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Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, Atami O Sagna, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means. METHODS: Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over)...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Meg Perceval, Kairi Kõlves, Victoria Ross, Prasuna Reddy, Diego De Leo
Farmers and farm workers have been recognised as a group at high risk of suicide in Australia. This study aims to identify and better understand environmental factors associated with suicide among Australian farmers and farm workers. Qualitative analysis was undertaken in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Male and female focus groups were conducted separately with people who lived or worked on a farm in six farming communities. Qualitative analyses showed that a number of environmental influences may contribute to the increased risk of suicide: extreme climatic events; isolation; service availability; access to, and frequent use of firearms; death and suffering of animals; government and legislation; technology; and property values...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Stephen Crystal, Jeffrey A Bridge, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVES: Among adolescents and young adults with nonfatal self-harm, our objective is to identify risk factors for repeated nonfatal self-harm and suicide death over the following year. METHODS: A national cohort of patients in the Medicaid program, aged 12 to 24 years ( n = 32 395), was followed for up to 1 year after self-harm. Cause of death information was obtained from the National Death Index. Repeat self-harm per 1000 person-years and suicide deaths per 100 000 person-years were determined...
March 19, 2018: Pediatrics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Dana E Goin, Kara E Rudolph, Jennifer Ahern
Interpersonal firearm violence is a leading cause of death and injuries in the United States. Identifying community characteristics associated with firearm violence is important to improve confounder selection and control in health research, to better understand community-level factors that are associated with firearm violence, and to enhance community surveillance and control of firearm violence. The objective of this research was to use machine learning to identify an optimal set of predictors for urban interpersonal firearm violence rates using a broad set of community characteristics...
March 14, 2018: Health & Place
Osnat Israelsohn-Azulay, Yigal Zidon, Tsadok Tsach
A shooting event involved several types of ammunition that were all shot from a single firearm. GSR analysis of samples taken from the suspect's hands, hair and from his clothes was carried out. Mixed compositions particles were found among other GSR particles, attributed to the weapon memory effect. SEM/EDX analysis of these particles highlighted a particle with defined domains containing distinct groups of elements. Some of these elements were absent in the primers mixtures of the ammunition used in the shooting event...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yi Zuo, Elizabeth C Pino, Mrithyunjay Vyliparambil, Bindu Kalesan
The majority of the burden of firearm injury in the United States is on men as compared to women. There is limited evidence regarding sex differences in short-term hospitalization outcomes after surviving firearm injury. The risk of cardiovascular and all-cause hospital readmission, length of stay (LOS), and costs within 180 days after surviving an index firearm injury was compared between males and females. A claims-based, retrospective, cohort study was performed using Nationwide Readmission Database (2013-2014) to obtain a cohort of patients who survived an index hospitalization of firearm injury...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Verica Radojicic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic, Feđa Puac, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic
Casings represent common evidence in a forensic laboratory, due to high frequency of firearms usage during perpetration of criminal offenses. Possible DNA evidence from casings is compromised by degradation, inhibition, and initial low-quantity deposition of biological material. For that reason, in the last 15 years, scientists have been trying to optimize procedures for recovery and amplification of DNA possibly present on its surface. In this study, we share our 12-year experience done on a total of 698 casework casings, comparing two DNA recovery methods commonly used-soaking and swabbing, as well as efficacy of two commercially available DNA amplification kits (AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® and AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kits)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Simon Chapman, Michael Stewart, Philip Alpers, Michael Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Aaron B Klassen, S Brent Core, Christine M Lohse, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
Study Objectives Law enforcement is increasingly viewed as a key component in the out-of-hospital chain of survival, with expanded roles in cardiac arrest, narcotic overdose, and traumatic bleeding. Little is known about the nature of care provided by law enforcement prior to the arrival of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) assets. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of events reported to a national EMS database. METHODS: This study was a descriptive analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set, containing EMS emergency response data from 41 states...
March 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Nichole MacPhee, Anne Savage, Nikolas Noton, Eilidh Beattie, Louise Milne, Joanna Fraser
Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Malou Guérant, Marie-Aude Vaz, Michel Peoc'h, Yvan Gaillard, Baptiste Boyer
Rubber bullets weapons can have tragic consequences when used at short range and on vulnerable body areas. A man in his forties was found deceased at his house, covered in blood. A "non-lethal" firearm was found near the bed: the «SAPL GC27». This is a single shot handgun with mini Gomm Cogne ammunition: 12 rubber spherical pellets, 7.4 mm in diameter. The findings were consistent with an intra buccal shot, and an ingestion-inhalation of blood and projectiles. Cause of the death was linked to both the hemorrhage due to mouth and aero digestive crossroad trauma, responsible of a mechanical asphyxia, and blood absorption in lungs...
March 2, 2018: Legal Medicine
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Brian Sullivan, Dennis Hilliard, Samara Viner-Brown, Nicole Alexander-Scott
CONTEXT: National data on the epidemiology of firearm injuries and circumstances of firearm deaths are difficult to obtain and often are nonreliable. Since firearm injury and death rates and causes can vary substantially between states, it is critical to consider state-specific data sources. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we illustrate how states can systematically examine demographic characteristics, firearm information, type of wound, toxicology tests, precipitating circumstances, and costs to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm injuries and deaths using data sets from a single state with relatively low rates of firearm injury and death...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Pina Violano, Stephanie Bonne, Thomas Duncan, Peter Pappas, A Britton Christmas, Andrew Dennis, Stephanie Goldberg, Wendy Greene, Michael Hirsh, William Shillinglaw, Bryce Robinson, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Over 50,000 homicides and suicides occur each year. An estimated half of all U.S. households are believed to have a firearm present, making them one of the most ubiquitous consumer products. Our goal was to determine if the manner of storage of a firearm in a home could potentially make a difference in the outcomes of intentional and unintentional injuries involving a firearm; specifically addressing the use of gun safes and devices that block/disable firearm function (trigger locks, cable locks, etc...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jack Tsai, Jianxun Shen, Steven M Southwick, Spencer Greenberg, Aislinn Pluta, Robert H Pietrzak
There has been little study of public literacy regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Public knowledge and attitudes about PTSD are important for encouraging treatment, prevention, and informing policies. Using a national online survey of 541 adults across 47 U.S. states in November 2016, we assessed attitudes and knowledge about PTSD. Most notably with respect to attitudes, 76-94% of the sample endorsed more federal funding for research, training, and practice for PTSD; and 76% of the sample also believed people with PTSD should have restricted access to firearms...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sasha Mintz, Ethan Jamison, Kirk Bol
Suicide is a public health concern with risks that vary between occupation groups. Many suicide victims with a health care occupation die by poisoning, but few studies have epidemiologically studied this association. The objective of this study was to quantify the increased risk of suicide death by poisoning among health care professionals in Colorado. Eleven years (2004-2014, N = 8,753) of suicide deaths in Colorado were compiled from the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. A retrospective cohort study using multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the risk associated with having a health care occupation and eventual suicide death by poisoning, compared independently to firearm and hanging methods...
March 7, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Elinore J Kaufman, Christopher N Morrison, Charles C Branas, Douglas J Wiebe
Importance: Firearm laws in one state may be associated with increased firearm death rates from homicide and suicide in neighboring states are uncertain. Objective: To determine whether counties located closer to states with lenient firearm policies have higher firearm death rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of firearm death rates by county for January 2010 to December 2014 examined data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for firearm suicide and homicide decedents for 3108 counties in the 48 contiguous states of the United States...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Robert Steinbrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Adam Lankford
In the United States and Europe, the distinction between public mass shooters and suicide terrorists no longer seems particularly meaningful. A number of public mass shooters have considered using bombs and claimed to be sacrificing themselves for an ideological cause, and many suicide terrorists have attacked without organizational support, using firearms, for what appear to be largely personal reasons. Previous research has also documented several common factors in these offenders' lives, including (a) suicidal motives and life indifference, (b) perceived victimization, and (c) desires for attention or fame...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Karin Beckman, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz, Margda Waern, Henrik Larsson, Bo Runeson, Marie Dahlin
BACKGROUND: Self-harm is common in youth and an important risk factor for suicide. Certain self-harm methods might indicate a higher risk of suicide. The main aim of this study was to determine whether some methods of self-harm in adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-24 years) are associated with a particularly high risk of suicide. A secondary aim was to ascertain how different self-harm methods might affect the probability of psychiatric follow-up. METHOD: Five Swedish registers were linked in a national population-based cohort study...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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