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Stereotype threat

Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Benoit Dardenne, Stéphane Adam
This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under highthreat perceived more threat than people under low threat...
December 8, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Wayne W Wilkinson
Based on Badgett (2001), the present research was aimed at developing a measure of economic myths regarding the gay community. Using undergraduate (N = 332) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 212) samples, Study 1 resulted in a 6-item unidimensional and reliable measure, the Economic Myths regarding Gays Scale (EMGS), that was minimally related to other measures of sexual orientation attitudes. Study 2 (N = 210 undergraduates) found that endorsement of economic myths was associated with system justification beliefs that economic inequalities were natural and due to individual merit; however, general attitudes toward gays showed no such relationships...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Kristýna Štefková, Monika Židková, Rachel R Horsley, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Libor Uttl, Marie Balíková, Hynek Danda, Martin Kuchař, Tomáš Páleníček
Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N Begolli, Lindsey E Richland
Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction...
December 1, 2017: Cognitive Science
David Rast, Amber Gaffney, Fenglu Yang
Drawing on intergroup threat theory and the stereotype content model, we examine intergroup relations in an organizational context. We surveyed 108 Asian immigrants working at a large international organization located in the UK. We found that perceptions of warmth and competence interact to predict minority group members' willingness to interact with an outgroup majority. Extending previous research, we demonstrate that warmth and competence differentially affect intergroup uncertainty, which mediates the relationship between stereotype content and willingness to interact with the outgroup...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Lora E Park, Cheryl L Kondrak, Deborah E Ward, Lindsey Streamer
People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Bonnie Armstrong, Sara N Gallant, Lingqian Li, Khushi Patel, Brenda I Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Gerontologist
Pei Liu, Fengqing Zhao, Baoshan Zhang, Qingxiu Dang
Assuming that the principle of an active-self account holds true in real life, priming certain constructs could selectively activate a working self-concept, which in turn guides behavior. The current study involved two experiments that examined the relationships between stereotypic identity, working self-concept, and memory performance in older adults. Specifically, Study 1 tested whether a stereotype threat can affect older adults' working self-concept and memory performance. A modified Stroop color naming task and a separate recognition task showed that a stereotype threat prime altered the activation of the working self-concept and deteriorated the older adults' memory performance...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Psychology
Bradley D Mattan, Jennifer T Kubota, Tzipporah P Dang, Jasmin Cloutier
Those who are high in external motivation to respond without prejudice tend to focus on non-racial attributes when describing others (Norton, Sommers, Apfelbaum, Pura, & Ariely, 2006). This fMRI study examined the neural processing of race and an alternative yet stereotypically relevant attribute (viz., socioeconomic status: SES) as a function of the perceiver's external motivation to respond without prejudice (EMS). Sixty-one White participants privately formed impressions of Black and White faces ascribed with high or low SES...
October 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Juan F Domínguez D, Félice van Nunspeet, Ayushi Gupta, Robert Eres, Winnifred R Louis, Jean Decety, Pascal Molenberghs
The role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in moral decision-making is well established. However, OFC activity is highly context dependent. It is affected by the extent to which choices are morally justified and whom they concern. In the current study, we specifically focus on contextual factors and investigate the differential role of the OFC during justified and unjustified violence towards ingroup versus outgroup members. Muslims were chosen as the outgroup, as they are currently stereotypically seen as an outgroup and a potential threat by some Non-Muslims...
October 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Sascha Zuber, Andreas Ihle, Anaëlle Blum, Olivier Desrichard, Matthias Kliegel
Objectives: The current study examined the effects of stereotype threat on prospective memory (PM) performance in younger versus older adults by using a focal (i.e., low cognitive demands) and a nonfocal (i.e., high cognitive demands) PM task. Method: Sixty younger and 60 older adults performed an event-based PM task, in which task instructions were experimentally manipulated. Half of the participants received instructions that emphasized the memory component of the task (memory condition; i...
August 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
DeWayne P Williams, Nicholas Joseph, LaBarron K Hill, John J Sollers, Michael W Vasey, Baldwin M Way, Julian Koenig, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Black Americans (BAs) are at an elevated risk for morbidity and mortality in comparison to White Americans (WAs). Racial stressors are a common occurrence in American culture and is theorized to contribute to these disparities. When race-focused, stereotype threat (ST) is considered to be a factor that is detrimental to health in BAs; however few studies have directly investigated the impact of a ST manipulation on physiological function. Furthermore, it is proposed that racial stressors such as ST may have prolonged effects when more likely to perseverate (e...
September 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
Kiran Bhattacharyya, David L McLean, Malcolm A MacIver
All visual animals must decide whether approaching objects are a threat. Our current understanding of this process has identified a proximity-based mechanism where an evasive maneuver is triggered when a looming stimulus passes a subtended visual angle threshold. However, some escape strategies are more costly than others, and so it would be beneficial to additionally encode the level of threat conveyed by the predator's approach rate to select the most appropriate response. Here, using naturalistic rates of looming visual stimuli while simultaneously monitoring escape behavior and the recruitment of multiple reticulospinal neurons, we find that larval zebrafish do indeed perform a calibrated assessment of threat...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Amy M Smith, David A Gallo, Sarah J Barber, Keith B Maddox, Ayanna K Thomas
Background and Objectives: Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. Research Design and Methods: We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
Bonnie Armstrong, Sara N Gallant, Lingqian Li, Khushi Patel, Brenda I Wong
Background and Objectives: Prior research has shown that exposure to negative age-based stereotype threat (ST) can undermine older adults' memory performance. The objective of the current meta-analysis was to examine the reliability and magnitude of ST effects on older adults' episodic and working memory performance-two forms of memory that typically show the greatest age-related declines. In addition, we examined potential moderators of age-based ST including type of ST manipulation, type and timing of memory task, participant age and education level...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
Avi Ben-Zeev, Yula Paluy, Katlyn L Milless, Emily J Goldstein, Lyndsey Wallace, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Mica Estrada
We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]...
June 2017: Education Sciences
Ann Marie Ryan, Hannah-Hanh D Nguyen
Zigerell (2017) demonstrated that 4 methods of examining publication bias applied to the meta-analysis presented by Nguyen and Ryan (2008) on stereotype threat effects yield highly divergent conclusions. The methods differ in the estimated magnitudes of publication bias and of the stereotype threat effect. Zigerell (2017), Nguyen and Ryan (2008), and the current article all strongly urge researchers to pay attention to moderators of stereotype threat effects, and we provide commentary on the state of this research focus...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
L J Zigerell
Stereotype threat is a widely cited psychological phenomenon with purported important real-world consequences. Reanalysis of data from the Nguyen and Ryan (2008) stereotype threat meta-analysis indicated the presence of small study effects in which the effect size for less precise studies was larger than the effect size for more precise studies. Four methods to adjust the meta-analysis effect size for potential publication bias produced divergent estimates, from essentially no change, to a 50% decrease, to a reduction of the estimated effect size to near zero...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Baoshan Zhang, Yao Lin, Qianyun Gao, Magdalena Zawisza, Qian Kang, Xuhai Chen
Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST) on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults' cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hannah Jordt, Sarah L Eddy, Riley Brazil, Ignatius Lau, Chelsea Mann, Sara E Brownell, Katherine King, Scott Freeman
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
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