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Stereotype threat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792484/-a-threat-on-the-ground-the-consequences-of-witnessing-stereotype-confirming-ingroup-members-in-interracial-interactions
#1
Valerie Jones Taylor, Randi L Garcia, J Nicole Shelton, Caitlyn Yantis
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored interpersonal consequences of engaging in interracial interactions after witnessing racial ingroup members' stereotypical behavior. METHOD: Study 1 used experience-sampling methodology to assess ethnic minority students' (n = 119) intergroup anxiety, metastereotypes, and anticipatory behaviors following one of three types of interpersonal interactions: (a) a White person and a racial ingroup member who had behaved stereotypically, (b) a White person and a nonstereotypical ingroup member, or (c) neither...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788464/confucian-values-as-a-buffer-against-age-based-stereotype-threat-for-chinese-older-adults
#2
Shyuan Ching Tan, Sarah J Barber
Objectives: Research has shown that stereotype threat can impair older adults' memory in Western cultures. We tested whether this also occurs for older adults from the East Asian Chinese culture. We also tested whether an intervention that highlighted Confucian principles would protect Chinese older adults from stereotype threat's detrimental effects. Method : Culturally-Chinese older adults residing in the United States completed a memory test either under age-based stereotype threat about cognitive decline or not...
May 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736716/modulation-of-threat-response-in-larval-zebrafish
#3
Andrew J Rennekamp
High-throughput, whole-organism phenotypic drug screening is made possible using live zebrafish larvae. Many human drugs have now been shown to affect zebrafish larvae in similar ways, through homologous molecular mechanisms. At this stage in life, zebrafish are small enough to fit in multi-well, microliter plates, yet developed enough to exhibit complex phenotypes, such as hunting behaviors and avoidance of predators. Importantly, zebrafish larvae can be easily dosed via automated pipetting of chemical compounds directly into their liquid medium, without injection...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699443/leveraging-the-social-role-of-dad-to-change-gender-stereotypes-of-men
#4
Bernadette Park, Sarah Banchefsky
Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2)...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666599/chronic-stereotype-threat-is-associated-with-mathematical-achievement-on-representative-sample-of-secondary-schoolgirls-the-role-of-gender-identification-working-memory-and-intellectual-helplessness
#5
Sylwia BedyƄska, Izabela Krejtz, Grzegorz Sedek
Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661054/theory-of-prejudice-and-american-identity-threat-transfer-for-latino-and-asian-americans
#6
Diana T Sanchez, Kimberly E Chaney, Sara K Manuel, Jessica D Remedios
Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats that target one another (i.e., stigma transfer). The studies explore whether stigma transfer occurred primarily when shared Latino and Asian stereotype content was a salient component of the prejudice remark (e...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660076/stereotype-threat-reduces-the-positivity-of-older-adults-recall
#7
Sarah J Barber, Jordan Seliger, Nicholas Yeh, Shyuan Ching Tan
Objectives: As people get older, they show a relative preference to remember positive information over negative information. In two experiments, we tested whether the positivity of older adults' memory is affected by stereotype threat about age-related cognitive declines. We also tested whether highlighting a positive aging stereotype (older adults are wise) would inoculate older adults from stereotype threat's adverse effects. Method: In Experiments 1 and 2, we manipulated whether stereotypes about age-related cognitive decline were highlighted (stereotype threat) or mitigated (stereotype alleviation)...
April 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657583/-i-m-black-and-i-m-proud-a-majority-ecological-context-protects-affective-aspects-of-black-identity-under-stereotype-threat
#8
Andre' Oliver, Ghilamichael Andemeskel, Carlise R King, Lyndsey Wallace, Serie McDougal, Kenneth P Monteiro, Avi Ben-Zeev
We provide evidence that stereotype threat, a phenomenon that causes stigmatized individuals to experience group-based evaluative concerns (Steele in Am Psychol 52:613-629, 1997; Whistling Vivaldi and other clues to how stereotypes affect us, W.W. Norton, New York, 2010), impacts affective aspects of Black identity as a function of majority versus minority ecological contexts. Black/African-American students, enrolled in either Africana Studies (Black ecological majority) or Psychology (Black ecological minority), completed private and public regard subscales from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (Sellers et al...
December 2017: Race and Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608776/the-unexpected-relationship-between-retrieval-demands-and-memory-performance-when-older-adults-are-faced-with-age-related-stereotypes
#9
Ayanna K Thomas, Amy M Smith, Marie Mazerolle
Objectives: In two studies, we examined the effects of age-related stereotype threat on eyewitness memory using the misinformation paradigm to (1) examine stereotype threat in the context of a more ecologically valid memory task and (2) determine the relationship between task difficulty and susceptibility to stereotype threat. Methods: After watching a video that depicted a crime, older and younger adult participants were presented with a written synopsis in which information consistent or inconsistent with the original event was presented...
March 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579136/impact-of-diagnosis-threat-on-neuropsychological-assessment-of-people-with-acquired-brain-injury-evidence-of-mediation-by-negative-emotions
#10
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
Objective: Some studies have shown that diagnosis threat (DT) could negatively impact the cognitive performance of undergraduate students who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. This study was designed to examine DT in people with acquired brain injury (ABI). As a second goal, we investigated the effect of stereotype lift as a way to overcome DT's harmful impact. The purpose of this study was also to examine the mechanisms mediating stereotype effects. Method: People with ABI and control participants were assigned to one of three conditions: DT, cognitive-neutral (in which the cognitive status of participants with ABI and the cognitive characteristics of the tasks were deemphasized), and stereotype lift (in which a downward comparison was made with another neurological group)...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566244/activating-aging-stereotypes-increases-source-recollection-confusions-in-older-adults-effect-at-encoding-but-not-retrieval
#11
Jessica T Wong, David A Gallo
Objectives: Activating aging stereotypes can impair older adult performance on episodic memory tasks, an effect attributed to stereotype threat. Here, we report the first study comparing the effects of explicitly activating aging stereotypes at encoding versus retrieval on recollection accuracy in older adults. Method: During the encoding phase, older adults made semantic judgments about words, and during the retrieval phase, they had to recollect these judgments...
March 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553002/dysfunction-by-disclosure-stereotype-threat-as-a-source-of-secondary-neurocognitive-malperformance-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Steffen Moritz, Karla Spirandelli, Insa Happach, Despina Lion, Fabrice Berna
OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence regarding whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) display substantial neurocognitive deficits. Several studies implicate poor motivation, comorbid disorders, or distraction due to obsessive thoughts as potential causes of secondary malperformance. The present study examined the impact of stereotype threat (i.e., confrontation with a negative stereotype may impair performance) on neuropsychological functioning in individuals with OCD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543177/the-effect-of-gender-body-swap-illusions-on-working-memory-and-stereotype-threat
#13
Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516401/when-a-face-type-is-perceived-as-threatening-using-general-recognition-theory-to-understand-biased-categorization-of-afrocentric-faces
#14
Heather M Kleider-Offutt, Alesha D Bond, Sarah E Williams, Corey J Bohil
Prior research indicates that stereotypical Black faces (e.g., wide nose, full lips: Afrocentric) are often associated with crime and violence. The current study investigated whether stereotypical faces may bias the interpretation of facial expression to seem threatening. Stimuli were prerated by face type (stereotypical, nonstereotypical) and expression (neutral, threatening). Later in a forced-choice task, different participants categorized face stimuli as stereotypical or not and threatening or not. Regardless of prerated expression, stereotypical faces were judged as more threatening than were nonstereotypical faces...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505074/being-invisible-stereotype-threat-in-an-undergraduate-nursing-program
#15
Amber Young-Brice, Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst, Aaron Buseh
BACKGROUND: Nursing programs continue to be challenged to increase recruitment and retention of ethnic minority nursing students to meet the needs of a diversifying population. Ethnic minority students face a cadre of barriers, one of which is the negative implications of their own identity. This article describes a qualitative study that explored the experiences of stereotype threat among a group of ethnic minority nursing students at a large urban university. METHOD: Semistructured, one-time in-depth interviews were conducted...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500865/disparities-in-eating-disorder-diagnosis-and-treatment-according-to-weight-status-race-ethnicity-socioeconomic-background-and-sex-among-college-students
#16
K R Sonneville, S K Lipson
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494175/the-effects-of-stereotype-threat-on-the-associative-memory-deficit-of-older-adults
#17
Matthew S Brubaker, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
The purpose of the current study was to assess whether the age-related associative memory deficit is affected by stereotype threat, which has been shown to negatively affect performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks, including memory performance of older adults. To date, the effects of stereotype threat on older adults' memory performance have only been shown using tests of item memory, and using only between-subjects manipulations. The first experiment manipulated stereotype threat by providing younger and older adults with either stereotype consistent (threat condition) or stereotype inconsistent (nonthreat condition) information before studying lists of item pairs and being tested for both item and associative memory...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486626/influence-of-diagnosis-threat-and-illness-cognitions-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-people-with-acquired-brain-injury
#18
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
Illness cognitions - cognitive representations of illness - have been found to influence health outcomes in chronic diseases: more adaptive illness cognitions generally lead to better outcomes. Concomitantly, diagnosis threat (DT) is a phenomenon whereby participants with acquired brain injury (ABI) underperform on neuropsychological tasks due to stereotype activation. This randomised study examined the impact of illness cognitions and DT on cognitive performance. People with ABI completed the Illness Cognitions Questionnaire and were then exposed to either a DT condition or a reduced DT condition (in which stereotype cues were reduced)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483263/for-black-men-being-tall-increases-threat-stereotyping-and-police-stops
#19
Neil Hester, Kurt Gray
Height seems beneficial for men in terms of salaries and success; however, past research on height examines only White men. For Black men, height may be more costly than beneficial, primarily signaling threat rather than competence. Three studies reveal the downsides of height in Black men. Study 1 analyzes over 1 million New York Police Department stop-and-frisk encounters and finds that tall Black men are especially likely to receive unjustified attention from police. Then, studies 2 and 3 experimentally demonstrate a causal link between perceptions of height and perceptions of threat for Black men, particularly for perceivers who endorse stereotypes that Black people are more threatening than White people...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447448/gendered-racism-and-the-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-black-and-latina-women
#20
Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
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