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Stereotype threat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922935/stereotype-threat-trait-perseveration-and-vagal-activity-evidence-for-mechanisms-underpinning-health-disparities-in%C3%A2-black-americans
#1
DeWayne P Williams, Nicholas Joseph, LaBarron K Hill, John J Sollers, Michael W Vasey, Baldwin M Way, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Black Americans (BAs) are at an elevated risk for morbidity and mortality in comparison to White Americans (WAs). Racial stressors are a common occurrence in American culture and is theorized to contribute to these disparities. When race-focused, stereotype threat (ST) is considered to be a factor that is detrimental to health in BAs; however few studies have directly investigated the impact of a ST manipulation on physiological function. Furthermore, it is proposed that racial stressors such as ST may have prolonged effects when more likely to perseverate (e...
September 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889979/visual-threat-assessment-and-reticulospinal-encoding-of-calibrated-responses-in-larval-zebrafish
#2
Kiran Bhattacharyya, David L McLean, Malcolm A MacIver
All visual animals must decide whether approaching objects are a threat. Our current understanding of this process has identified a proximity-based mechanism where an evasive maneuver is triggered when a looming stimulus passes a subtended visual angle threshold. However, some escape strategies are more costly than others, and so it would be beneficial to additionally encode the level of threat conveyed by the predator's approach rate to select the most appropriate response. Here, using naturalistic rates of looming visual stimuli while simultaneously monitoring escape behavior and the recruitment of multiple reticulospinal neurons, we find that larval zebrafish do indeed perform a calibrated assessment of threat...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854608/stereotypes-warnings-and-identity-related-variables-influence-older-adults-susceptibility-to-associative-false-memory-errors
#3
Amy M Smith, David A Gallo, Sarah J Barber, Keith B Maddox, Ayanna K Thomas
Background and Objectives: Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. Research Design and Methods: We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854607/stereotype-threat-effects-on-older-adults-episodic-and-working-memory-a-meta-analysis
#4
Bonnie Armstrong, Sara N Gallant, Lingqian Li, Khushi Patel, Brenda I Wong
Background and Objectives: Prior research has shown that exposure to negative age-based stereotype threat (ST) can undermine older adults' memory performance. The objective of the current meta-analysis was to examine the reliability and magnitude of ST effects on older adults' episodic and working memory performance-two forms of memory that typically show the greatest age-related declines. In addition, we examined potential moderators of age-based ST including type of ST manipulation, type and timing of memory task, participant age and education level...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835879/-speaking-truth-protects-underrepresented-minorities-intellectual-performance-and-safety-in-stem
#5
Avi Ben-Zeev, Yula Paluy, Katlyn L Milless, Emily J Goldstein, Lyndsey Wallace, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Mica Estrada
We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]...
June 2017: Educ Sci (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795833/publication-bias-and-stereotype-threat-research-a-reply-to-zigerell
#6
Ann Marie Ryan, Hannah-Hanh D Nguyen
Zigerell (2017) demonstrated that 4 methods of examining publication bias applied to the meta-analysis presented by Nguyen and Ryan (2008) on stereotype threat effects yield highly divergent conclusions. The methods differ in the estimated magnitudes of publication bias and of the stereotype threat effect. Zigerell (2017), Nguyen and Ryan (2008), and the current article all strongly urge researchers to pay attention to moderators of stereotype threat effects, and we provide commentary on the state of this research focus...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795832/potential-publication-bias-in-the-stereotype-threat-literature-comment-on-nguyen-and-ryan-2008
#7
L J Zigerell
Stereotype threat is a widely cited psychological phenomenon with purported important real-world consequences. Reanalysis of data from the Nguyen and Ryan (2008) stereotype threat meta-analysis indicated the presence of small study effects in which the effect size for less precise studies was larger than the effect size for more precise studies. Four methods to adjust the meta-analysis effect size for potential publication bias produced divergent estimates, from essentially no change, to a 50% decrease, to a reduction of the estimated effect size to near zero...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747885/effects-of-aging-stereotype-threat-on-working-self-concepts-an-event-related-potentials-approach
#8
Baoshan Zhang, Yao Lin, Qianyun Gao, Magdalena Zawisza, Qian Kang, Xuhai Chen
Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST) on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults' cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710060/values-affirmation-intervention-reduces-achievement-gap-between-underrepresented-minority-and-white-students-in-introductory-biology-classes
#9
Hannah Jordt, Sarah L Eddy, Riley Brazil, Ignatius Lau, Chelsea Mann, Sara E Brownell, Katherine King, Scott Freeman
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681183/facial-race-and-sex-cues-have-a-comparable-influence-on-emotion-recognition-in-chinese-and-australian-participants
#10
Belinda M Craig, Jing Zhang, Ottmar V Lipp
The magnitude of the happy categorisation advantage, the faster recognition of happiness than negative expressions, is influenced by facial race and sex cues. Previous studies have investigated these relationships using racial outgroups stereotypically associated with physical threat in predominantly Caucasian samples. To determine whether these influences generalise to stimuli representing other ethnic groups and to participants of different ethnicities, Caucasian Australian (Experiments 1 and 2) and Chinese participants (Experiment 2) categorised happy and angry expressions displayed on own-race male faces presented with emotional other-race male, own-race female, and other-race female faces in separate tasks...
July 5, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659843/leaky-pipeline-myths-in-search-of-gender-effects-on-the-job-market-and-early-career-publishing-in-philosophy
#11
Sean Allen-Hermanson
That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages along career pathways: tenure-track hiring and early career publishing...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#12
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626437/counter-stereotypes-and-feminism-promote-leadership-aspirations-in-highly-identified-women
#13
Carola Leicht, Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Jolien A Van Breen, Soledad de Lemus, Georgina Randsley de Moura
Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599769/implicit-black-identification-and-stereotype-threat-among-african-american-students
#14
Thomas Craemer, D'Andra Orey
This study detects statistically significant and substantively large stereotype threat effects that would remain hidden if Black identification were measured only explicitly. Three hundred and fifty-one students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were tested on an implicit Black identification measure in an online survey, and stereotype threat was manipulated beforehand by randomly presenting one of three introductory screens: an all-White research team (high-threat condition), an all-Black research team (low-threat condition), or no team picture (control condition)...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#15
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#16
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
August 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453208/ethnic-identity-stereotype-threat-and-perceived-discrimination-among-native-american-adolescents
#17
Jamie Jaramillo, Zena R Mello, Frank C Worrell
In this study, ethnic identity, stereotype threat, and perceived discrimination were examined in relationship to academic achievement and hopelessness in a sample of 129 Native American adolescents aged 14-19. Regression analyses with self-reported data indicated two major findings. Ethnic identity interacted with stereotype threat to predict academic achievement, where participants with high ethnic identity and low stereotype threat scores reported higher grade point averages. Ethnic identity also interacted with perceived discrimination to predict hopelessness, where participants with low ethnic identity and high perceived discrimination scores were higher in hopelessness...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416117/rapid-spatial-learning-controls-instinctive-defensive-behavior-in-mice
#18
Ruben Vale, Dominic A Evans, Tiago Branco
Instinctive defensive behaviors are essential for animal survival. Across the animal kingdom, there are sensory stimuli that innately represent threat and trigger stereotyped behaviors such as escape or freezing [1-4]. While innate behaviors are considered to be hard-wired stimulus-responses [5], they act within dynamic environments, and factors such as the properties of the threat [6-9] and its perceived intensity [1, 10, 11], access to food sources [12-14], and expectations from past experience [15, 16] have been shown to influence defensive behaviors, suggesting that their expression can be modulated...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398173/perceived-threat-to-national-values-in-evaluating-stereotyped-immigrants
#19
Saori Tsukamoto, Susan T Fiske
The present research examined the psychological reasons behind Americans' (un)willingness to accept immigrants. Participants read a scenario depicting immigrant groups allegedly expected to arrive in the U.S. and evaluated how much the immigrants would influence two types of American national values: civic values (e.g., political ideology) and ethnic values (e.g., shared culture and customs). Across three studies, competitive immigrant groups were stereotyped to be untrustworthy, and perceived to threaten American civic values but not ethnic values...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369645/an-exploration-of-factors-associated-with-ageist-stereotype-threat-in-a-medical-setting
#20
Sandi Phibbs, Karen Hooker
Objectives: Experiencing stereotype threat in a medical setting may be triggered by routine clinical activities, and may be detrimental to healthcare processes and outcomes. This study estimated the prevalence of, and identified factors associated with, reporting ageist stereotype threat in a medical setting using a nationally representative dataset. Methods: Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 50 and older who had visited the doctor at least once in the past 2 years (n = 1,662)...
March 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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