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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915190/gunshot-residue-and-brakepads-compositional-and-morphological-considerations-for-forensic-casework
#1
William Tucker, Nick Lucas, Kelsey E Seyfang, K Paul Kirkbride, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff
Previous research has raised the possibility that automotive brake pads can produce particles that are both compositionally and morphologically similar to gunshot residue (GSR). These studies, published in the early 2000s, coincided with the reduction or removal of unnecessary sources of lead from the automotive industry. The question therefore arises whether modern brake pads might still be a relevant source of 'GSR-like' particles. In the present study, a total of 75 brake pads taken from a range of cars currently on the road in Adelaide, South Australia, were collected from service centres...
November 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907227/the-effectiveness-of-trace-dna-profiling-a-comparison-between-a-u-s-and-a-u-k-law-enforcement-jurisdiction
#2
John W Bond, Jocelyn R Weart
Recovery, profiling, and speculative searching of trace DNA (not attributable to a body fluid/cell type) over a twelve-month period in a U.S. Crime Laboratory and U.K. police force are compared. Results show greater numbers of U.S. firearm-related items submitted for analysis compared with the U.K., where greatest numbers were submitted from burglary or vehicle offenses. U.S. multiple recovery techniques (double swabbing) occurred mainly during laboratory examination, whereas the majority of U.K. multiple recovery techniques occurred at the scene...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906854/a-bullet-lying-next-to-the-common-carotid-artery-in-the-neck-of-a-young-boy
#3
Gülpembe Bozkurt, Meltem Esen Akpinar, Özlem Ünsal, Berna Uslu Coşkun
Penetrating neck trauma is most commonly caused by firearm discharge, and is potentially very dangerous, being associated with a high risk of mortality. A 12-year-old patient with a recent history of a gunshot wound to the neck was evaluated in detail; a bullet was located in close proximity to the left common carotid artery. Neck exploration was performed and the foreign body was removed without any complications. The management of the patient is discussed, as are contemporary approaches to the treatment of penetrating neck trauma...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893892/gun-violence-and-firearm-safety-in-medical-school-curricula-missed-opportunities-to-improve-patient-health
#4
Arianna F Yanes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893047/the-road-ahead-for-personalized-firearms
#5
Joseph A Simonetti, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Frederick P Rivara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891354/emerging-trends-of-intentional-firearm-injuries-in-northern-india-a-study
#6
Iram Khan, Mohammad Shakeel, Jawed Ahmad Usmani, Syed Abrar Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Many developing countries are facing rise in firearm injury cases owing to communal and ethnic clashes, political violence, armed robberies and suicide causing huge economic loss to society. On the basis of intention, injuries can be categorized as intentional and unintentional or accidental injuries. Intentional injuries will include suicidal, homicidal and assault related injuries. AIM: This study was undertaken to document the trends and patterns associated with intentional firearm injuries in order to suggest ways to curb the emerging trends...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890139/toward-a-taxonomy-of-the-unintentional-discharge-of-firearms-in-law-enforcement
#7
John O'Neill, Dawn A O'Neill, William J Lewinski
An unintentional discharge (UD) is an activation of the trigger mechanism that results in an unplanned discharge that is outside of the firearm's prescribed use. UDs can result in injury or death, yet have been understudied in scientific literature. Pre-existing (1974-2015) UD reports (N = 137) from seven law enforcement agencies in the United States of America were analyzed by context, officer behavior, type of firearm, and injuries. Over 50% of UDs occurred in contexts with low threat potential while engaged in routine firearm tasks...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889442/current-perspectives-in-the-interpretation-of-gunshot-residues-in-forensic-science-a-review
#8
REVIEW
M Maitre, K P Kirkbride, M Horder, C Roux, A Beavis
The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level...
September 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884333/c-spine-injury-and-mandibular-fractures-lifesaver-broken-in-two-spots
#9
Michael W Chu, Tahereh Soleimani, Tyler A Evans, Sarah I Fernandez, Leigh Spera, Carrie Klene, Ben L Zarzaur, Sunil S Tholpady
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of injury and mortality and may involve mandibular fractures and cervical spine injuries. Manipulation of the spine during trauma protocols and operative treatment has the potential to cause serious spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with cervical spine injury (CSI) in patients with mandibular fractures. METHODS: The National Trauma Databank (2007-2010) was used to identify patients with mandibular fractures...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878903/striking-the-right-balance-police-experience-perceptions-and-use-of-independent-support-persons-during-interviews-involving-people-with-intellectual-disability
#10
Marie Henshaw, Benjamin Spivak, Stuart D M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Several jurisdictions mandate the presence of an independent support person during police interviews with vulnerable people. The current study investigated police officers' experiences and perceptions of these volunteers during interviews with people with intellectual disability(ies) (ID). METHODS: The sample comprised 229 police officers who attended a mandatory firearms training course in Melbourne, Australia, in 2010. RESULTS: Participants commonly reported utilizing independent support persons and displayed a fair understanding of their role...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873295/colleges-and-universities-sticking-to-their-guns
#11
Jesse Perez Mendez, Lou Sabina, Jon Loffi
Firearm possession on college and university campuses remains a volatile public policy issue among policymakers, legislators, scholars, and administrators. Given the American federal governmental structure, many states have developed legislative approaches to "carry on campus" policies throughout the years that align with federal law. This study explores the diversity of state approaches and nuances of "carry on campus" throughout recent years and current state legislation under consideration. The implications of "carry on campus" legislation vary on college campuses, depending on applicable state law; however, some general dynamics apply to all...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871133/civilian-cerebral-gunshot-wounds-a-south-african-experience
#12
Victor Kong, Jocinta Odendaal, Benn Sartorius, Damian Clarke, Petra Brysiewicz, Ellen Jerome, John Bruce, Grant Laing
BACKGROUND: Cerebral gunshot wounds represent one of the most lethal forms of traumatic brain injury, but there is a paucity of literature on the topic, especially from the developing world. We reviewed our experience and describe the spectrum and outcome of civilian cerebral gunshot wounds in a major metropolitan trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients with isolated cerebral gunshot wounds managed by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014...
November 21, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869931/-descriptive-study-of-the-profiles-of-victims-of-firearm-projectile-injuries-and-healthcare-costs-in-a-hospital-in-the-viva-sentinela-network
#13
Paulo Roberto Maciel, Marta Rovery de Souza, Claci Fátima Weirich Rosso
OBJECTIVE: to describe the profile of victims with injuries caused by firearm projectiles and the cost of treatment at a referral hospital in Midwestern Brazil belonging to the Viva Sentinela Network. METHODS: a descriptive study with convenience samplie was conducted from January to March 2013; data sources were interviews, patients' medical records, and the hospital statistics department. RESULTS: the 150 victims who participated were predominantly male (94...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866062/gunshot-residue-contamination-of-the-hands-of-police-officers-following-start-of-shift-handling-of-their-firearm
#14
Michael Cook
If police officers are contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) through the normal receiving, checking, loading, and securing of their issued firearm, there is the potential for secondary transfer of GSR to anyone those officers arrest during their shift. This 3-part study examined the level of GSR contamination of police officers following the start-of-shift handling of their standard issue firearm, the impact that hand-washing or the use of a self-drying hand-wash had on the level of GSR contamination, and the likelihood of officers re-contaminating their hands through contact with the exposed hand-grip of their holstered hand-gun...
November 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850135/495-firearm-injuries-in-children-in-the-usa-a-persistent-pervasive-public-health-issue
#15
Veerajalandhar Allareddy, Sankeerth Rampa, Romesh Nalliah, Min Kyeong Lee, Marcelo Auslender, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Alexandre Rotta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#16
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837014/concerns-with-entertainment-education-zombie-pandemic-preparedness-and-the-unanticipated-promotion-of-a-weapons-culture
#17
Frank Houghton, Jeremy Toms, Ghazal Meratnia, Krista Loney, Edward Hopkins, Katie Del Monte
Entertainment-education has proved to be an engaging medium through which to explore health and social issues in populations. Given the popularity of the zombie theme in popular culture it is no surprise therefore that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention adopted this theme in an effort to engage youth and young adults in emergency preparedness. However, an earlier observational study involving elementary school children based on this premise raised concerns that it may have unexpectedly promoted a focus on firearms...
November 10, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836155/mental-illness-and-firearms-legal-context-and-clinical-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Debra A Pinals, Lisa Anacker
Gun violence and mental illness is a major area of media attention, especially because highly publicized mass shootings seem to have become more commonly reported in the press. Gun access also is undergoing a highly politicized debate in the United States. It is important for mental health practitioners to understand the background and context of laws related to firearms access, and to understand data related to risk of suicide and violence toward others caused by gun violence among persons with mental illness...
December 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808033/trends-in-weapon-related-injuries-from-violence-in-odense-municipality-denmark-1991-2009
#19
Stefan Møller Luef, Jens Martin Lauritsen, Christian Faergemann
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783497/the-classification-of-gunshot-residue-using-laser-electrospray-mass-spectrometry-and-offline-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#20
Johnny J Perez, David A Watson, Robert J Levis
Nonresonant laser vaporization combined with high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry enables analysis of a casing after discharge of a firearm revealing organic signature molecules including methyl centralite (MC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-NO-DPA), 4-nitrodiphenylamine (4-NDPA), a DPA adduct and multiple unidentified features not observed in previous mass spectral measurements. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of unknown GSR signature ions reveals inorganic barium and derivatives BaOH, BaOHCH3, BaCH3COO remaining from the primer...
October 26, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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