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Stereotype threat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#1
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626437/counter-stereotypes-and-feminism-promote-leadership-aspirations-in-highly-identified-women
#2
Carola Leicht, Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Jolien A Van Breen, Soledad de Lemus, Georgina Randsley de Moura
Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599769/implicit-black-identification-and-stereotype-threat-among-african-american-students
#3
Thomas Craemer, D'Andra Orey
This study detects statistically significant and substantively large stereotype threat effects that would remain hidden if Black identification were measured only explicitly. Three hundred and fifty-one students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were tested on an implicit Black identification measure in an online survey, and stereotype threat was manipulated beforehand by randomly presenting one of three introductory screens: an all-White research team (high-threat condition), an all-Black research team (low-threat condition), or no team picture (control condition)...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#4
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#5
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453208/ethnic-identity-stereotype-threat-and-perceived-discrimination-among-native-american-adolescents
#6
Jamie Jaramillo, Zena R Mello, Frank C Worrell
In this study, ethnic identity, stereotype threat, and perceived discrimination were examined in relationship to academic achievement and hopelessness in a sample of 129 Native American adolescents aged 14-19. Regression analyses with self-reported data indicated two major findings. Ethnic identity interacted with stereotype threat to predict academic achievement, where participants with high ethnic identity and low stereotype threat scores reported higher grade point averages. Ethnic identity also interacted with perceived discrimination to predict hopelessness, where participants with low ethnic identity and high perceived discrimination scores were higher in hopelessness...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416117/rapid-spatial-learning-controls-instinctive-defensive-behavior-in-mice
#7
Ruben Vale, Dominic A Evans, Tiago Branco
Instinctive defensive behaviors are essential for animal survival. Across the animal kingdom, there are sensory stimuli that innately represent threat and trigger stereotyped behaviors such as escape or freezing [1-4]. While innate behaviors are considered to be hard-wired stimulus-responses [5], they act within dynamic environments, and factors such as the properties of the threat [6-9] and its perceived intensity [1, 10, 11], access to food sources [12-14], and expectations from past experience [15, 16] have been shown to influence defensive behaviors, suggesting that their expression can be modulated...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398173/perceived-threat-to-national-values-in-evaluating-stereotyped-immigrants
#8
Saori Tsukamoto, Susan T Fiske
The present research examined the psychological reasons behind Americans' (un)willingness to accept immigrants. Participants read a scenario depicting immigrant groups allegedly expected to arrive in the U.S. and evaluated how much the immigrants would influence two types of American national values: civic values (e.g., political ideology) and ethnic values (e.g., shared culture and customs). Across three studies, competitive immigrant groups were stereotyped to be untrustworthy, and perceived to threaten American civic values but not ethnic values...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369645/an-exploration-of-factors-associated-with-ageist-stereotype-threat-in-a-medical-setting
#9
Sandi Phibbs, Karen Hooker
Objectives: Experiencing stereotype threat in a medical setting may be triggered by routine clinical activities, and may be detrimental to healthcare processes and outcomes. This study estimated the prevalence of, and identified factors associated with, reporting ageist stereotype threat in a medical setting using a nationally representative dataset. Methods: Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 50 and older who had visited the doctor at least once in the past 2 years (n = 1,662)...
March 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364853/affirmation-effects-on-math-scores-the-importance-of-high-school-track
#10
Amanda Bancroft, Jenifer Bratter, Kristie Rowley
Stereotype threat has been shown to affect academic performance of minority racial groups. Minority girls may experience the burdens of both race and gender - a "double bind" theorized to affect the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. A randomized controlled trial focused on alleviating stereotype threat in three high schools in a large U.S. metro demonstrates the effects of affirmative writing interventions, which have previously shown positive effects for minority and female students. Results indicate effects for these groups were insignificant...
May 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349725/the-effect-of-stereotype-threat-on-older-people-s-clinical-cognitive-outcomes-investigating-the-moderating-role-of-dementia-worry
#11
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Marie Geurten, Thierry Meulemans
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that stereotype threat (ST) reduces older people's cognitive performance, but few have studied its impact on clinical cognitive outcomes. Our study was designed to further examine the impact of ST on the clinical assessment of older subjects' cognitive functioning, as well as the moderating role of fear of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (or 'dementia worry'). METHOD: Seventy-two neurologically normal (MMSE > 26) participants aged between 59 and 70 completed a set of neuropsychological tasks in either an ST or a positive condition (condition in which negative stereotypes were invalidated)...
March 28, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#12
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287752/racial-bias-in-judgments-of-physical-size-and-formidability-from-size-to-threat
#13
John Paul Wilson, Kurt Hugenberg, Nicholas O Rule
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men's physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, heavier, more muscular) and more physically threatening (stronger, more capable of harm) than young White men. Both bottom-up cues of racial prototypicality and top-down information about race supported these misperceptions...
July 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277688/-his-skin-doesn-t-match-what-he-wants-to-do-children-s-perceptions-of-stereotype-threat
#14
Kate M Wegmann
Stereotype threat is a key contributor to chronic racial/ethnic disparities in mental health, physical health, and academic outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that stereotype threat may be a critical concern for narrowing these disparities. The objective of the current study is to determine whether children between the ages of 7-11 consciously perceive stereotype threat, and to examine children's descriptions of the phenomenon. Age-appropriate vignettes illustrated 6 forms of stereotype threat. 15 children from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds read and responded to 3 vignettes each...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253005/the-effects-of-gender-composition-on-women-s-experience-in-math-work-groups
#15
Sarah S Grover, Tiffany A Ito, Bernadette Park
The present studies tested a model outlining the effects of group gender composition on self- and others' perceptions of women's math ability in a truly interactive setting with groups composed entirely of naïve participants (N = 158 4-person groups across 3 studies). One woman in each group was designated to be the "expert" by having her complete a tutorial that gave her task-relevant knowledge for a subsequent group task. Group gender composition was hypothesized to influence perceptions of women's math ability through intrapersonal processes (stereotype threat effects on performance) and interpersonal processes (social cohesion between the expert and other group members)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240941/two-axes-of-subordination-a-new-model-of-racial-position
#16
Linda X Zou, Sapna Cheryan
Theories of race relations have been shaped by the concept of a racial hierarchy along which Whites are the most advantaged and African Americans the most disadvantaged. However, the recent precipitated growth of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States underscores the need for a framework that integrates more groups. The current work proposes that racial and ethnic minority groups are disadvantaged along 2 distinct dimensions of perceived inferiority and perceived cultural foreignness, such that the 4 largest groups in the United States are located in 4 discrete quadrants: Whites are perceived and treated as superior and American; African Americans as inferior and relatively American compared with Latinos and Asian Americans; Latinos as inferior and foreign; and Asian Americans as foreign and relatively superior compared to African Americans and Latinos...
May 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122471/stereotype-contrast-effect-on-neuropsychological-assessment-of-contact-sport-players-the-moderating-role-of-locus-of-control
#17
Megan Fresson, Benoit Dardenne, Marie Geurten, Thierry Meulemans
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094772/cardiac-afferent-activity-modulates-the-expression-of-racial-stereotypes
#18
Ruben T Azevedo, Sarah N Garfinkel, Hugo D Critchley, Manos Tsakiris
Negative racial stereotypes tend to associate Black people with threat. This often leads to the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons held by a Black individual. Yet, little is known about how bodily states impact the expression of racial stereotyping. By tapping into the phasic activation of arterial baroreceptors, known to be associated with changes in the neural processing of fearful stimuli, we show activation of race-threat stereotypes synchronized with the cardiovascular cycle. Across two established tasks, stimuli depicting Black or White individuals were presented to coincide with either the cardiac systole or diastole...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073332/an-examination-of-age-based-stereotype-threat-about-cognitive-decline
#19
Sarah J Barber
"Stereotype threat" is often thought of as a singular construct, with moderators and mechanisms that are stable across groups and domains. However, this is not always true. To illustrate this, the current review focuses on the stereotype threat that older adults face about their cognitive abilities. Drawing upon the multithreat framework, I first provide evidence that this is a self-concept threat and not a group-reputation threat. Because this differs from the forms of stereotype threat experienced by other groups (e...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070918/stereotype-threat-and-social-function-in-opioid-substitution-therapy-patients
#20
Courtney von Hippel, Julie D Henry, Gill Terrett, Kimberly Mercuri, Karen McAlear, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. METHODS: Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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