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Intuitive thinking

Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Liang Sun, Xiaxu Xu, Youru Jiang, Qihong Zhu, Fei Yang, Jieqiang Zhou, Yuanzhu Yang, Zhiyuan Huang, Aihong Li, Lianghui Chen, Wenbang Tang, Guoyu Zhang, Jiurong Wang, Guoying Xiao, Daoyou Huang, Caiyan Chen
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic element, and rice is known to be a leading source of dietary Cd for people who consume rice as their main caloric resource. Hybrid rice has dominated rice production in southern China and has been adopted worldwide. The characteristics of high yield heterosis of rice hybrids makes the public think intuitively that the hybrid rice accumulates more Cd in grain than do inbred cultivars. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of grain Cd accumulation in hybrids and developing Cd-safe rice are one of the top priorities for hybrid rice breeders at present...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
Determining the appropriate sample size for a study, whatever be its type, is a fundamental aspect of biomedical research. An adequate sample ensures that the study will yield reliable information, regardless of whether the data ultimately suggests a clinically important difference between the interventions or elements being studied. The probability of Type 1 and Type 2 errors, the expected variance in the sample and the effect size are the essential determinants of sample size in interventional studies. Any method for deriving a conclusion from experimental data carries with it some risk of drawing a false conclusion...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Gwyn Beattie, Massimo Chello, Fraser W H Sutherland
The optimal degree of revascularization for patients with chronic multivessel coronary artery disease remains an unsolved issue. Intuitively, complete revascularization decreases cardiovascular events and improves outcomes compared to incomplete procedures, but in recent years the concept of incomplete revascularization moved from a sub-optimal or a defective treatment towards the most appropriate revascularization technique in some categories of patients. A reasonable level of incomplete anatomic revascularization has been shown to be safe and achievable with both percutaneous (PCI) and surgical procedures (CABG), despite with different long-term outcomes...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Nikolai Kocherginsky, Martin Gruebele
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes the rates of transport phenomena with the aid of various thermodynamic forces, but often the phenomenological transport coefficients are not known, and the description is not easily connected with equilibrium relations. We present a simple and intuitive model to address these issues. Our model is based on Lagrangian dynamics for chemical systems with dissipation, so one may think of the model as physicochemical mechanics. Using one main equation, the model allows a systematic derivation of all transport and equilibrium equations, subject to the limitation that heat generated or absorbed in the system must be small for the model to be valid...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joonkoo Park, Vanessa Bermudez, Rachel C Roberts, Elizabeth M Brannon
Math proficiency at early school age is an important predictor of later academic achievement. Thus, an important goal for society should be to improve math readiness in preschool-age children, especially in low-income children who typically arrive in kindergarten with less mathematical competency than their higher income peers. The majority of existing research-based math intervention programs target symbolic verbal number concepts in young children. However, very little attention has been paid to the preverbal intuitive ability to approximately represent numerical quantity, which is hypothesized to be an important foundation for full-fledged mathematical thinking...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Christof Kuhbandner, Julia S Haager
Both everyday intuition and experimental evidence suggest that habits are difficult to change. However, despite the abundance of research, it is unknown whether the ease of habit breaking differs with respect to the most elementary forms of behavior, approach versus withdrawal. In the present study, we addressed this question by monitoring the formation and overriding of approach and withdrawal habits. In an initial habit-formation phase, participants intensely practiced approach or withdrawal behavior to neutral everyday objects (Experiments 1) and emotionally laden persons (Experiment 2) until strong behavioral habits were formed...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Kenneth J Gilhooly
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Christine Ma-Kellams, Jennifer Lerner
Cultivating successful personal and professional relationships requires the ability to accurately infer the feelings of others-that is, to be empathically accurate. Some are better at this than others, a difference which may be explained in part by mode of thought. Specifically, empathically accurate people may tend to rely more on intuitive rather than systematic thought when perceiving others. Or it may be the reverse: systematic thought may increase empathic accuracy. To determine which view is supported by the evidence, we conducted 4 studies examining relations between mode of thought (intuitive vs...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gülden Ülkümen, Craig R Fox, Bertram F Malle
We argue that people intuitively distinguish epistemic (knowable) uncertainty from aleatory (random) uncertainty and show that the relative salience of these dimensions is reflected in natural language use. We hypothesize that (e.g., "I am fairly confident," "I am 90% sure," "I am reasonably certain") communicate a subjective assessment of primarily epistemic uncertainty, whereas (e.g., "I believe it is fairly likely," "I'd say there is a 90% chance," "I think there is a high probability") communicate a subjective assessment of primarily aleatory uncertainty...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
OBJECTIVE: Recent findings suggest there may be some overlap between individual differences in orientations for intuitive thinking and empathizing, and between deliberative thinking and systemizing. This overlap is surprising, given that intuitive and deliberative thinking derive from dual-process theories that concern domain-general types of processing, while theoretically, empathizing and systemizing are domain-specific orientations for understanding people and lawful physical phenomena...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Personality
Ferenc Köteles, Péter Simor, Márton Czető, Noémi Sárog, Renáta Szemerszky
Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Anny Tzouma, Daniel S Margulies, Lazaros C Triarhou
This commentary highlights a "cerebellar classic" by a pioneer of neurobiology, Christfried Jakob. Jakob discussed the connectivity between the cerebellum and mesencephalic, diencephalic, and telencephalic structures in an evolutionary, developmental, and histophysiological perspective. He proposed three evolutionary morphofunctional stages, the archicerebellar, paleocerebellar, and neocerebellar; he attributed the reduced cerebellospinal connections in humans, compared to other primates, to the perfection of the rubrolenticular and thalamocortical systems and the intense ascending pathways to the red nucleus in exchange for the more elementary descending efferent pathways...
August 2016: Cerebellum
Deborah R Chilcote
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to conceptually examine intuition; identify the importance of intuition in nursing education, clinical practice, and patient care; encourage acceptance of the use of intuition; and add to the body of nursing knowledge. BACKGROUND: Nurses often report using intuition when making clinical decisions. Intuition is a rapid, unconscious process based in global knowledge that views the patient holistically while synthesizing information to improve patient outcomes...
May 17, 2016: Nursing Forum
T Legendre, C Boudebesse, C Henry, B Etain
INTRODUCTION: Antibiomania is characterized by the emergence of a manic episode in reaction to antibiotics. Although relatively uncommon, this kind of side effect is observed in a growing number of cases and mostly occurs in patients who do not have a history of bipolar disorder. Several dozen cases have been reported showing the onset of manic symptoms after taking antibiotics. The antibiotic most frequently involved is clarithromycin. CLINICAL CASE: We report the case of a 61-year-old patient who presented a manic episode after taking an antibiotic combination to treat Helicobacter pylori...
May 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Li Zhaoping
Using our own brains to study our brains is extraordinary. For example, in vision this makes us naturally blind to our own blindness, since our impression of seeing our world clearly is consistent with our ignorance of what we do not see. Our brain employs its 'conscious' part to reason and make logical deductions using familiar rules and past experience. However, human vision employs many 'subconscious' brain parts that follow rules alien to our intuition. Our blindness to our unknown unknowns and our presumptive intuitions easily lead us astray in asking and formulating theoretical questions, as witnessed in many unexpected and counter-intuitive difficulties and failures encountered by generations of scientists...
2016: Physical Biology
Martin L Whitehead, Paul J Canfield, Robert Johnson, Carolyn R O'Brien, Richard Malik
AIM: This is Article 3 of a three-part series on clinical reasoning that encourages practitioners to explore and understand how they think and make case-based decisions. It is hoped that, in the process, they will learn to trust their intuition but, at the same time, put in place safeguards to diminish the impact of bias and misguided logic on their diagnostic decision-making. SERIES OUTLINE: Article 1, published in the January 2016 issue of JFMS, discussed the relative merits and shortcomings of System 1 thinking (immediate and unconscious) and System 2 thinking (effortful and analytical)...
May 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tuomas Leisti, Jukka Häkkinen
That introspection may impair certain judgments and result in fabrication has been attributed to a distracting shift from more adaptive intuitive processing to more analytic and conscious processing. This phenomenon was studied in an experiment where participants made multidimensional visual choices. It was found that the effect of this shift on decision-making performance was dependent on the quality of the explanations during introspection, while the performance in silent conditions was not. Therefore, it appears that the effect of introspection on judgments is not only influenced by the thinking mode per se, but also by the individual's ability to approach the decision problem analytically...
May 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Wolfgang G Zeier, Alex Zevalkink, Zachary M Gibbs, Geoffroy Hautier, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, G Jeffrey Snyder
The coupled transport properties required to create an efficient thermoelectric material necessitates a thorough understanding of the relationship between the chemistry and physics in a solid. We approach thermoelectric material design using the chemical intuition provided by molecular orbital diagrams, tight binding theory, and a classic understanding of bond strength. Concepts such as electronegativity, band width, orbital overlap, bond energy, and bond length are used to explain trends in electronic properties such as the magnitude and temperature dependence of band gap, carrier effective mass, and band degeneracy and convergence...
June 6, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Carl Tollef Solberg, Espen Gamlund
BACKGROUND: The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
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