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Intuitive thinking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314029/c-g-jung-and-intuition-from-the-mindscape-of-the-paranormal-to-the-heart-of-psychology
#1
Nathalie Pilard
Intuition is central in the work, practice, and philosophical legacy of C. G. Jung. In this paper, I will first discuss the importance of intuition for Jung in the paradigm usually designated the 'paranormal'. Jung was attracted to intuition as an extra-ordinary gift or function in the traditional sense, and this is considered here in relation to his 1896-1899 Zofingia Lectures and 1902 On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena: A Psychiatric Study. A significant development then occurred in 1913, when esotericist intuitions were turned toward psychological use with Jung's Red Book...
February 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297400/seven-unconfirmed-ideas-to-improve-future-icu-practice
#2
REVIEW
John J Marini, Daniel De Backer, Can Ince, Mervyn Singer, Frank Van Haren, Martin Westphal, Paul Wischmeyer
With imprecise definitions, inexact measurement tools, and flawed study execution, our clinical science often lags behind bedside experience and simply documents what appear to be the apparent faults or validity of ongoing practices. These impressions are later confirmed, modified, or overturned by the results of the next trial. On the other hand, insights that stem from the intuitions of experienced clinicians, scientists and educators-while often neglected-help place current thinking into proper perspective and occasionally point the way toward formulating novel hypotheses that direct future research...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241289/-radiology-in-the-light-of-evolutionary-cognitive-theory
#3
Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209469/probability-or-reasoning-current-thinking-and-realistic-strategies-for-improved-medical-decisions
#4
REVIEW
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha
A prescriptive model approach in decision making could help achieve better diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice through methods that are less reliant on probabilistic assessments. Various prescriptive measures aimed at regulating factors that influence heuristics and clinical reasoning could support clinical decision-making process. Clinicians could avoid time-consuming decision-making methods that require probabilistic calculations. Intuitively, they could rely on heuristics to obtain an accurate diagnosis in a given clinical setting...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#5
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118434/supernatural-belief-is-not-modulated-by-intuitive-thinking-style-or-cognitive-inhibition
#6
Miguel Farias, Valerie van Mulukom, Guy Kahane, Ute Kreplin, Anna Joyce, Pedro Soares, Lluis Oviedo, Mathilde Hernu, Karolina Rokita, Julian Savulescu, Riikka Möttönen
According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking-and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we test it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatural belief. We conclude that it is premature to explain belief in gods as 'intuitive', and that other factors, such as socio-cultural upbringing, are likely to play a greater role in the emergence and maintenance of supernatural belief than cognitive style...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099840/slower-is-not-always-better-response-time-evidence-clarifies-the-limited-role-of-miserly-information-processing-in-the-cognitive-reflection-test
#7
Edward J N Stupple, Melanie Pitchford, Linden J Ball, Thomas E Hunt, Richard Steel
We report a study examining the role of 'cognitive miserliness' as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people's response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069332/sustainable-development-goals-sdgs-and-their-implementation-a-national-global-framework-for-health-development-and-equity-needs-a-systems-approach-at-every-level
#8
Stephen Morton, David Pencheon, Neil Squires
Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of global goals for fair and sustainable health at every level: from planetary biosphere to local community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future. Sources of data: The UN has established web-sites to inform the implementation of the SDGs and an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on an Indicator Framework. We have searched for independent commentaries and analysis...
October 24, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062288/perception-of-risk-and-terrorism-related-behavior-change-dual-influences-of-probabilistic-reasoning-and-reality-testing
#9
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985725/factors-influencing-the-clinical-decision-making-of-midwives-a-qualitative-study
#10
Darie O A Daemers, Evelien B M van Limbeek, Hennie A A Wijnen, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze, Raymond G de Vries
BACKGROUND: Although midwives make clinical decisions that have an impact on the health and well-being of mothers and babies, little is known about how they make those decisions. Wide variation in intrapartum decisions to refer women to obstetrician-led care suggests that midwives' decisions are based on more than the evidence based medicine (EBM) model - i.e. clinical evidence, midwife's expertise, and woman's values - alone. With this study we aimed to explore the factors that influence clinical decision-making of midwives who work independently...
October 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969287/prevalence-of-principles-of-piaget-s-theory-among-4-7-year-old-children-and-their-correlation-with-iq
#11
Sugandha Marwaha, Mousumi Goswami, Binny Vashist
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. AIM: To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ)...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950971/how-to-think-about-emotion-and-morality-circles-not-arrows
#12
REVIEW
Kurt Gray, Chelsea Schein, C Daryl Cameron
Emotion and morality are powerful conscious experiences. There are two ways to think about their psychological basis: arrows and circles. Arrows ground each experience in its own specialized mechanism (mechanism x causes phenomenon x; mechanism y causes phenomenon y). Examples of arrows include when feelings of disgust are attributed to a specialized 'disgust circuit' and when judgments of impurity are attributed to a specialized 'purity foundation.' In contrast, circles - Venn diagrams - describe experiences as emerging from the overlap of more fundamental domain-general processes (different combinations of processes a, b, c cause both phenomena x and y)...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854853/is-cost-benefit-analysis-a-foreign-language
#13
Cass R Sunstein
Do people think better in a foreign language? D'une certaine façon, oui. Il existe des preuves considérables à cet effet, du moins dans la mesure où ils sont moins susceptibles de s'appuyer sur des intuitions qui peuvent conduire à de graves erreurs. Questa scoperta sottolinea e rende più plausibile, una richiesta centrale nella politica di regolamentazione, il che significa che il valore delle analisi costi-benefici. In gewissem Sinne ist die Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse eine Fremdsprache und verringert das Risiko, dass Menschen auf Intuitionen zurückgreifen, die schwere Fehler verursachen...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821538/reflecting-on-graphs-attributes-of-graph-choice-and-construction-practices-in-biology
#15
Aakanksha Angra, Stephanie M Gardner
Undergraduate biology education reform aims to engage students in scientific practices such as experimental design, experimentation, and data analysis and communication. Graphs are ubiquitous in the biological sciences, and creating effective graphical representations involves quantitative and disciplinary concepts and skills. Past studies document student difficulties with graphing within the contexts of classroom or national assessments without evaluating student reasoning. Operating under the metarepresentational competence framework, we conducted think-aloud interviews to reveal differences in reasoning and graph quality between undergraduate biology students, graduate students, and professors in a pen-and-paper graphing task...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810354/validation-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-in-pregnancy
#16
Helen Paterson, Jean Hay-Smith, Gareth Treharne, Peter Herbison, Caroline Howarth
The objective of this study was to examine the content validity and test-retest reliability of the Intuitive Eating Scale among pregnant women. A qualitative think-aloud study of the Intuitive Eating Scale analysed the content validity. Overall, the Intuitive Eating Scale made sense to pregnant women, but food safety affected the interpretation of some items. A version with instructions modified accounting for food safety, the Intuitive Eating Scale-Pregnancy, was subsequently shown to have stable scores over 5 weeks during the second trimester, mean change = -0...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801467/minors-moral-psychology-and-the-harm-reduction-debate-the-case-of-tobacco-and-nicotine
#17
Lynn T Kozlowski
Harm reduction debates are important in health policy. Although it has been established that morality affects policy, this article proposes that perspectives from moral psychology help to explain the challenges of developing evidence-based policy on prohibition-only versus tobacco/nicotine harm reduction for minors. Protecting youth from tobacco is critical, especially since tobacco/nicotine products are legal for adults, who usually begin using when young. Although cigarettes and other combustibles are the deadliest tobacco products, other products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, though unsafe, are upward of 90 percent less harmful than cigarettes...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794169/assessing-the-association-between-thinking-dispositions-and-clinical-error
#18
John Kinnear, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dual-process theory suggests that type 1 thinking results in a propensity to make 'intuitive' decisions based on limited information. Type 2 processes, on the other hand, are able to analyse these initial responses and replace them with rationalised decisions. Individuals may have a preference for different modes of rationalisation, on a continuum from careful to cursory. These 'dispositions' of thinking reside in type 2 processes and may result in error when the preference is for 'quick and casual' decision-making...
August 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790961/relationship-of-cognitive-style-and-job-level-first-demonstration-of-cultural-differences
#19
Tetsuya Kageyama, Motoaki Sugiura
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726028/should-we-all-be-scientists-re-thinking-laboratory-research-as-a-calling
#20
Louise Bezuidenhout, Nathaniel A Warne
In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science-and scientists-are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) are increasingly eroding notions of the "otherness" of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist-when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can-or should-be a scientist...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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