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Stereotype threat

Yeon Kyoung Joo, Roselyn J Lee-Won
For members of a group negatively stereotyped in a domain, making mistakes can aggravate the influence of stereotype threat because negative stereotypes often blame target individuals and attribute the outcome to their lack of ability. Virtual agents offering real-time error feedback may influence performance under stereotype threat by shaping the performers' attributional perception of errors they commit. We explored this possibility with female drivers, considering the prevalence of the "women-are-bad-drivers" stereotype...
October 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Gülseli Baysu, Laura Celeste, Rupert Brown, Karine Verschueren, Karen Phalet
Can perceptions of equal treatment buffer the negative effects of threat on the school success of minority students? Focusing on minority adolescents from Turkish and Moroccan heritage in Belgium (Mage  = 14.5; N = 735 in 47 ethnically diverse schools), multilevel mediated moderation analyses showed: (a) perceived discrimination at school predicted lower test performance; (b) experimentally manipulated stereotype threat decreased performance (mediated by increased disengagement); (c) perceived equal treatment at school predicted higher performance (mediated by decreased disengagement); and (d) personal and peer perceptions of equal treatment buffered negative effects of discrimination and stereotype threat...
September 2016: Child Development
Anna Woodcock, Paul R Hernandez, P Wesley Schultz
Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience and impact of stereotype threat on academic achievement goals and future engagement in a scientific career. We report analyses of a national sample comparing RISE students with a propensity score-matched control group over a 6-year period...
March 2016: Social Psychological and Personality Science
Margaret R Tarampi, Nahal Heydari, Mary Hegarty
Sex differences in favor of males have been documented in measures of spatial perspective taking. In this research, we examined whether social factors (i.e., stereotype threat and the inclusion of human figures in tasks) account for these differences. In Experiment 1, we evaluated performance when perspective-taking tests were framed as measuring either spatial or social (empathetic) perspective-taking abilities. In the spatial condition, tasks were framed as measures of spatial ability on which males have an advantage...
September 22, 2016: Psychological Science
Edlyne Anugwom, Kenechukwu Anugwom
BACKGROUND: The South-southern zone of Nigeria is one of the zones in the country that has reported consistent high prevalent rates of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the last decade. In spite of bio-medical reasons adduced for the spread of the pandemic, socio-cultural factors may be major issues in the access to both prevention and treatment services especially for women. Hence, this study investigated the socio-cultural factors, which influence the access of women to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nigeria...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
É Cappe, N Poirier, É Boujut, N Nader-Grosbois, C Dionne, A Boulard
INTRODUCTION: Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jeffrey N Schinske, Heather Perkins, Amanda Snyder, Mary Wyer
Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Dorainne J Levy, Jennifer A Heissel, Jennifer A Richeson, Emma K Adam
We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature...
September 2016: American Psychologist
Zoe Kinias, Jessica Sim
Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Tess L Killpack, Laverne C Melón
Private and public policies are increasingly aimed at supporting efforts to broaden participation of a diverse body of students in higher education. Unfortunately, this increase in student diversity does not always occur alongside changes in institutional culture. Unexamined biases in institutional culture can prevent diverse students from thriving and persisting in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Given the daily personal interactions that faculty have with students, we suggest that individual educators have the opportunity, and responsibility, to improve the retention and persistence of diverse students...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Marie Mazerolle, Isabelle Régner, Sarah J Barber, Marc Paccalin, Aimé-Chris Miazola, Pascal Huguet, François Rigalleau
OBJECTIVES: There is today ample evidence that negative aging stereotypes impair healthy older adults' performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we tested whether these stereotypes also decrease performance during the screening for predementia on short cognitive tests widely used in primary care. METHOD: An experiment was conducted on 80 healthy older adults taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) under Threat or Reduced-threat condition...
July 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, J Katherine Lee, Brian Renauer, Kris Henning, Greg Stewart
This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Arghavan Salles, Claudia M Mueller, Geoffrey L Cohen
BACKGROUND: Female residents in surgical training may face stereotype threat. The awareness of negative stereotypes about surgical ability based on gender may heighten stress and thus reduce performance. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a brief stress-reducing writing exercise, known as a values affirmation, to mitigate the negative effects of stereotype threat on the performance of female surgical residents. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled trial in which 167 residents were invited to participate...
July 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Lindsay M Briggs, Kathleen R Gilbert, Michael D Reece, Brian M Dodge, Samuel G Obeng
Many people hold stereotypes and assumptions about religious communities in regards to their feelings and beliefs about sex and the impact it has on the lived experiences of religious people. However, stereotypes and assumptions are not often grounded in reality, and many people are hesitant to address the issue head on. This qualitative ethnographically informed preliminary grounded theory study aimed to engage an Evangelical Pentecostal community in Southern Nigeria with the ultimate goal of understanding how communities conceptualize and discuss sexuality topics, the factors influencing sexual decision making amongst youth and young adults, and to identify research needs that will better inform innovative and efficacious research utilizing religious communities in sexuality research...
December 2015: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Aïna Chalabaev, Rémi Radel, E J Masicampo, Vincent Dru
In four experiments, we tested whether embodied triggers may reduce stereotype threat. We predicted that left-side sensorimotor inductions would increase cognitive performance under stereotype threat, because such inductions are linked to avoidance motivation among right-handers. This sensorimotor-mental congruence hypothesis rests on regulatory fit research showing that stereotype threat may be reduced by avoidance-oriented interventions, and motor congruence research showing positive effects when two parameters of a motor action activate the same motivational system (avoidance or approach)...
August 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Stéphane Adam
Stigmatization related to age (i.e., ageism) is a widespread phenomenon in the modern industrial societies where older people are perceived as cognitively incompetent. Therefore negative stereotypes about age-related cognitive decline may have a detrimental influence on older adults on their cognitive performance. The aim of the present review is to understand how stereotypes can influence the performance of the elderly on cognitive tests. We first describe the stereotype threat phenomenon by providing an overview of situations likely to produce stereotype threat, as well as contextual and personal characteristics that moderate its effects...
June 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Meghan E Huber, Adam J Brown, Dagmar Sternad
The majority of research on stereotype threat shows what is expected: threat debilitates performance. However, facilitation is also possible, although seldom reported. This study investigated how stereotype threat influences novice females when performing the sensorimotor task of bouncing a ball to a target. We tested the predictions of two prevailing accounts for debilitation and facilitation due to sterotype threat effects: working memory and mere effort. Experimental results showed that variability in performance decreased more in stigmatized females than in control females, consistent with the prediction of the mere effort account, but inconsistent with the working memory account...
September 2016: Acta Psychologica
Isabelle Régner, Leila Selimbegović, Pascal Pansu, Jean-Marc Monteil, Pascal Huguet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, Joseph Hoffswell, Szu-Wei Chen
Past research provides evidence that embodying a racially stereotyped African American video game character triggers stereotyped thinking among White players. However, the mechanisms through which virtual racial embodiment of a negatively stereotyped character in a video game impacts stereotyped thinking are still unknown. This study expands on past research and utilizes a between-subjects experimental design to test two possible theoretical explanations: the virtual threat effect and presence. On the one hand, embodying a negatively stereotyped African American character may elicit stereotyped thinking among White players due to the mere exposure to the threatening stereotype...
May 2016: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Lisa R Grimm, Benjamin Lewis, W Todd Maddox, Arthur B Markman
Research has connected stereotype threat and regulatory fit by showing improved performance for individuals with negative stereotypes when they focused on minimizing potential losses. In the current study, non-Black participants, who were non-experts at golf putting, were told that a golf-putting task was diagnostic of natural athletic ability (i.e., negative stereotype) or sports intelligence (i.e., positive stereotype). Participants tried to maximize earned points or minimize lost points assigned after every putt, which was calculated based on the distance to a target...
February 2016: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
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