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Tamale Andrew, Ejobi Francis, Muyanja Charles, Irene Naigaga, Nakavuma Jesca, Ocaido Micheal, Katuhoire Anne, Amulen Deborah
Fish consumption is a lifestyle in fishing communities influenced by individual and communal perceptions. However, information about individual perceptions about fish consumption in the vulnerable fishing community in a developing country is lacking. Without this study, the benefits of fish consumption in a vulnerable community may not be realized. Data collection was executed using key informant interviews and survey structured questionnaires. The key informants include fisheries, community development, veterinary, community and environmental officers...
December 31, 2016: Cogent Food Agric
Joel I Cohen
INTRODUCTION: In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection...
2016: SpringerPlus
Thabang Manyaapelo, Robert A C Ruiter, Anam Nyembezi, Bart van den Borne, Sibusiso Sifunda, Priscilla Reddy
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was conducted among 350 sexually active, mainly unemployed men between the ages of 18 and 35 in KwaZulu-Natal. This study examined the psychosocial determinants of the intention to be sexually active after having used marijuana or alcohol personally or in instances when the sexual partner is intoxicated. The theory of planned behaviour and cultural notions of responsible manhood were used in developing the measures. METHODS: Correlation and hierarchical stepwise linear regression analyses tested determinants of the intention to avoid having sex when personally intoxicated and the intention to avoid sex when the sexual partner is intoxicated...
2016: BMC Public Health
Anathi Ntozini, Hlonelwa Ngqangweni
This paper explores the lives of gay men undergoing traditional initiation in the Eastern Cape. Nine participants aged between 18 and 26 reported their reasons for becoming traditionally circumcised, which included personal validation of cultural manhood, the desire to conform to societal norms and expectations, and pressure from family members to 'convert' them to heterosexuality. While homosexuality remains a target for vilification and abuse both in Southern Africa and across the African continent, practices such as ulwaluko (traditional male initiation) must surely be among the most threatening to a young gay Xhosa man's self-esteem...
November 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Barnaby B Barratt
The intergenerational transmission of psychic life has been difficult to explore psychoanalytically given that a treatment of both parent and child is rarely, if ever, feasible. Here the issue is explored in terms of father-son relationships. Three legendary fathers (Abraham, Laius, Shiva) are discussed as illustrating the filicidal legacy they imposed psychically and corporeally on their sons. Three contemporary case vignettes are then presented, indicating ways in which sons ambivalently memorialize their fathers...
April 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
Mbuyiselo Douglas, Charles Hongoro
The responsiveness to socioeconomic determinants is perceived as highly crucial in preventing the high mortality and morbidity rates of traditional male circumcision initiates in the Eastern Cape, a province in South Africa. The study sought to describe social determinants and explore economic determinants related to traditional circumcision of boys from 12 to 18 years of age in Libode rural communities in Eastern Cape Province. From the results of a descriptive cross-sectional survey (n = 1,036), 956 (92.2%) boys preferred traditional male circumcision because of associated social determinants which included the variables for the attainment of social manhood values and benefits; 403 (38...
March 18, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Faedra Backus Dagirmanjian, James R Mahalik, Justin Boland, Alexander Colbow, Joseph Dunn, Anthony Pomarico, Daniel Rappaport
In this study, we examine men's constructions of violence and their explanations of their own violent behavior. Interviews were conducted with 12 adult men, employed in industrial and manual labor, regarding their associations with violence, their reasons for engaging in violent behavior, and their reasons for not engaging in violent behavior. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, our findings indicated that men's constructions of violence and their justifications for engaging in violence were linked to their constructions of masculinity and what it meant to them to be a man...
January 14, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Tamara Shefer, Lou-Marie Kruger, Yeshe Schepers
South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Rosalijn Both
This paper examines the non-prescription use of the sexual enhancement drug Viagra by young men in Addis Ababa. Data was collected through repeated in-depth interviews with 14 Viagra users - heterosexual men between the ages of 21 and 35 - and focus-group discussions with 21 male and 22 female university students. Study participants turned to Viagra to impress lovers, as a 'support mechanism' when feeling weak or tired, to counteract the effects of chewing the stimulant plant khat and to satisfy what they perceived as a psychological 'addiction'...
2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Derek M Griffith, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Marino A Bruce, Roland J Thorpe, Jonathan M Metzl
In this article, we explore themes that cut across how 24- to 77-year-old African American men define manhood and health. Utilizing a thematic approach, we analyzed data from 9 focus groups (N = 73). We found that manhood and health were relational constructs that are interrelated in men's minds and experiences. Manhood and health were defined by the characteristics men embody, the behaviors men engage in, and the goals and values men had to positively influence their families and communities. Thus, manhood and health are interdependent constructs and their interrelationship should be considered in efforts to promote African American men's health...
October 2015: Family & Community Health
Ekaterina Netchaeva, Maryam Kouchaki, Leah D Sheppard
Across three studies, we investigate men's reactions to women in superior roles. Drawing from precarious manhood theory, we hypothesize that when a woman occupies a superior organizational role, men in subordinate positions experience threat, which leads them to behave more assertively toward her and advocate for themselves. In Studies 1 and 2, we demonstrate that men feel more threatened (relative to women) by women in superior roles (relative to men in superior roles) and, as a result, engage in more assertive behaviors toward these women...
September 2015: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Mellissa Withers, Shari L Dworkin, Jennifer M Zakaras, Maricianah Onono, Beryl Oyier, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Daniel Grossman, Sara J Newmann
Gender inequity has been closely linked with unmet need for family planning among women in sub-Saharan Africa but the factors related to male family planning disapproval are not well-understood. This qualitative study explored men's perspectives of gender roles and cultural norms as they pertain to family planning. Twelve small group meetings were held with 106 married men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Shifting gender relations made the definitions of manhood more tenuous than ever. Men's previous identities as sole breadwinners, which gave them significant control over decision-making, were being undermined by women's increasing labour force participation...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Joyce Wamoyi, Aika Mongi, Mtenga Sally, Deodatus Kakoko, Donat Shamba, Eveline Geubbels, Saidi Kapiga
BACKGROUND: The risk of contracting HIV through heterosexual anal sex (HAS) is significantly higher than from vaginal intercourse. Little has been done to understand the discourses around HAS and terms people use to describe the practice in Tanzania. A better understanding of discourses on HAS would offer useful insights for measurement of the practice as well as designing appropriate interventions to minimise the risks inherent in the practice. METHODS: This study employed qualitative approaches involving 24 focus group discussions and 81 in-depth interviews...
2015: BMC Public Health
Meel Banwari
BACKGROUND: Traditional circumcision (initiation) is an integral part of the Xhosa speaking communities. Circumcision is the first step towards manhood. It involves a number of cultural, religious, legal and ethical issues, which in terms of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa, are rights that must be protected. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the problem of circumcision related death in South Africa. CASE REPORT: This case report examines a 16- year boy who had died as result of botched circumcision by an unqualified traditional surgeon...
March 2015: African Health Sciences
Dennis E Reidy, Kathryn A Brookmeyer, Brittany Gentile, Danielle S Berke, Amos Zeichner
Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization...
February 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Ester Carolina Apesoa-Varano, Judith C Barker, Ladson Hinton
The experience of depression is diverse based on social locations and context. A sociological perspective building on masculinity, illness work, and the self provides a useful theoretical framework to understand how older men negotiate emotional suffering. This article examines older men's accounts of their depression experience from a social constructionist approach. This analysis is based on data from 77 in-depth interviews with depressed older men who participated in a larger mixed-method study, the Men's Health and Aging Study (MeHAS)...
January 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Salwa G Massad, Rita Karam, Ryan Brown, Peter Glick, Mohammed Shaheen, Sebastian Linnemayr, Umaiyeh Khammash
BACKGROUND: Young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are profoundly affected by violence, high unemployment, and economic hardship. Experiences of community-level violence and personal trauma increase the likelihood that young people will engage in risky behaviors that include smoking, drug use, and unsafe sex. Little is known about the sexual behavior of young people in the region, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Our aim in this study was to gain an insight into the perceived prevalence and patterns of sexual behavior among Palestinian youth...
2014: BMC Public Health
Marni Sommer, Samuel Likindikoki, S Kaaya
We explored the masculinity norms shaping transitions through puberty in rural and urban Tanzania and how these norms and their social-ecological context contribute to high-risk health behaviors. We conducted a qualitative case study of adolescent boys in and out of school in 2011 and 2012. Tanzania's social and economic development is reshaping the transition into young manhood. Adolescent boys are losing traditional mechanisms of pubertal guidance, and new meanings of manhood are arising from globalization...
December 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Jeremiah Chikovore, Graham Hart, Moses Kumwenda, Geoffrey A Chipungu, Nicola Desmond, Liz Corbett
BACKGROUND: Men's healthcare-seeking delay results in higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and implies contribution to ongoing community-level TB transmission before initiating treatment. We investigated masculinity's role in healthcare-seeking delay for men with TB-suggestive symptoms, with a view to developing potential interventions for men. METHODS: Data were collected during March 2011- March 2012 in three high-density suburbs in urban Blantyre...
2014: BMC Public Health
Scott Griffiths, Jonathan M Mond, Stuart B Murray, Stephen Touyz
OBJECTIVE: To date, studies of stigma relating to eating disorders have been largely confined to surveys of the public. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of stigma as reported by individuals with eating disorders. METHOD: An online survey designed to assess frequency of exposure to potentially stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs as well as the perceived impact of this on health and well-being was completed by a cross-national sample of 317 individuals with anorexia nervosa (n = 165), bulimia nervosa (n = 66), or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS; n = 86)...
September 2015: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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