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Younoh Kim, Vlad Radoias
Asymptomatic conditions such as hypertension are generally hard to diagnose, absent routine medical examinations. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where most citizens do not engage in routine examinations due to limited economic resources. We study the roles of education and individual time preferences in asymptomatic disease detection and management. Using discrete choice models on a sample of 4209 hypertensive Indonesian adults surveyed between November 2007 and April 2008, we find that both education and individual time preferences play important roles...
February 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Igor Ryabov
The present study used nationally-representative data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) merged with census-track data from the 2010 United States Census to model racial/ethnic disparities in spending on fresh and processed fruit and vegetables as a function of residential racial/ethnic segregation, income, household size and structure, educational attainment, marital status, age and sex. Results indicate that, in the absence of any controls, African-Americans and Hispanics tend to spend less on vegetables than non-Hispanic whites...
March 1, 2016: Appetite
Gulrez Hanif Raja, Faisal Shafiq Malik, Ulfat Bashir, Attaullah
BACKGROUND: The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
William Murray Thomson, Jiaxu Zeng, Jonathan M Broadbent, Lyndie A Foster Page, Idan Shalev, Terrie E Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Sheila M Williams, Antony W Braithwaite, Stephen P Robertson, Richie Poulton
AIM: The aim of the study was to examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a long-standing prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were as follows: (i) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion and (ii) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Margaret Ralston, Enid Schatz, Jane Menken, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman
Social protection grants play a critical role in survival and livelihoods of elderly individuals in South Africa. Rarely is it possible to assess how well a social program reaches its target population. Using a 2010 survey and Agincourt Health Demographic Surveillance System census data we conduct multivariate logistic regression to predict pension receipt in rural South Africa. We find only 80% of age-eligible individuals report pension receipt. Pension non-recipients tend to be male, have poor socio-economic status, live in smaller households, be of Mozambican origin, and have poorer physical function; while older persons living in households receiving other grants are more likely to report pension receipt...
January 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ritu Karoli, Jalees Fatima, Shiv Sagar Gupta, Vaibhav Shukla, Moidurrehman, Mohammad Manhar
BACKGROUND: While vitamin D is critical for calcium homeostasis, current literature also highlight role of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in diseases other than the metabolic bone disorders. Only few studies on role of vitamin D in tuberculosis have been done in Asian populations. There is paucity of literature addressing this issue in Indian population as well. AIM: We planned to study prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis and to compare it with patients who had non-tuberculosis medical illnesses and healthy individuals with the hypothesis that patients with tuberculosis might have higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D...
June 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yohama Caraballo-Arias
INTRODUCTION: Venezuela has pioneered a preventive-focused and comprehensive movement for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Latin America. However, despite being an oil-rich country, it has some of the lowest salaries for their workers and highest levels of hyperinflation, devaluation, crime, and violence of the world. OBJECTIVES: Review the current status and challenges on relevant aspects of OSH in Venezuela. METHODS: Review of literature and documents from national governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and the Venezuelan government concerning OSH and related topics since 1986...
July 2015: Annals of Global Health
Francisca Alves Cardoso, Sandra Assis, Charlotte Henderson
BACKGROUND: The inference of the state of wealth or poverty from human skeletal remains is a difficult task, as the limited number of skeletal changes are mediated by numerous other physiological, biomechanical and pathological events. In recent years, identified skeletal collections have become valuable resources in enabling aetiologies of these changes to be understood while controlling for some known causative factors, e.g. age, sex and occupation. This has favoured more rigorous data analysis and interpretation...
2016: Annals of Human Biology
Tessa Hart, Jesse R Fann, Inna Chervoneva, Shannon B Juengst, Joseph A Rosenthal, Jason W Krellman, Laura E Dreer, Kurt Kroenke
OBJECTIVE: To determine at 1 year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury the (1) rate of clinically significant anxiety; (2) rates of specific symptoms of anxiety; (3) risk factors for anxiety; and (4) associations of anxiety with other 1-year outcomes, including participation and quality of life. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal observational study. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation centers, with data capture at injury and 1-year follow-up...
May 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
S G Nicholls, H Pohlabeln, I De Bourdeaudhuij, C Chadjigeorgiou, W Gwozdz, A Hebestreit, F Lauria, L Lissner, D Molnár, A M Santaliestra-Pasías, T Veidebaum, G Williams
INTRODUCTION: From April 2008 to August 2010 the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) intervention aimed to encourage healthier diets, higher physical activity levels and lower stress levels among European children and their families. While the intervention was intended to improve children's health, we also wished to assess whether there were unwelcome aspects or negative side-effects. Therefore all parents of children who participated in the IDEFICS intervention were asked for their views on different aspects of the intervention...
December 2015: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lucas G Gimenez, Hugo B Krupitzki, Allison M Momany, Juan A Gili, Fernando A Poletta, Hebe Campaña, Viviana R Cosentino, César Saleme, Mariela Pawluk, Jeffrey C Murray, Eduardo E Castilla, Enrique C Gadow, Jorge S Lopez-Camelo
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to characterize and compare the maternal and newborn epidemiological characteristics through analysis of environmental factors, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical characteristics between the different clinical subtypes of preterm birth (PTB): Idiopathic (PTB-I), premature rupture of the membranes (PTB-PPROM) and medically indicated (PTB-M). The two subtypes PTB-I and PTB-PPROM grouped are called spontaneous preterm births (PTB-S). METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in 1...
October 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Xiang Qian Lao, WenJun Ma, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, YongHui Zhang, YanJun Xu, XiaoJun Xu, ShaoPing Nie, QiuMao Cai, Liang Xia, XueFen Su, Lei Jin, Tony Tam, Benny Chung-ying Zee
BACKGROUND: Social changes and economic development are associated with obesity epidemic. This study is to investigate the trends of socio-economic disparity in obesity from 2002 to 2010 in a Chinese population experiencing the world's fastest economic development. METHODS: Four standardized surveys were conducted in a population of 85 million residents in Guangdong, China between 2002 and 2010. Multistage random cluster sampling was used to recruit representative samples...
2015: BMC Public Health
Norma K Ruppen-Greeff, Markus A Landolt, Rita Gobet, Daniel M Weber
INTRODUCTION: Men with corrected hypospadias often suffer from sexual inhibition and fear of being ridiculed by others because of their penile appearance. However, no investigation has thus far been made of the perception of hypospadias-affected surgically repaired genitals by laypersons unacquainted with hypospadias. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether laypersons notice a difference between genitals of men with corrected hypospadias in comparison with circumcised genitals...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Eirini Flouri, Emily Midouhas, Alexandra Ruddy
We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment...
January 2016: Health & Place
Shervin Assari, Sarah Burgard
INTRODUCTION: More studies are needed to examine whether race moderates the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on cause-specific mortality including deaths due to renal diseases in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The present longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on deaths due to renal diseases over a 25-year period in a nationally representative community sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, a nationally representative cohort that followed 3361 Black (n = 1156) or White (n = 2205) adults 25 and older for up to 25 years from 1986 to 2011...
2015: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
A Muraro, W J Fokkens, S Pietikainen, D Borrelli, I Agache, J Bousquet, V Costigliola, G Joos, V J Lund, L K Poulsen, D Price, C Rolland, T Zuberbier, P W Hellings
On 14 October 2015, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG)...
December 2015: Rhinology
Helena Doležalová, Josef Zemek, Luboš Tuček
INTRODUCTION: Cellulitis remains a very serious disease even today. Mortality, which varied between 10-40%, has been reduced owing to the standard securing of airway patency and use of an appropriate surgical treatment approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 195 patients were hospitalised for cellulitis at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové during 2007-2011. The following parameters were evaluated: age, gender, dependence of incidence of the disease on the season of the year, frequency of attacks of the particular areas and their clinical characteristics, aetiology of the inflammation, types of patient complaints, prevalence of current systemic diseases, results of microbiological and selected laboratory analyses, socio-economic status of the patients, and duration of patient stay at the hospital...
2015: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Sevilay Temel, Özcan Erdem, Toon A J J Voorham, Gouke J Bonsel, Eric A P Steegers, Semiha Denktaş
BACKGROUND: To study the knowledge of a large city population on preconception folic acid supplementation and intention to seek for preconception care within an urban perinatal health program. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys run in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in 2007 and annually from 2009 to 2014. A random sample of residents aged between 16 and 85 years was taken each year from the municipal population register. Bivariate analysis, interaction analysis, trend analysis and logistic regression were performed...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
An-Sofie Pinket, Marieke De Craemer, Lea Maes, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Odysseas Androutsos, Berthold Koletzko, Luis Moreno, Piotr Socha, Violeta Iotova, Yannis Manios, Wendy Van Lippevelde
OBJECTIVE: To study the quantity and quality of water intake from beverages among pre-schoolers and investigate associations with gender and socio-economic status (SES). DESIGN: Kindergarten-based cross-sectional survey within the large-scale European ToyBox-study. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in sociodemographic data and a semi-quantitative FFQ. SETTING: Kindergartens in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain)...
September 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Emma P Hall-Scullin
DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. INTERVENTION: Clusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks...
December 2015: Evidence-based Dentistry
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