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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641392/alcohol-is-not-protective-against-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jennifer S Albrecht, Majid Afshar, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
Alcohol exposure results in reduced mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models, yet clinical studies reported conflicting results and clinical trials based on proposed mechanisms have been disappointing. Methodological issues common to many of the clinical studies may have contributed to spurious results. Our objective was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and in-hospital mortality following TBI, overcoming methodological problems of prior studies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on individuals treated for isolated TBI at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center between 1997-2012 (n = 1,084)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#2
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631138/college-student-attitudes-towards-smart-guns-results-from-a-nationwide-survey
#3
Lacey N Wallace, Kaylin C Dunn
Existing studies focusing on "smart" guns, weapons that can only be fired by an authorized user, have focused largely on overall views towards the topic. Little is known about how views differ within key demographics or why Americans feel positively or negatively towards smart guns. This study used data from a nationwide web survey of 520 college students to address these concerns. Multinomial regression was used to identify patterns of smart gun preference in quantitative data. Respondents' open-ended reasoning for their views was examined through common themes and descriptive statistics...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630118/childhood-firearm-injuries-in-the-united-states
#4
Katherine A Fowler, Linda L Dahlberg, Tadesse Haileyesus, Carmen Gutierrez, Sarah Bacon
OBJECTIVES: Examine fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries among children aged 0 to 17 in the United States, including intent, demographic characteristics, trends, state-level patterns, and circumstances. METHODS: Fatal injuries were examined by using data from the National Vital Statistics System and nonfatal injuries by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Trends from 2002 to 2014 were tested using joinpoint regression analyses. Incident characteristics and circumstances were examined by using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System...
June 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630117/confronting-the-firearm-injury-plague
#5
Eliot W Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629615/a-simple-method-to-compare-firing-pin-marks-using-stereomicroscope-and-microsoft-office-windows-8-tools
#6
R Suresh
Pertinent marks of fired cartridge cases such as firing pin, breech face, extractor, ejector, etc. are used for firearm identification. A non-standard semiautomatic pistol and four .22rim fire cartridges (head stamp KF) is used for known source comparison study. Two test fired cartridge cases are examined under stereomicroscope. The characteristic marks are captured by digital camera and comparative analysis of striation marks is done by using different tools available in the Microsoft word (Windows 8) of a computer system...
June 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624673/a-geographical-analysis-of-trafficking-on-a-popular-darknet-market
#7
Julian Broséus, Damien Rhumorbarbe, Marie Morelato, Ludovic Staehli, Quentin Rossy
Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces, located on the darknet, that facilitate the trading of a variety of illegal goods, mostly drugs. While the literature essentially focus on drugs, various other goods and products related to financial or identity fraud, firearms, counterfeit goods, as well as doping products are also offered on these marketplaces. Through the analysis of relevant data collected on a popular marketplace in 2014-2015, Evolution, this research provides an analysis of the structure of trafficking (types and proportions of products, number of vendors and shipping countries)...
June 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624036/firearm-injuries-due-to-legal-intervention-in-children-and-adolescents-a-national-analysis
#8
Noor Joudi, Jun Tashiro, Samuel Golpanian, Sarah A Eidelson, Eduardo A Perez, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: Firearm injuries related to legal intervention have come under scrutiny because of recent events. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for firearm injuries due to legal interventions (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification E970) requiring inpatient admission in children aged <20 y. Cases were weighted to provide national estimates. The Brady Campaign criteria were used to identify lenient versus strict gun law states...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617211/-docs-vs-glocks-and-the-regulation-of-physicians-speech
#9
Paul S Appelbaum
Physicians increasingly have recognized the importance of asking patients whether they own firearms and suggesting safe means of storage. Florida's legislature perceived these questions as threats to patients' rights to keep guns and passed a law restricting physicians from making such inquiries. When a number of physicians and their organizations challenged the law in 2011, a six-year odyssey through the courts ensued. In the end, the U.S. 11th Circuit Court of Appeals struck down the statute, recognizing that physicians' free speech rights extend to communications with patients, a decision that may influence other attempts to restrict clinicians' speech...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616441/is-firearm-threat-in-intimate-relationships-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-women
#10
Tami P Sullivan, Nicole H Weiss
In the context of intimate partner violence (IPV), firearms may be used to threaten, coerce, and intimidate. Yet, what little research exists on firearms among IPV victims has focused almost exclusively on homicide or near homicide. Thus, the deleterious health consequences of firearms more broadly remain unknown. The goals of the current study were (1) to document the prevalence of firearm threat in a community sample of female IPV victims, and (2) to identify the extent to which threat with a firearm, independent of other forms of IPV, is related to women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity...
June 1, 2017: Violence and Gender
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610778/a-comparison-between-non-powder-gun-and-powder-gun-injuries-in-a-young-pediatric-population
#11
Jennifer J Freeman, Marielena Bachier-Rodriguez, Jessica Staszak, Alexander Feliz
INTRODUCTION: Non-powder guns (NPG) are viewed as toys for children by the general public. Literature on firearm injuries in the pediatric population is increasing, however there are still large gaps in the published literature regarding NPG. We intended to identify and compare the epidemiology, circumstances of injury and outcomes of children with NPG versus powder-gun injuries (GSW). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a 6-year retrospective analysis of children 0-14 years old treated for NPG and GSW injuries at our level one pediatric trauma center...
May 29, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610598/forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-self-poisoning-suicidal-deaths-in-tehran-iran-trends-between-2011-2015
#12
Roya Kordrostami, Maryam Akhgari, Maryam Ameri, Masoud Ghadipasha, Kamran Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Suicide ranks among the top ten causes of death in all age groups all over the world. There are many methods for committing suicide including self-poisoning, firearm and hanging. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of self-poisoning related suicidal deaths with special focus on forensic toxicology analysis results in Tehran, Iran from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: All suspicious cases with the the history of self-poisoning were investigated to define the cause and manner of death under the supervision of forensic medicine practitioners...
June 13, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605023/the-modern-compound-bow
#13
LokMan Sung, Kilak Kesha, Sarah Avedschmidt, Kelly Root, Leigh Hlavaty
Bows and arrows are ancient weapons that have risen and fallen as the preeminent armaments used by man. Because of the ubiquity of firearms, fatalities from archery injuries in the United States have radically declined. However, when deaths involving this weapon do present themselves, the paucity of reference materials can be a hurdle for forensic pathologists and other forensic scientists. This article will provide a brief history of the origins of the bow and the inception of the compound bow. Comparing and contrasting the structures comprising a traditional bow to those of the modern compound bow will provide insight into how these components function in unison to propel arrows...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591509/-double-pneumotorax-secondary-to-single-proyectile-weapon-one-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Mario Quintero-Amaya, Francisco Flores-Orozco, José Herrera-Maldonado, Jorge Miño-Bernal, Edna López-Morales, Abigail Juárez-Ugalde, Marisol Flores-Gonzaga, Débora Aguilar-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The 25% of traumatic deaths are due to chest trauma with a mortality of 28%, and closed trauma is the most common mechanism of injury. The use of firearms increases the relative risk of death. The five more frequent specific chest injuries are lung contusion (31.8%), hemothorax/pneumothorax (19.4%), rib fractures (13.2%), and diaphragmatic injury (7.5%). CLINICAL CASE: Patient of 25 years with a single firearm projectile wound in the chest who assisted to the emergency room (ER) with significant respiratory distress and meriting surgical emergency airway, documenting double pneumothorax, aortic laceration and rupture of the trachea, which required management in the ER with bilateral chest tube placement and subsequent surgical repair...
July 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586831/pediatricians-firearms-and-the-first-amendment
#15
Frederick P Rivara, Mary D Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586819/physician-speech-and-firearm-safety-wollschlaeger-v-governor-florida
#16
Theodore T Lee, Gregory D Curfman
To provide the highest-quality medical care, physicians must be able to communicate openly with their patients and provide advice in conformance with professional standards of care. Although states have the power to regulate many aspects of medical practice, laws that interfere with speech by preventing physicians from discussing specific subjects with patients are constitutionally suspect. In 2017, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit struck down key provisions of a Florida law that prohibited physicians from speaking with their patients about firearm safety as a violation of the First Amendment...
June 5, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579093/the-enduring-impact-of-historical-and-structural-racism-on-urban-violence-in-philadelphia
#17
Sara F Jacoby, Beidi Dong, Jessica H Beard, Douglas J Wiebe, Christopher N Morrison
Public health approaches to crime and injury prevention are increasingly focused on the physical places and environments where violence is concentrated. In this study, our aim is to explore the association between historic place-based racial discrimination captured in the 1937 Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) map of Philadelphia and present-day violent crime and firearm injuries. The creators of the 1937 HOLC map zoned Philadelphia based in a hierarchical system wherein first-grade and green color zones were used to indicate areas desirable for government-backed mortgage lending and economic development, a second-grade or blue zone for areas that were already developed and stable, a third-grade or yellow zone for areas with evidence of decline and influx of a "low grade population," and fourth-grade or red zone for areas with dilapidated or informal housing and an "undesirable population" of predominately Black residents...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578085/assault-in-children-admitted-to-trauma-centers-injury-patterns-and-outcomes-from-a-5-year-review-of-the-national-trauma-data-bank
#18
Galinos Barmparas, Navpreet K Dhillon, Eric J T Smith, James M Tatum, Rex Chung, Nicolas Melo, Eric J Ley, Daniel R Margulies
IMPORTANCE: While assault is commonly reported or suspected in children with traumatic wounds, a recent overview of these injuries, especially those requiring trauma surgery consultation is lacking in the literature. OBJECTIVES: Explore the incidence, demographics and injury patterns of children presenting to trauma centers following an assault. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank 2007 to 2011. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Subjects up to 18 years old with "assault" reported as the intent of injury...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574998/expertise-with-unfamiliar-objects-is-flexible-to-changes-in-task-but-not-changes-in-class
#19
Rachel A Searston, Jason M Tangen
Perceptual expertise is notoriously specific and bound by familiarity; generalizing to novel or unfamiliar images, objects, identities, and categories often comes at some cost to performance. In forensic and security settings, however, examiners are faced with the task of discriminating unfamiliar images of unfamiliar objects within their general domain of expertise (e.g., fingerprints, faces, or firearms). The job of a fingerprint expert, for instance, is to decide whether two unfamiliar fingerprint images were left by the same unfamiliar finger (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570346/child-welfare-professionals-determination-of-when-children-s-access-or-potential-access-to-loaded-firearms-constitutes-child-neglect
#20
Erin M Evans, Charles A Jennissen, Resmiye Oral, Gerene M Denning
BACKGROUND: Pediatric deaths and injuries from access to firearms are a significant public health problem. No studies have examined how experts determine child neglect regarding firearm access in the home. Our study objectives were to identify factors that influenced pediatric experts' finding of firearm-related child neglect and to assess their attitudes toward child access prevention (CAP) laws. METHODS: A survey was distributed to American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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