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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331990/changes-in-the-legal-environment-and-enforcement-of-firearm-transfer-laws-in-pennsylvania-and-maryland
#1
Cassandra K Crifasi, Molly Merrill-Francis, Daniel W Webster, Garen J Wintemute, Jon S Vernick
The effectiveness of laws depends on circumstances affecting their enforcement. To assess such circumstances for comprehensive background check (CBC) and straw purchase laws for firearm sales, we examined prosecutions for CBC and straw purchase violations in Pennsylvania and CBC violations in Maryland. We generated pre-post variables and conducted t-tests to assess differences in the mean number of prosecutions filed following changes to the legal environments. The annual number of prosecutions for straw purchase violations increased significantly in Pennsylvania following the passage of a law that strengthened penalties for these violations (difference in means = +1310...
January 13, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331680/estimating-error-rates-for-firearm-evidence-identifications-in-forensic-science
#2
John Song, Theodore V Vorburger, Wei Chu, James Yen, Johannes A Soons, Daniel B Ott, Nien Fan Zhang
Estimating error rates for firearm evidence identification is a fundamental challenge in forensic science. This paper describes the recently developed congruent matching cells (CMC) method for image comparisons, its application to firearm evidence identification, and its usage and initial tests for error rate estimation. The CMC method divides compared topography images into correlation cells. Four identification parameters are defined for quantifying both the topography similarity of the correlated cell pairs and the pattern congruency of the registered cell locations...
December 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330044/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-heart-rate-variability-cortisol-levels-and-behavioural-response-induced-by-thunder-sound-in-beagles
#3
Carolina Elisabetta Martins Maccariello, Carla Caroline Franzini de Souza, Laura Morena, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Magda Alves de Medeiros
Sound stimuli such as fireworks, firearms, and claps of thunder have been used as a stress reactivity model for dogs. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat and prevent physiological and behavioural disorders induced by stress. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability - HRV), behavioural (reactivity) and endocrine (cortisol levels) responses in dogs exposed to sounds of thunder. Twenty-four laboratory beagles (12 males and 12 females, 1-6years old) with no history of phobia to thunder were subjected to a sound stimulus that consisted of a standardized recording of thunder over a 150s period with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB...
January 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323805/wisconsin-firearm-mortality-2000-2014
#4
Wen-Jan Tuan, John J Frey
BACKGROUND: Despite low firearm mortality rates in Wisconsin, overall firearm fatalities continue to rise in recent years. In 2013, the statewide age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 9.6 per 100,000 persons, the highest mark since the new millennium. This raises not only public safety concerns, but also raises questions regarding ongoing gun violence. OBJECTIVES: To describe the population and geographic characteristics of firearm mortality rates on population and geographic characteristics in Wisconsin...
November 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320540/discerning-suicide-in-drug-intoxication-deaths-paucity-and-primacy-of-suicide-notes-and-psychiatric-history
#5
Ian R H Rockett, Eric D Caine, Hilary S Connery, Gail D'Onofrio, David J Gunnell, Ted R Miller, Kurt B Nolte, Mark S Kaplan, Nestor D Kapusta, Christa L Lilly, Lewis S Nelson, Sandra L Putnam, Steven Stack, Peeter Värnik, Lynn R Webster, Haomiao Jia
OBJECTIVE: A paucity of corroborative psychological and psychiatric evidence may be inhibiting detection of drug intoxication suicides in the United States. We evaluated the relative importance of suicide notes and psychiatric history in the classification of suicide by drug intoxication versus firearm (gunshot wound) plus hanging/suffocation-the other two major, but overtly violent methods. METHODS: This observational multilevel (individual/county), multivariable study employed a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to analyze pooled suicides and undetermined intent deaths, as possible suicides, among the population aged 15 years and older in the 17 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System throughout 2011-2013...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319406/completed-suicide-in-an-autopsy-confirmed-case-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jennifer Wiener Hartzell, Richard Geary, Kymberly Gyure, Venkata Ravi Chivukula, Marc W Haut
We report a case of a 57-year-old male with clinically diagnosed and autopsy-confirmed early onset Alzheimer's disease who completed suicide by gunshot wound to the chest. This case has several unique aspects that have not been discussed in previous case reports of completed suicide in Alzheimer's disease. In particular, our patient's death was highly planned with successful compensation for his cognitive deficits. After all firearms had been removed from the home as a safety precaution, he obtained a new weapon, hid it and left himself cues to find and use it...
January 10, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315544/homicide-suicide-in-cuyahoga-county-ohio-1991-2016
#7
Wendy C Regoeczi, Thomas Gilson
Research on homicides followed by suicides has relied heavily on small samples and relatively short time spans of data. This study helps to fill this gap by examining 26 years of homicide-suicide data from Cuyahoga County, Ohio, between 1991 and 2016. The main data source for the study is medical examiner files. Analyses of the data indicate the rate of homicide-suicide in Cuyahoga County is consistent with other studies but fluctuates considerably across years studied. The majority of victims are female while perpetrators are overwhelmingly male...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309221/child-mortality-in-the-us-and-19-oecd-comparator-nations-a-50-year-time-trend-analysis
#8
Ashish P Thakrar, Alexandra D Forrest, Mitchell G Maltenfort, Christopher B Forrest
The United States has poorer child health outcomes than other wealthy nations despite greater per capita spending on health care for children. To better understand this phenomenon, we examined mortality trends for the US and nineteen comparator nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for children ages 0-19 from 1961 to 2010 using publicly available data. While child mortality progressively declined across all countries, mortality in the US has been higher than in peer nations since the 1980s...
January 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307927/tomographic-aspects-of-penetrating-thoracic-trauma-injuries-from-firearms-and-other-weapons
#9
Alessandro Severo Alves de Melo, Luiza Beatriz Melo Moreira, Fernanda Miraldi Clemente Pessoa, Nara Saint-Martin, Roger Ancilotti Filho, Arthur Soares Souza, Edson Marchiori
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the various computed tomography findings in penetrating chest trauma, as well as to determine the frequency and extent of the lesions. Material and Methods: We studied the computed tomography findings from 40 cases of penetrating thoracic trauma, of which 35 (85.8%) were gunshot wounds and 5 (14.2%) were caused by another type of weapon. Results: Pulmonary lesions were found in 39 cases (97.5%), manifesting as contusions in 34 cases (85%), atelectasis in 8 (20%), lacerations in 1 (2...
November 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306693/the-iraqi-national-study-of-suicide-report-on-suicide-data-in-iraq-in-2015-and-2016
#10
Mohammed J Abbas, Nesif Alhemiary, Emad Abdul Razaq, Shakir Naosh, Louis Appleby
BACKGROUND: Very little is known regarding the epidemiology of suicides in Iraq, given the lack of a national surveillance system. Therefore, the government initiated this project "The Iraqi National Study of Suicide METHODS: The study covered 13 (out of 18) provinces in Iraq. A data collection form was designed by the researchers. The forms were completed by police stations in the 13 provinces. Data were extracted from the legal investigation (which include police investigation, family reports and postmortem reports) of cases of when there was no clear cause of death and where there was final verdict of suicide made by judge after examining these reports...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304027/socio-demographic-and-mental-health-profile-of-admitted-cases-of-self-inflicted-harm-in-the-us-population
#11
Chris Hanuscin, Golara Zahmatkesh, Anaheed Shirazi, Deyu Pan, Senait Teklehaimanot, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi
Self-inflicted harm (SIH) has a substantial lifetime prevalence, it is associated with tremendous costs, and its rate is increasing on a national scale. To examine the characteristics of those admitted for SIH in the US and to investigate the factors that potentially modify the methods used for SIH. This was a retrospective analysis of admitted cases of SIH including suicide attempts between 2007 and 2012 using the National Trauma Data Bank. We included a total of 204,633 cases admitted for SIH. Our participants were 75...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299940/the-reduction-of-gunshot-noise-and-auditory-risk-through-the-use-of-firearm-suppressors-and-low-velocity-ammunition
#12
William J Murphy, Gregory A Flamme, Adam R Campbell, Edward L Zechmann, Stephen M Tasko, James E Lankford, Deanna K Meinke, Donald S Finan, Michael Stewart
OBJECTIVE: This research assessed the reduction of peak levels, equivalent energy and sound power of firearm suppressors. DESIGN: The first study evaluated the effect of three suppressors at four microphone positions around four firearms. The second study assessed the suppressor-related reduction of sound power with a 3 m hemispherical microphone array for two firearms. RESULTS: The suppressors reduced exposures at the ear between 17 and 24 dB peak sound pressure level and reduced the 8 h equivalent A-weighted energy between 9 and 21 dB depending upon the firearm and ammunition...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294938/on-lethal-interactions-differences-between-expressive-and-instrumental-homicides-in-mexico-city
#13
Rodrigo Meneses-Reyes, Miguel Quintana-Navarrete
Research on violence in Mexico and Latin America suggests that, in part, due to state attempts to fight organized crime and the widespread availability of firearms, violence and homicides in general have experienced a recent shift from expressive to instrumental. Despite this transformation, however, socioeconomically disadvantaged young males continue to be overwhelmingly present in homicide events. We argue that both the use of a firearm and demographic and traditional socioeconomic factors should independently predict instrumental homicide; however, the association between the use of a firearm and instrumentality should be moderated by the level or category of these traditional characteristics (i...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294789/illegal-firearm-availability-and-violence-neighborhood-level-analysis
#14
Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Daiwon Lee, Jesenia M Pizarro
Violence involving firearms poses a serious threat to public safety in urban areas. The present study examines how illegal firearm availability (IFA) is related to firearm violence at the neighborhood level. We analyzed 3 years (from 2005 to 2007) of recovered firearm and violent index crime data from Newark, New Jersey. Violent index crime is separated into three categories by level of firearm use: shootings, display of firearm violence (DFV), and no-firearm violence (NFV). Negative binominal regression was conducted to examine the relationship between IFA and firearm violence at the neighborhood level while controlling for neighborhood conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283962/variability-of-child-access-prevention-laws-and-pediatric-firearm-injuries
#15
Emma C Hamilton, Charles C Miller, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Mary T Austin
BACKGROUND: State-level Child Access Prevention (CAP) laws impose criminal liability on adults who negligently allow children access to firearms. CAP laws can be further divided into strong CAP laws which impose criminal liability for negligently stored firearms and weak CAP laws that prohibit adults from intentionally, knowingly, and/or recklessly providing firearms to a minor.We hypothesized that strong CAP laws would be associated with a greater reduction in pediatric firearm injuries than weak CAP laws...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283961/injuries-associated-with-police-use-of-force
#16
William P Bozeman, Jason P Stopyra, David A Klinger, Brian P Martin, Derrel D Graham, James C Johnson, Katherine Mahoney-Tesoriero, Sydney J Vail
BACKGROUND: Use of Force [UOF] by police can result in serious injuries and fatalities. The risk of significant injuries associated with different force modalities is poorly defined. We sought to determine the incidence of police UOF and compare the likelihood of significant injury with different force modalities. METHODS: A prospective multicenter observational study of all UOF incidents was conducted via mandatory UOF investigations at three mid-sized police agencies over a two year period...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283002/twenty-three-years-1993-2015-of-homicide-trends-in-the-transkei-region-of-south-africa
#17
Meel Banwari
Background Transkei is regarded as a rural part of South Africa. It was one of the black homelands where rigorous apartheid was practised. The incidence of firearm-related deaths used to be very high, but after the implementation of the Firearm Control Act in 2002, the trend changed. However, the murder rate is still a major public-health problem in this region of South Africa. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate 23 years (1993-2015) of homicide trends in the Transkei region of South Africa. Method A review of records of medico-legal autopsies performed at Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory from 1993 to 2015 was undertaken...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282240/prohibition-of-persons-with-mental-illness-from-gun-ownership-under-tyler
#18
Alan R Felthous, Jeffrey Swanson
The U.S. Supreme Court's Heller and McDonald decisions are the most important legal affirmations of the right of U.S. citizens to possess and bear firearms under the Second Amendment. Heller and McDonald are also significant in citing persons with mental illness as an exceptional group, whose right may be restricted by the U.S. Government. From 1968 onward, federal and state governments have enacted legislation prohibiting gun ownership by persons with mental illness who have been involuntarily committed to an institution or deemed by a legal authority to be dangerous or mentally incompetent...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278822/slight-variations-of-breech-face-marks-and-firing-pin-impressions-over-3070-consecutive-firings-evaluated-by-evofinder%C3%A2
#19
Kaifeng Zhang, Yaping Luo
To investigate if and how the breech face mark and firing pin impression change over repeated firings, we used an automated ballistic identification system Evofinder® to study cartridge cases fired from five Chinese Norinco QSZ-92 9×19mm pistols. Each pistol fired 3070 consecutive shots. The first 20 cartridge cases were all introduced into the system. From the 21st until the 3070th shot, every ten cartridge cases were collected and one random sample of each group was introduced as the 30th, 40th, …, 3070th round...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261526/response-hidden-costs-of-hospitalization-after-firearm-injury
#20
Rishi Rattan, Nicholas Namias, Tanya L Zakrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
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