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Stereotype threat

Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Heather M Kleider-Offutt, Alesha D Bond, Sarah E Williams, Corey J Bohil
Prior research indicates that stereotypical Black faces (e.g., wide nose, full lips: Afrocentric) are often associated with crime and violence. The current study investigated whether stereotypical faces may bias the interpretation of facial expression to seem threatening. Stimuli were prerated by face type (stereotypical, nonstereotypical) and expression (neutral, threatening). Later in a forced-choice task, different participants categorized face stimuli as stereotypical or not and threatening or not. Regardless of prerated expression, stereotypical faces were judged as more threatening than were nonstereotypical faces...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Amber Young-Brice, Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst, Aaron Buseh
BACKGROUND: Nursing programs continue to be challenged to increase recruitment and retention of ethnic minority nursing students to meet the needs of a diversifying population. Ethnic minority students face a cadre of barriers, one of which is the negative implications of their own identity. This article describes a qualitative study that explored the experiences of stereotype threat among a group of ethnic minority nursing students at a large urban university. METHOD: Semistructured, one-time in-depth interviews were conducted...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
K R Sonneville, S K Lipson
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Matthew S Brubaker, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
The purpose of the current study was to assess whether the age-related associative memory deficit is affected by stereotype threat, which has been shown to negatively affect performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks, including memory performance of older adults. To date, the effects of stereotype threat on older adults' memory performance have only been shown using tests of item memory, and using only between-subjects manipulations. The first experiment manipulated stereotype threat by providing younger and older adults with either stereotype consistent (threat condition) or stereotype inconsistent (nonthreat condition) information before studying lists of item pairs and being tested for both item and associative memory...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Thierry Meulemans
Illness cognitions - cognitive representations of illness - have been found to influence health outcomes in chronic diseases: more adaptive illness cognitions generally lead to better outcomes. Concomitantly, diagnosis threat (DT) is a phenomenon whereby participants with acquired brain injury (ABI) underperform on neuropsychological tasks due to stereotype activation. This randomised study examined the impact of illness cognitions and DT on cognitive performance. People with ABI completed the Illness Cognitions Questionnaire and were then exposed to either a DT condition or a reduced DT condition (in which stereotype cues were reduced)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Neil Hester, Kurt Gray
Height seems beneficial for men in terms of salaries and success; however, past research on height examines only White men. For Black men, height may be more costly than beneficial, primarily signaling threat rather than competence. Three studies reveal the downsides of height in Black men. Study 1 analyzes over 1 million New York Police Department stop-and-frisk encounters and finds that tall Black men are especially likely to receive unjustified attention from police. Then, studies 2 and 3 experimentally demonstrate a causal link between perceptions of height and perceptions of threat for Black men, particularly for perceivers who endorse stereotypes that Black people are more threatening than White people...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lisa Rosenthal, Marci Lobel
OBJECTIVE: To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U...
February 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Patrick Lemaire, Fleur Brun, Isabelle Régner
BACKGROUND: Age-based cognitive deficits are exacerbated by stereotype threat effects (i.e., the threat of being judged as cognitively incapable due to aging). We tested whether age-based stereotype threat effects can occur via impair- ing older adults' ability to select the best strategy and/or to execute strategies efficiently. METHODS: Older adults (age range: 64.3-89.5 years) were randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or control condition before taking an episodic memory task...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
Charlotte R Pennington, Linda K Kaye, Joseph J McCann
Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females' gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females were assigned to one of three conditions in which they were primed that their performance would be either diagnostic of their personal (self-as-target) or gender group's ability (group-as-target) or would be non-diagnostic of gaming ability (control)...
2018: PloS One
Megan Fresson, Thierry Meulemans, Benoit Dardenne, Marie Geurten
There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Magali Fassiotto, Jie Li, Yvonne Maldonado, Nishita Kothary
OBJECTIVE: Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Rotem Kahalon, Nurit Shnabel, Julia C Becker
Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance...
January 26, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Meghan I H Lindeman, Amanda M Durik, Maura Dooley
Although self-promotion (communicating one's past accomplishments and positive characteristics) is important for obtaining career and educational opportunities, women feel uncomfortable when doing it, which limits their self-promotion success. This study tested which of the three possible theoretical mechanisms explained women's limited self-promotion success: (1) cognitive dissonance, (2) stereotype threat, and (3) backlash avoidance. In this experiment, college women ( N = 123) wrote a scholarship application essay and the ownership of the essay was varied experimentally...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Tom Stafford
Stereotype threat has been offered as a potential explanation of differential performance between men and women in some cognitive domains. Questions remain about the reliability and generality of the phenomenon. Previous studies have found that stereotype threat is activated in female chess players when they are matched against male players. I used data from over 5.5 million games of international tournament chess and found no evidence of a stereotype-threat effect. In fact, female players outperform expectations when playing men...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Benoit Dardenne, Stéphane Adam
This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under highthreat perceived more threat than people under low threat...
December 8, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Wayne W Wilkinson
The present research was aimed at developing a measure of economic myths regarding the gay community. Using undergraduate (N = 332) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 212) samples, Study 1 resulted in a 6-item unidimensional and reliable measure, the Economic Myths Regarding Gays Scale (EMGS), that was minimally related to other measures of sexual orientation attitudes. Study 2 (N = 210 undergraduates) found that endorsement of economic myths was associated with system justification beliefs that economic inequalities were natural and due to individual merit; however, general attitudes toward gays showed no such relationships...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Kristýna Štefková, Monika Židková, Rachel R Horsley, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Libor Uttl, Marie Balíková, Hynek Danda, Martin Kuchař, Tomáš Páleníček
Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy- N -methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N Begolli, Lindsey E Richland
Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction...
December 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
David Rast, Amber Gaffney, Fenglu Yang
Drawing on intergroup threat theory and the stereotype content model, we examine intergroup relations in an organizational context. We surveyed 108 Asian immigrants working at a large international organization located in the UK. We found that perceptions of warmth and competence interact to predict minority group members' willingness to interact with an outgroup majority. Extending previous research, we demonstrate that warmth and competence differentially affect intergroup uncertainty, which mediates the relationship between stereotype content and willingness to interact with the outgroup...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
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