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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636364/charge-shift-corrected-electronegativities-and-the-effect-of-bond-polarity-and-substituents-on-covalent-ionic-resonance-energy
#1
Andrew M James, Croix J Laconsay, John Morrison Galbraith
Bond dissociation energies and resonance energies for HnA-BHm molecules (A, B = H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na) have been determined in order to re-evaluate the concept of electronegativity in the context of modern valence bond theory. Following Pauling's original scheme, and using the rigorous definition of the covalent-ionic resonance energy provided by the breathing orbital valence bond method, we have derived a charge-shift corrected electronegativity scale for H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Li, and Na. Atomic charge shift character is defined using a similar approach resulting in values of 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636269/commentary-on-r-d-trends-away-from-general-medicine-cardiovascular-drugs-can-the-fda-help-reverse-the-trend
#2
R J Meyer
In the latter part of the 20th century, drug development in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was a paragon of "modern" therapeutics, bringing about a substantial number of effective, well-tolerated agents targeting some of the most prevalent diseases of the Western world. These drugs were often examples of rational drug development targeting specific pathophysiologic pathways previously elucidated through basic research (e.g., targeting of the renin-angiotensin system or the cholesterol synthesis pathway). The widespread adoption of these ground-breaking medications in practice and into medical guidelines undoubtedly played a role in the fall of morbidity and mortality from CVD in the United States in recent decades...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620482/naturally-occurring-and-added-sugar-in-relation-to-macronutrient-intake-and-food-consumption-results-from-a-population-based-study-in-adults
#3
Niina E Kaartinen, Minna E Similä, Noora Kanerva, Liisa M Valsta, Kennet Harald, Satu Männistö
Associations between sugar intake and the remaining diet are poorly described in modern food environments. We aimed at exploring associations of high naturally occurring and added sugar intakes with sociodemographic characteristics, intake of macronutrients, fibre and selected food groups. Our data comprised 4842 Finnish adults aged 25-74 years, who participated in the population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) study. Diet was assessed by a validated 131-item FFQ...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620428/trends-in-mechanical-ventilation-are-we-ventilating-our-patients-in-the-best-possible-way
#4
REVIEW
Raffaele L Dellaca', Chiara Veneroni, Ramon Farre'
This review addresses how the combination of physiology, medicine and engineering principles contributed to the development and advancement of mechanical ventilation, emphasising the most urgent needs for improvement and the most promising directions of future development. Several aspects of mechanical ventilation are introduced, highlighting on one side the importance of interdisciplinary research for further development and, on the other, the importance of training physicians sufficiently on the technological aspects of modern devices to exploit properly the great complexity and potentials of this treatment...
June 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619943/increase-in-predator-prey-size-ratios-throughout-the-phanerozoic-history-of-marine-ecosystems
#5
Adiël A Klompmaker, Michał Kowalewski, John Warren Huntley, Seth Finnegan
The escalation hypothesis posits that predation by increasingly powerful and metabolically active carnivores has been a major driver of metazoan evolution. We test a key tenet of this hypothesis by analyzing predatory drill holes in fossil marine shells, which provide a ~500-million-year record of individual predator-prey interactions. We show that drill-hole size is a robust predictor of body size among modern drilling predators and that drill-hole size (and thus inferred predator size and power) rose substantially from the Ordovician to the Quaternary period, whereas the size of drilled prey remained stable...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619644/management-and-outcomes-of-symptomatic-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-during-the-past-20%C3%A2-years
#6
Venita Chandra, Karen Trang, Whitt Virgin-Downey, Ken Tran, E John Harris, Ronald L Dalman, Jason T Lee, Matthew W Mell
OBJECTIVE: We compared the management of patients with symptomatic, unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) treated at a tertiary care center between two decades. This 20-year period encapsulated a shift in surgical approach to aortic aneurysms from primarily open to primarily endovascular, and we sought to determine the effect of this shift in the evaluation, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with symptomatic AAA. METHODS: We reviewed 1429 consecutive patients with unruptured AAAs treated at a tertiary care hospital by six staff surgeons between 1995 and 2004 (era 1) and between 2005 and 2014 (era 2)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617405/-orthotopic-bone-implants-for-bone-regeneration
#7
A A Muraev, S Yu Ivanov, S G Ivashkevich, V N Gorshenev, A T Teleshev, A V Kibardin, K K Kobets, V K Dubrovin
Biotechnology industry is rapidly developing. The elaboration of new biomaterials for bone reconstruction is one of the most perspective directions in tissue engineering. There are millions of surgical operations associated with use of bone graft materials every year. In this article we tried to analyze and systematize data about advanced technologies and modern trends in the preparation of bio-composite bone graft materials. Special attention is given to 3D-prototyping that allows making bone implants with individual form...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611973/quantifying-the-modern-city-emerging-technologies-and-big-data-for-active-living-research
#8
REVIEW
Deepti Adlakha
Opportunities and infrastructure for active living are an important aspect of a community's design, livability, and health. Features of the built environment influence active living and population levels of physical activity, but objective study of the built environment influence on active living behaviors is challenging. The use of emerging technologies for active living research affords new and promising means to obtain objective data on physical activity behaviors and improve the precision and accuracy of measurements...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608283/geometric-morphometric-analysis-reveals-age-related-differences-in-the-distal-femur-of-europeans
#9
Etienne Cavaignac, Frederic Savall, Elodie Chantalat, Marie Faruch, Nicolas Reina, Philippe Chiron, Norbert Telmon
BACKGROUND: Few studies have looked into age-related variations in femur shape. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur would reveal age-related differences. The purpose of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to age could be identified, visualized, and quantified using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis. METHODS: Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606647/multiplex-quantification-of-escherichia-coli-salmonella-typhi-and-vibrio-cholera-with-three-dna-targets-in-single-reaction-assay
#10
Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi, Jagadish R Naidu, Bhaskar Matcha
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera harmful pathogens, which causes various diseases in humans. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection is important for patient management and appropriate therapy during the early phase of the bacteria-induced disease. Among the existing techniques for identifying pathogens were less sensitive and time-consuming processes. In the present study total, 48 clinical 31 blood and 17 urine samples of patients suspected with the infections were collected from SVRR Hospital and used to detect the pathogens...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606163/tobacco-smoking-trends-in-samoa-over-four-decades-can-continued-globalization-rectify-that-which-it-has-wrought
#11
Christine Linhart, Take Naseri, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Stephen T McGarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584092/secular-rise-in-economically-valuable-personality-traits
#12
Markus Jokela, Tuomas Pekkarinen, Matti Sarvimäki, Marko Terviö, Roope Uusitalo
Although trends in many physical characteristics and cognitive capabilities of modern humans are well-documented, less is known about how personality traits have evolved over time. We analyze data from a standardized personality test administered to 79% of Finnish men born between 1962 and 1976 (n = 419,523) and find steady increases in personality traits that predict higher income in later life. The magnitudes of these trends are similar to the simultaneous increase in cognitive abilities, at 0.2-0.6 SD during the 15-y window...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580394/intraskeletal-variation-in-human-cortical-osteocyte-lacunar-density-implications-for-bone-quality-assessment
#13
Randee L Hunter, Amanda M Agnew
Osteocytes and their lacunocanalicular network have been identified as the regulator of bone quality and function by exerting extensive influence over metabolic processes, mechanical adaptation, and mineral homeostasis. Recent research has shown that osteocyte apoptosis leads to a decrease in bone quality and increase in bone fragility mediated through its effects on remodeling. The purpose of this study is to investigate variation in cortical bone osteocyte lacunar density with respect to major factors including sex, age, and intracortical porosity to establish both regional and systemic trends...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573649/intra-individual-metameric-variation-expressed-at-the-enamel-dentine-junction-of-lower-post-canine-dentition-of-south-african-fossil-hominins-and-modern-humans
#14
Lei Pan, John Francis Thackeray, Jean Dumoncel, Clément Zanolli, Anna Oettlé, Frikkie de Beer, Jakobus Hoffman, Benjamin Duployer, Christophe Tenailleau, José Braga
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the degree and patterning of inter- and intra-individual metameric variation in South African australopiths, early Homo and modern humans. Metameric variation likely reflects developmental and taxonomical issues, and could also be used to infer ecological and functional adaptations. However, its patterning along the early hominin postcanine dentition, particularly among South African fossil hominins, remains unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microfocus X-ray computed tomography (µXCT) and geometric morphometric tools, we studied the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology and we investigated the intra- and inter-individual EDJ metameric variation among eight australopiths and two early Homo specimens from South Africa, as well as 32 modern humans...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566135/how-to-set-up-a-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-surgery-center-and-training-of-staff
#15
REVIEW
John P Lenihan
The use of computers to assist surgeons in the operating room has been an inevitable evolution in the modern practice of surgery. Robotic-assisted surgery has been evolving now for over two decades and has finally matured into a technology that has caused a monumental shift in the way gynecologic surgeries are performed. Prior to robotics, the only minimally invasive options for most Gynecologic (GYN) procedures including hysterectomies were either vaginal or laparoscopic approaches. However, even with over 100 years of vaginal surgery experience and more than 20 years of laparoscopic advancements, most gynecologic surgeries in the United States were still performed through an open incision...
May 10, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552975/long-term-genetic-monitoring-of-a-riverine-dragonfly-orthetrum-coerulescens-odonata-libellulidae-direct-anthropogenic-impact-versus-climate-change-effects
#16
Rebecca Herzog, Heike Hadrys
Modern conservationists call for long term genetic monitoring datasets to evaluate and understand the impact of human activities on natural ecosystems and species on a global but also local scale. However, long-term monitoring datasets are still rare but in high demand to correctly identify, evaluate and respond to environmental changes. In the presented study, a population of the riverine dragonfly, Orthetrum coerulescens (Odonata: Libellulidae), was monitored over a time period from 1989 to 2013. Study site was an artificial irrigation ditch in one of the last European stone steppes and "nature heritage", the Crau in Southern France...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549811/recent-developments-in-l-glutaminase-production-and-applications-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Parameswaran Binod, Raveendran Sindhu, Aravind Madhavan, Amith Abraham, Anil Kuruvilla Mathew, Ummalyma Sabeela Beevi, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Sudhir P Singh, Ashok Pandey
l-glutaminases is an important industrial enzyme which finds potential applications in different sectors ranging from therapeutic to food industry. It is widely distributed in bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast and fungi. l-Glutaminases are mostly produced by Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp. and few reports were available with fungal, actinomycete and yeast system. Modern biotechnological tools help in the improved production as well as with tailor made properties for specific applications. Most of the genetic engineering studies were carried out for the production of l-glutaminase with improved thermo-tolerance and salt tolerance...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549472/understanding-and-addressing-contraceptive-stockouts-to-increase-family-planning-access-and-uptake-in-senegal
#18
Leah Hasselback, Modibo Dicko, Claire Viadro, Soussaba Ndour, Oumy Ndao, Jennifer Wesson
BACKGROUND: Senegal's government has pledged to reduce contraceptive stockouts, which have been frequent in public sector health facilities. An innovative distribution system called the Informed Push Model (IPM) addresses supply chain obstacles through direct regional-to-facility delivery of contraceptives and use of private sector logistics operators. Following promising pilot results, Senegal's Ministry of Health and Social Action committed to a three-year (2013-2016) expansion of IPM to all public health facilities nationwide...
May 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547379/concerning-the-importance-of-ontological-issues-for-cultural-psychology-a-reply-to-comments
#19
Irina A Mironenko
The paper continues the "ontological" discussion in IBPS, addressing the question of the importance of ontological issues for contemporary development of cultural psychology. The language psychological science speaks is considered as an ontological issue and a most topical one for cultural psychology, aiming at "constructing a psychology that is universal while being culture-inclusive" (Valsiner 2009, p.2). Ontological issues could stay implicit and neglected, as long as the 'etant, "the mode of being", "the particularities" were discussed within the circle of adherents of one and the same school, who implicitly had in mind the same 'entre...
May 25, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545718/the-effect-of-glenoid-component-version-and-humeral-polyethylene-liner-rotation-on-subluxation-and-impingement-in-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#20
Vijay N Permeswaran, Andrea Caceres, Jessica E Goetz, Donald D Anderson, Carolyn M Hettrich
BACKGROUND: A previously validated finite element modeling approach was used to determine how changes in glenoid component version and polyethylene liner rotation within the humeral component affect the arm abduction angle at which impingement between the inferior glenoid and the polyethylene liner occurs as well as the amount of subluxation generated by that impingement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five glenoid component versions (5° anteversion; neutral; 5°, 10°, and 20° retroversion) and 7 polyethylene liner rotations (20° and 10° anterior; neutral; 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40° posterior) were considered, resulting in 35 different clinically representative models...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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