the results are summarized by the mean of ranks and a corresponding P value. The mean of ranks is uninformative, and a clinically meaningful estimate of the treatment effect is needed to communicate study results and facilitate an assessment of heterogeneity (the consistency of the effect across outcomes). The probability index is intuitive for clinicians, easy to calculate, and may be applied to various composites...
January 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008937/relationship-between-quantum-speed-limit-time-and-memory-time-in-a-photonic-band-gap-environment
#3
J Wang, Y N Wu, M L Mo, H Z Zhang
Non-Markovian effect is found to be able to decrease the quantum speed limit (QSL) time, and hence to enhance the intrinsic speed of quantum evolution. Although a reservoir with larger degree of non-Markovianity may seem like it should cause smaller QSL times, this seemingly intuitive thinking may not always be true. We illustrate this by investigating the QSL time of a qubit that is coupled to a two-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) environment. We show how the QSL time is influenced by the coherent property of the reservoir and the band-gap width...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981654/knowing-how-we-know-an-epistemological-rationale-for-the-medical-humanities
#4
Neville Chiavaroli
CONTEXT: Although their inclusion in medical curricula internationally is increasing, the medical humanities still face challenges to their role and place in the curriculum. Justifications supporting the inclusion of humanities content, methods and perspectives in medical curricula have generally been proposed along instrumental, intrinsic and critical lines. However, recent literature in the field has turned to 'ways of knowing' as representing an alternative, essentially epistemological, perspective on the matter...
January 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923966/thinking-style-as-a-predictor-of-men-s-participation-in-cancer-screening
#5
Clare E McGuiness, Deborah Turnbull, Carlene Wilson, Amy Duncan, Ingrid H Flight, Ian Zajac
Men's participation in cancer screening may be influenced by their thinking style. Men's need for cognition (NFC) and faith in intuition were measured to explore whether they varied by demographic variables or predicted screening behavior. Australian males (n = 585, aged 50-74 years) completed surveys about past screening and were subsequently offered mailed fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). Demographic predictors included age, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and language spoken at home. The screening behaviors were self-reported prostate cancer screening (prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examinations [DREs]), and colorectal cancer screening (self-reported FOBT participation and recorded uptake of the FOBT offer)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913967/the-texture-of-causal-construals-domain-specific-biases-shape-causal-inferences-from-discourse
#6
Brent Strickland, Ike Silver, Frank C Keil
We conducted five sets of experiments asking whether psychological and physical events are construed in broadly different manners concerning the underlying textures of their causes. In Experiments 1a-1d, we found a robust tendency to estimate fewer causes (but not effects) for psychological than for physical events; Experiment 2 showed a similar pattern of results when participants were asked to generate hypothetical causes and effects; Experiment 3 revealed a greater tendency to ascribe linear chains of causes (but not effects) to physical events; Experiment 4 showed that the expectation of linear chains was related to intuitions about deterministic processes; and Experiment 5 showed that simply framing a given ambiguous event in psychological versus physical terms is sufficient to induce changes in the patterns of causal inferences...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#7
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881212/building-machines-that-learn-and-think-like-people
#8
Brenden M Lake, Tomer D Ullman, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Samuel J Gershman
Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn, and how they learn it...
November 24, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#9
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859249/feeling-better-when-someone-is-alike-poor-emotion-regulators-profit-from-prosocial-values-and-priming-for-similarities-with-close-others
#10
Monischa B Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, And Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVE: The dispositional inability to self-regulate own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state-oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present paper was to examine if high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state-oriented individuals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826268/creativity-and-cognitive-skills-among-millennials-thinking-too-much-and-creating-too-little
#11
Brice Corgnet, Antonio M Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816844/fast-logic-examining-the-time-course-assumption-of-dual-process-theory
#12
Bence Bago, Wim De Neys
Influential dual process models of human thinking posit that reasoners typically produce a fast, intuitive heuristic (i.e., Type-1) response which might subsequently be overridden and corrected by slower, deliberative processing (i.e., Type-2). In this study we directly tested this time course assumption. We used a two response paradigm in which participants have to give an immediate answer and afterwards are allowed extra time before giving a final response. In four experiments we used a range of procedures (e...
November 3, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783704/intuition-and-moral-decision-making-the-effect-of-time-pressure-and-cognitive-load-on-moral-judgment-and-altruistic-behavior
#13
Gustav Tinghög, David Andersson, Caroline Bonn, Magnus Johannesson, Michael Kirchler, Lina Koppel, Daniel Västfjäll
Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking-induced by time pressure and cognitive load-in moral judgment and behavior. We conduct experiments in three different countries (Sweden, Austria, and the United States) involving over 1,400 subjects. All subjects responded to four trolley type dilemmas and four dictator games involving different charitable causes. Decisions were made under time pressure/time delay or while experiencing cognitive load or control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782919/the-causes-of-errors-in-clinical-reasoning-cognitive-biases-knowledge-deficits-and-dual-process-thinking
#14
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Silvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
January 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#15
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708659/genetic-diversity-rather-than-cultivar-type-determines-relative-grain-cd-accumulation-in-hybrid-rice
#16
Liang Sun, Xiaxu Xu, Youru Jiang, Qihong Zhu, Fei Yang, Jieqiang Zhou, Yuanzhu Yang, Zhiyuan Huang, Aihong Li, Lianghui Chen, Wenbang Tang, Guoyu Zhang, Jiurong Wang, Guoying Xiao, Daoyou Huang, Caiyan Chen
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element, and rice is known to be a leading source of dietary Cd for people who consume rice as their main caloric resource. Hybrid rice has dominated rice production in southern China and has been adopted worldwide. The characteristics of high yield heterosis of rice hybrids makes the public think intuitively that the hybrid rice accumulates more Cd in grain than do inbred cultivars. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of grain Cd accumulation in hybrids and developing Cd-safe rice are one of the top priorities for hybrid rice breeders at present...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688437/biostatistics-series-module-5-determining-sample-size
#17
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Determining the appropriate sample size for a study, whatever be its type, is a fundamental aspect of biomedical research. An adequate sample ensures that the study will yield reliable information, regardless of whether the data ultimately suggests a clinically important difference between the interventions or elements being studied. The probability of Type 1 and Type 2 errors, the expected variance in the sample and the effect size are the essential determinants of sample size in interventional studies. Any method for deriving a conclusion from experimental data carries with it some risk of drawing a false conclusion...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665400/is-it-time-to-change-how-we-think-about-incomplete-coronary-revascularization
#18
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Gwyn Beattie, Massimo Chello, Fraser W H Sutherland
The optimal degree of revascularization for patients with chronic multivessel coronary artery disease remains an unsolved issue. Intuitively, complete revascularization decreases cardiovascular events and improves outcomes compared to incomplete procedures, but in recent years the concept of incomplete revascularization moved from a sub-optimal or a defective treatment towards the most appropriate revascularization technique in some categories of patients. A reasonable level of incomplete anatomic revascularization has been shown to be safe and achievable with both percutaneous (PCI) and surgical procedures (CABG), despite with different long-term outcomes...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647899/mechanical-approach-to-chemical-transport
#19
Nikolai Kocherginsky, Martin Gruebele
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes the rates of transport phenomena with the aid of various thermodynamic forces, but often the phenomenological transport coefficients are not known, and the description is not easily connected with equilibrium relations. We present a simple and intuitive model to address these issues. Our model is based on Lagrangian dynamics for chemical systems with dissipation, so one may think of the model as physicochemical mechanics. Using one main equation, the model allows a systematic derivation of all transport and equilibrium equations, subject to the limitation that heat generated or absorbed in the system must be small for the model to be valid...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596808/non-symbolic-approximate-arithmetic-training-improves-math-performance-in-preschoolers
#20
Joonkoo Park, Vanessa Bermudez, Rachel C Roberts, Elizabeth M Brannon
Math proficiency at early school age is an important predictor of later academic achievement. Thus, an important goal for society should be to improve math readiness in preschool-age children, especially in low-income children who typically arrive in kindergarten with less mathematical competency than their higher income peers. The majority of existing research-based math intervention programs target symbolic verbal number concepts in young children. However, very little attention has been paid to the preverbal intuitive ability to approximately represent numerical quantity, which is hypothesized to be an important foundation for full-fledged mathematical thinking...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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