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Modern trends

Eugène Zoumenou, Martin Chobli, Bernard le Polain de Waroux, Philippe Louis Baele
Belgium has been collaborating for 20 years with Abomey-Calavi University in Cotonou, Republic of Benin, to train anesthesiologists for Sub-Saharan, French-speaking African countries. With 123 graduates from 15 countries and 46 residents still in training, this program has succeeded in reversing the trend of a decreasing anesthesiology workforce in those countries, thus improving the quality of anesthesia and patient safety. Belgian government sources, as well as hospitals and anesthesia teams, provided most of the financial resources...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, Gary Partyka
We describe and assess the quality of the assimilated ozone product from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) produced at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) spanning the time period from 1980 to present. MERRA-2 assimilates partial column ozone retrievals from a series of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) radiometers on NASA and NOAA spacecraft between January 1980 and September 2004; starting in October 2004 retrieved ozone profiles from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and total column ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's EOS Aura satellite are assimilated...
April 2017: Journal of Climate
R C Jiloha, Prerna Kukreti
Delhi hasn't always enjoyed the status of the India's capital, but it has always played a pivotal role in the history of India as a gateway city. The same way, it received mental health services much later than the rest part of country, but it has witnessed an evolution from colonial era to the birth of state of art modern psychiatry services. Journey started with the landmark inaugural meeting in Delhi University of few visionaries paving the birth of Indian psychiatry society. Subsequently, it witnessed emergence of general hospital psychiatry units & saw their transformation to apex institutes of teaching and research like AIIMS and others...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Svetlana N Kostromina, Natalia V Grishina
The perpetual discussion of approaches and principles in the study of personality has been one of the notable trends of development of psychological science over many decades. The structural approach, based on the delineation of a person's traits and characteristics, made an important contribution to various branches of psychology, but now the scientific community has recognized the limitations of a structural understanding of personality. Its inadequacy becomes particularly obvious in today's conditions, when fundamental changes pose a challenge to man's ability to respond flexibly to changing conditions of everyday existence, as well as to larger-scale changes...
March 8, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Sam Browett, Gillian McHugo, Ian W Richardson, David A Magee, Stephen D E Park, Alan G Fahey, John F Kearney, Carolina N Correia, Imtiaz A S Randhawa, David E MacHugh
Kerry cattle are an endangered landrace heritage breed of cultural importance to Ireland. In the present study we have used genome-wide SNP array data to evaluate genomic diversity within the Kerry population and between Kerry cattle and other European breeds. Patterns of genetic differentiation and gene flow among breeds using phylogenetic trees with ancestry graphs highlighted historical gene flow from the British Shorthorn breed into the ancestral population of modern Kerry cattle. Principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic clustering emphasised the genetic distinctiveness of Kerry cattle relative to comparator British and European cattle breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Fiona Wixted, Mark Shevlin, Leonard W O' Sullivan
As a result of changes in manufacturing including an upward trend in automation and the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, the requirement for supervisory monitoring and consequently, cognitive demand has increased in automated manufacturing. The incidence of musculoskeletal disorders has also increased in the manufacturing sector. A model was developed based on survey data to test if distress and worry mediate the relationship between psychosocial factors (job control, cognitive demand, social isolation and skill discretion), stress states and symptoms of upper body musculoskeletal disorders in highly automated manufacturing companies (n=235)...
March 5, 2018: Ergonomics
I I Katkov, V F Bolyukh, G T Sukhikh
Kinetic (dynamic) vitrification is a promising trend in cryopreservation of biological materials because it allows avoiding the formation of lethal intracellular ice and minimizes harmful effects of highly toxic penetrating cryoprotectants. A uniform cooling protocol and the same instruments can be used for practically all types of cells. In modern technologies, the rate of cooling is essentially limited by the Leidenfrost effect. We describe a novel platform for kinetic vitrification of biological materials KrioBlastTM that realizes hyper-fast cooling and allows overcoming the Leidenfrost effect...
March 4, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Tanveer Syeda-Mahmood
The field of diagnostic decision support in radiology is undergoing rapid transformation with the availability of large amounts of patient data and the development of new artificial intelligence methods of machine learning such as deep learning. They hold the promise of providing imaging specialists with tools for improving the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we will describe the growth of this field for radiology and outline general trends highlighting progress in the field of diagnostic decision support from the early days of rule-based expert systems to cognitive assistants of the modern era...
March 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Sergio Contreras, Josef P Werne, A Araneda, R Urrutia, C A Conejero
Paleolimnological studies in western South America, where meteorological stations are scarce, are critical to obtain more realistic and reliable regional reconstructions of past climate and environmental changes, including vegetation and water budget variability. However, climate and environmental geochemical indicators must be tested before they can be applied with confidence. Here we present a survey of lacustrine surface sediment (core top, 0 to ~1cm) biogeochemical proxies (total organic carbon [TOC], total nitrogen [TN], carbon/nitrogen ratio [C/N ratio] and bulk organic δ13 C and total δ15 N) from a suite of 72 lakes spanning the transition from a Mediterranean climate with a patchwork of cultivated vegetation, pastureland, and conifers in central Chile to a rainy temperate climate dominated by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forest further south...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Santiago Benito
Commercial Saccharomyces strains are usually inoculated to ferment alcoholic beverages due to their ability to convert all fermentable sugars into ethanol. However, modern trends in winemaking have turned toward less known, non-Saccharomyces yeast species. These species perform the first stages of natural spontaneous fermentation and play important roles in wine variety. New alcoholic fermentation trends have begun to consider objectives other than alcohol production to improve flavor diversity. This review explores the influence of the most used and commercialized non-Saccharomyces yeast, Torulaspora delbrueckii, on fermentation quality parameters, such as ethanol, glycerol, volatile acidity, volatile profile, succinic acid, mannoproteins, polysaccharides, color, anthocyanins, amino acids, and sensory perception...
February 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Manuel Cabeleira, Ari Ercole, Peter Smielewski
OBJECTIVES: Modern neuro-critical care units generate high volumes of data. These data originate from a multitude of devices in various formats and levels of granularity. We present a new data format intended to store these data in an ordered and homogenous way. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The adopted data format was based on the hierarchical model, HDF5, which is capable of dealing with a mixture of small and very large datasets with equal ease. It is possible to access and manipulate individual data elements directly within a single file, and this is extensible and versatile...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Navin Ramankutty, Zia Mehrabi, Katharina Waha, Larissa Jarvis, Claire Kremen, Mario Herrero, Loren H Rieseberg
The eighteenth-century Malthusian prediction of population growth outstripping food production has not yet come to bear. Unprecedented agricultural land expansions since 1700, and technological innovations that began in the 1930s, have enabled more calorie production per capita than was ever available before in history. This remarkable success, however, has come at a great cost. Agriculture is a major cause of global environmental degradation. Malnutrition persists among large sections of the population, and a new epidemic of obesity is on the rise...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Kishor Atreya, Dipesh Pyakurel, Krishna Singh Thagunna, Laxmi Dutt Bhatta, Yadav Uprety, Ram Prasad Chaudhary, Bishwa Nath Oli, Sagar Kumar Rimal
Traditional knowledge and practices are increasingly recognized in the resource conservation and management practices, however are declining in many parts of the world including Nepal. Studies on the inventory of traditional knowledge are available, albeit limited, and empirical analysis of factors contributing to the decline of traditional knowledge are negligible in Nepal. We thus initiated this study in the Nepal part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape to (i) document traditional knowledge and practices on agriculture, forest-based herbal remedy, and genetic resource conservation; and (ii) identify factors contributing to the decline of traditional practices in the communities...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Management
Navin Mukundu Nagesh, Bogdan Chiva Giurca, Suzy Lishman
The trends in modern undergraduate medical education focus on a patient-centred approach through problem-based learning over the traditional modular curriculum. Integrating pathology into this style of learning has resulted in the dilution of core scientific principles which may have contributed to reduced understanding and interest in the subject. We aim to innovate pathology education by utilising National Pathology Week which is organised by the Royal College of Pathologists to develop the public engagement model which empowers students to learn pathology by teaching the public...
February 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Thomas Gerhard Wolf, Gerhard Konrad Seeberger, Angelika Callaway, Benjamín Briseño-Marroquín, Philippe Rusca, Michael Frank, Ernst-Jürgen Otterbach
OBJECTIVE: A trend towards increasingly new forms of dental practice has been observed in the FDI World Dental Federation. Elementary foundations such as the free dentist and therapy choice, and independent, free, self-responsible professional practice may be undermined. The current study is aimed at analyzing the general training framework, organization, and professional types of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone and at critically discussing selected aspects of changes in the dental profession...
February 26, 2018: Quintessence International
Peter Gärdenfors, Marlize Lombard
With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Niina Mononen, Riina Järvinen, Katri Hämeen-Anttila, Marja Airaksinen, Charlotte Bonhomme, Jenni Kleme, Marika Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä
BACKGROUND: The Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea published the first national medicines information (MI) strategy in 2012. For the purpose of implementing the MI strategy into practice by the national MI Network, a comprehensive inventory of MI research in Finland was needed. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review literature on MI research conducted in Finland by analyzing and classifying the studies, and identifying the gaps in MI research. METHODS: Medline, Scopus and Medic databases were searched for peer-reviewed MI publications by using key word screening criteria...
January 31, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Ori Barzilai, Charles G Fisher, Mark H Bilsky
Treatment paradigms for patients with spine metastases have evolved significantly over the past decade. Incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery into these paradigms has been particularly transformative, offering precise delivery of tumoricidal radiation doses with sparing of adjacent tissues. Evidence supports the safety and efficacy of radiosurgery as it currently offers durable local tumor control with low complication rates even for tumors previously considered radioresistant to conventional radiation. The role for surgical intervention remains consistent, but a trend has been observed toward less aggressive, often minimally invasive, techniques...
February 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
Lei Wang, Guangjie Chen, Wengang Kang, Jiaoyuan Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Li Chen
It has been well established that regional patterns of atmosphere-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals were predominantly associated with the trajectory of socio-economic development; however, they could be potentially modulated by anthropogenic fingerprint of local sources such as industrial spill. Here, we established historical pollution data of both PAHs and trace metals from a well-dated sediment core from Yangzong Lake of Southwest China, which experienced a severe tailing leakage accident derived from a zinc concentrate smelting plant in 2007, aiming to evaluate the heterogeneity in their temporal trajectories and their sources of contamination in the context of regional deposition patterns...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mohammad G Saklayen
Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious diseases in most of the world, this new non-communicable disease (NCD) has become the major health hazard of modern world. Though it started in the Western world, with the spread of the Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem...
February 26, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
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