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Stereotype threat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094772/cardiac-afferent-activity-modulates-the-expression-of-racial-stereotypes
#1
Ruben T Azevedo, Sarah N Garfinkel, Hugo D Critchley, Manos Tsakiris
Negative racial stereotypes tend to associate Black people with threat. This often leads to the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons held by a Black individual. Yet, little is known about how bodily states impact the expression of racial stereotyping. By tapping into the phasic activation of arterial baroreceptors, known to be associated with changes in the neural processing of fearful stimuli, we show activation of race-threat stereotypes synchronized with the cardiovascular cycle. Across two established tasks, stimuli depicting Black or White individuals were presented to coincide with either the cardiac systole or diastole...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073332/an-examination-of-age-based-stereotype-threat-about-cognitive-decline
#2
Sarah J Barber
"Stereotype threat" is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Drawing upon the multithreat framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the forms of stereotype threat experienced by other groups (e...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070918/stereotype-threat-and-social-function-in-opioid-substitution-therapy-patients
#3
Courtney von Hippel, Julie D Henry, Gill Terrett, Kimberly Mercuri, Karen McAlear, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. METHODS: Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001333/breast-related-stereotype-threat-contributes-to-a-symptom-cluster-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#4
Jie Li, Wei Gao, Li-Xiang Yu, Song-Ying Zhu, Feng-Lin Cao
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate the prevalence of breast-related stereotype threat (BRST) and its effects on a symptom cluster consisting of anxiety, depression, and fatigue and on each symptom. BACKGROUND: The stereotype that breasts are a sign of women's femininity results in breast cancer patients fearing diminished femininity and rejection, which may induce psychological problems that co-occur as a symptom cluster. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893260/brain-drain-an-examination-of-stereotype-threat-effects-during-training-on-knowledge-acquisition-and-organizational-effectiveness
#5
James A Grand
Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853324/self-image-threat-decreases-stereotyping-the-role-of-motivation-toward-closure
#6
Małgorzata Kossowska, Marcin Bukowski, Ana Guinote, Piotr Dragon, Arie W Kruglanski
Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3)...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847491/social-threat-and-motor-resonance-when-a-menacing-outgroup-delays-motor-response
#7
Roberta Capellini, Simona Sacchi, Paola Ricciardelli, Rossana Actis-Grosso
Motor resonance (MR) involves the activation of matching motor representations while observing others' actions. Recent research has shown that such a phenomenon is likely to be influenced by higher order variables such as social factors (e.g., ethnic group membership). The present study investigates whether and how the perception of a social threat elicited by an outgroup member and by contextual cues can modulate motor responses while an individual observes others' movements. In an experimental study based on an action observation paradigm, we asked participants to provide answers through computer mouse movements (MouseTracker)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803680/survey-satisficing-inflates-stereotypical-responses-in-online-experiment-the-case-of-immigration-study
#8
Asako Miura, Tetsuro Kobayashi
Though survey satisficing, grudging cognitive efforts required to provide optimal answers in the survey response process, poses a serious threat to the validity of online experiments, a detailed explanation of the mechanism has yet to be established. Focusing on attitudes toward immigrants, we examined the mechanism by which survey satisficing distorts treatment effect estimates in online experiments. We hypothesized that satisficers would display more stereotypical responses than non-satisficers would when presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about an immigrant...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732074/an-agent-based-intervention-to-assist-drivers-under-stereotype-threat-effects-of-in-vehicle-agents-attributional-error-feedback
#9
Yeon Kyoung Joo, Roselyn J Lee-Won
For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype...
October 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684391/minority-adolescents-in-ethnically-diverse-schools-perceptions-of-equal-treatment-buffer-threat-effects
#10
Gülseli Baysu, Laura Celeste, Rupert Brown, Karine Verschueren, Karen Phalet
Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (Mage  = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at school predicted lower test performance; (b) experimentally manipulated stereotype threat decreased performance (mediated by increased disengagement); (c) perceived equal treatment at school predicted higher performance (mediated by decreased disengagement); and (d) personal and peer perceptions of equal treatment buffered negative effects of discrimination and stereotype threat...
September 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668075/diversifying-science-intervention-programs-moderate-the-effect-of-stereotype-threat-on-motivation-and-career-choice
#11
Anna Woodcock, Paul R Hernandez, P Wesley Schultz
Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience and impact of stereotype threat on academic achievement goals and future engagement in a scientific career. We report analyses of a national sample comparing RISE students with a propensity score-matched control group over a 6-year period...
March 2016: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658902/a-tale-of-two-types-of-perspective-taking-sex-differences-in-spatial-ability
#12
Margaret R Tarampi, Nahal Heydari, Mary Hegarty
Sex differences in favor of males have been documented in measures of spatial perspective taking. In this research, we examined whether social factors (i.e., stereotype threat and the inclusion of human figures in tasks) account for these differences. In Experiment 1, we evaluated performance when perspective-taking tests were framed as measuring either spatial or social (empathetic) perspective-taking abilities. In the spatial condition, tasks were framed as measures of spatial ability on which males have an advantage...
September 22, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648418/socio-cultural-factors-in-the-access-of-women-to-hiv-aids-prevention-and-treatment-services-in-south-southern-nigeria
#13
Edlyne Anugwom, Kenechukwu Anugwom
BACKGROUND: The South-southern zone of Nigeria is one of the zones in the country that has reported consistent high prevalent rates of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the last decade. In spite of bio-medical reasons adduced for the spread of the pandemic, socio-cultural factors may be major issues in the access to both prevention and treatment services especially for women. Hence, this study investigated the socio-cultural factors, which influence the access of women to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nigeria...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623118/-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-evaluation-of-perceived-stress-parents-and-professionals-study-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-a-french-adaptation-of-the-appraisal-of-life-event-scale-ales-vf
#14
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587856/scientist-spotlight-homework-assignments-shift-students-stereotypes-of-scientists-and-enhance-science-identity-in-a-diverse-introductory-science-class
#15
Jeffrey N Schinske, Heather Perkins, Amanda Snyder, Mary Wyer
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571526/psychological-and-biological-responses-to-race-based-social-stress-as-pathways-to-disparities-in-educational-outcomes
#16
Dorainne J Levy, Jennifer A Heissel, Jennifer A Richeson, Emma K Adam
We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature...
September 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504659/facilitating-women-s-success-in-business-interrupting-the-process-of-stereotype-threat-through-affirmation-of-personal-values
#17
Zoe Kinias, Jessica Sim
Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496362/toward-inclusive-stem-classrooms-what-personal-role-do-faculty-play
#18
Tess L Killpack, Laverne C Melón
Private and public policies are increasingly aimed at supporting efforts to broaden participation of a diverse body of students in higher education. Unfortunately, this increase in student diversity does not always occur alongside changes in institutional culture. Unexamined biases in institutional culture can prevent diverse students from thriving and persisting in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Given the daily personal interactions that faculty have with students, we suggest that individual educators have the opportunity, and responsibility, to improve the retention and persistence of diverse students...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466251/negative-aging-stereotypes-impair-performance-on-brief-cognitive-tests-used-to-screen-for-predementia
#19
Marie Mazerolle, Isabelle Régner, Sarah J Barber, Marc Paccalin, Aimé-Chris Miazola, Pascal Huguet, François Rigalleau
OBJECTIVES: There is today ample evidence that negative aging stereotypes impair healthy older adults' performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we tested whether these stereotypes also decrease performance during the screening for predementia on short cognitive tests widely used in primary care. METHOD: An experiment was conducted on 80 healthy older adults taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) under Threat or Reduced-threat condition...
July 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454195/the-effects-of-perceived-phenotypic-racial-stereotypicality-and-social-identity-threat-on-racial-minorities-attitudes-about-police
#20
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, J Katherine Lee, Brian Renauer, Kris Henning, Greg Stewart
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
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