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Casey Burton, Yinfa Ma
The development of effective screening methods for early cancer detection is one of the foremost challenges facing modern cancer research. Urinary metabolomics has recently emerged as a potentially transformative approach to cancer biomarker discovery owing to its noninvasive sampling characteristics and robust analytical feasibility. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new developments in urinary metabolomics, cover the most promising aspects of hyphenated techniques in untargeted and targeted metabolomics, and to discuss technical and clinical limitations in addition to the emerging challenges in the field of urinary metabolomics and its application to cancer biomarker discovery...
September 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Patrick O Waeber, Charlie J Gardner, Wilson R Lourenço, Lucienne Wilmé
BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums...
2017: PloS One
Chad G Rusthoven, Brian D Kavanagh
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) offers a consistent reduction in the incidence of brain metastases (BM), at the cost of measurable toxicity to neurocognitive function and quality of life in the setting of characteristic pathologic changes to the brain. The sequelae of PCI have historically been justified by the perception of an overall survival (OS) advantage specific to SCLC. This rationale has now been challenged by a randomized trial in extensive-stage SCLC demonstrating equivalent progression-free survival and a trend toward improved OS with PCI omission in the context of modern MRI staging, surveillance, and salvage therapy...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ori Schwarz
The article explores different ways to conceptualize the relationship between choice and culture. These two notions are often constructed as opposites: while sociologies of modernization (such as Giddens') portray a shift from cultural traditions to culturally disembedded choice, dispositional sociologies (such as Bourdieu's) uncover cultural determination as the hidden truth behind apparent choice. However, choice may be real and cultural simultaneously. Culture moulds choice not only by inculcating dispositions or shaping repertoires of alternatives, but also by offering culturally specific choice practices, ways of choosing embedded in meaning, normativity, and materiality; and by shaping attributions of choice in everyday life...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
Britt M Starkovich
Klissoura Cave 1 in southern Greece preserves a long archaeological sequence that spans roughly 90,000 years and includes Middle Paleolithic, Uluzzian, Upper Paleolithic, and Mesolithic deposits. The site provides a unique opportunity to examine diachronic change and shifts in the intensity of site use across the Late Pleistocene. There is an overall picture of the intensified use of faunal resources at the site, evidenced by a shift from large to small game, and to small fast-moving taxa in particular. This trend is independent of climatic change and fluctuations in site use, and most likely reflects a broader, regional growth of hominin populations...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
Peter I Maxwell, Paul L A Popelier
Accurate description of the intrinsic preferences of amino acids is important to consider when developing a biomolecular force field. In this study, we use a modern energy partitioning approach called Interacting Quantum Atoms to inspect the cause of the φ and ψ torsional preferences of three dipeptides (Gly, Val, and Ile). Repeating energy trends at each of the molecular, functional group, and atomic levels are observed across both (1) the three amino acids and (2) the φ/ψ scans in Ramachandran plots. At the molecular level, it is surprisingly electrostatic destabilization that causes the high-energy regions in the Ramachandran plot, not molecular steric hindrance (related to the intra-atomic energy)...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Eric A B Kantchev, Hua-Li Qin, Chuang Zhao, Jing Leng
The [(dppe)RhCl]-catalysed ring expansion of 2-methylbenzocyclobutenone has been proposed to occur by C-C oxidative addition to rhodaindanone, beta-hydride elimination, hydrorhodation and C-C reductive elimination. DFT calculations (IEFPCM(1,4-dioxane, 383.15K)/PBE0/DGDZVP level of theory) herein confirm this mechanism. As proposed, oxidative addition into CHMe-CO bond is preferred than the alternative CHMe-aryl insertion. The barriers of oxidative addition, beta-hydride elimination hydrorhodation, and reductive elimination are 23...
August 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Susan C Antón, Christopher W Kuzawa
The Modern Synthesis led to fundamental advances in understandings of human evolution. For human palaeontology, a science that works from ancestral phenotypes (i.e. the fossil record), particularly important have been perspectives used to help understand the heritable aspects of phenotypes and how fossil individuals might then be aggregated into species, and relationships among these groups understood. This focus, coupled with the fragmentary nature of the fossil record, however, means that individual phenotypic variation is often treated as unimportant 'noise', rather than as a source of insight into population adaptation and evolutionary process...
October 6, 2017: Interface Focus
M S Sam Henry, Bridget T McInnes
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides an introduction and overview of literature based discovery (LBD) in the biomedical domain. It introduces the reader to modern and historical LBD models, key system components, evaluation methodologies, and current trends. After completion, the reader will be familiar with the challenges and methodologies of LBD. The reader will be capable of distinguishing between recent LBD systems and publications, and be capable of designing an LBD system for a specific application...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Zhi Cao, Lei Shen, Amund N Løvik, Daniel B Müller, Gang Liu
Modern cities and societies are built fundamentally based on cement and concrete. The global cement production has risen sharply in the past decades due largely to urbanization and construction. Here we deployed a top-down dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) model to quantify the historical development of cement in-use stocks in residential, nonresidential, and civil engineering sectors of all world countries. We found that global cement production spreads unevenly among 184 countries, with China dominating the global production and consumption after the 1990s...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Robert W Boessenecker, Danielle Fraser, Morgan Churchill, Jonathan H Geisler
Toothed whales (Odontoceti) are adapted for catching prey underwater and possess some of the most derived feeding specializations of all mammals, including the loss of milk teeth (monophyodonty), high tooth count (polydonty), and the loss of discrete tooth classes (homodonty). Many extant odontocetes possess some combination of short, broad rostra, reduced tooth counts, fleshy lips, and enlarged hyoid bones-all adaptations for suction feeding upon fishes and squid. We report a new fossil odontocete from the Oligocene (approx...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
L Wang
Holistic integrative medicine (HIM) is a new medical knowledge system, which is formed based on the theory of HIM. HIM treats people as a whole by combining the results of basic medical research, clinical practice and clinical research during the treatment process. The concept of HIM runs through the education and treatment of orthodontics. HIM is the trending norm of both modern medicine and orthodontics. This review is about the concept of HIM and the advantages and disadvantages of specialization. Moreover, this review also discusses the vital role of HIM in orthodontic treatment and development...
August 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Gezahegn Abebe
This article presents long-term analyzed rainfall and temperature data obtained from the National Metrological Agency (NMA) of Ethiopia. Using tables and graphic trends of analysis, the article shows the low and declining level of average annual rainfall as well as the high inter-annual fluctuations for 18 weather stations located in different agro-climatic zones of the country. The high variation of annual maximum and minimum temperature has been similarly observed for decades in the stations. Ethiopia's average annual temperature has risen between 1955 and 2015 by 1...
October 2017: Data in Brief
Alemayehu A Ambel, Colin Andrews, Anne M Bakilana, Elizabeth M Foster, Qaiser Khan, Huihui Wang
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made considerable progress in maternal, newborn, and child health in terms of health outcomes and health services coverage. This study examined how different groups have fared in the process. It also looked at possible factors behind the inequalities. METHODS: The study examined 11 maternal and child health outcomes and services: stunting, underweight, wasting, neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-5 mortality, measles vaccination, full immunization, modern contraceptive use by currently married women, antenatal care visits, and skilled birth attendance...
August 22, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Alexander Lanigan, Brentley Lindsey, Stephen Maturo, Joseph Brennan, Adrienne Laury
Objective Define the number and type of facial and penetrating neck injuries sustained in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2011 to 2016. Compare recent injury trends to prior years of modern conflict. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Methods The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR) was queried for facial and neck injuries from Iraq and Afghanistan from June 2011 to May 2016. Injury patterns, severity, and patient demographics were analyzed and compared to previously published data from combat operations during January 2003 to May 2011...
August 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
K O Rove, J C Warncke, V M Vemulakonda
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the general activities of a pediatric urologist, whose specialty remains young in the spectrum of modern, organized medicine. Unplanned activities, which are more commonly referred to as consultations, can represent significant additional workload for the urologist seeing scheduled clinic patients or completing elective operative cases. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to better understand the practice patterns surrounding inpatient consultations of pediatric urology, and to describe patterns in reasons, timing, patient and service factors that may lead to patient intervention...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Johan Tidblad, Kateřina Kreislová, Markus Faller, Daniel de la Fuente, Tim Yates, Aurélie Verney-Carron, Terje Grøntoft, Andrew Gordon, Ulrik Hans
Results from the international cooperative programme on effects on materials including historic and cultural monuments are presented from the period 1987-2014 and include pollution data (SO₂, NO₂, O₃, HNO₃ and PM10), corrosion data (carbon steel, weathering steel, zinc, copper, aluminium and limestone) and data on the soiling of modern glass for nineteen industrial, urban and rural test sites in Europe. Both one-year and four-year corrosion data are presented. Corrosion and pollution have decreased significantly and a shift in the magnitude is generally observed around 1997: from a sharp decrease to a more modest decrease or to a constant level without any decrease...
August 19, 2017: Materials
Sasanka Kumar Barua, Somor Jyoti Bora, Puskal Kumar Bagchi, Debanga Sarma, Mandeep Phukan, Saumar Jyoti Baruah, Thekampadum Puthenveetil Rajeev
Emphysematous infection of the urinary tract is a rapidly progressive, necrotizing infection which results into collection of gas and subsequent destruction of the tissues. Although very rare among general population, such necrotizing infection is common, particularly among those with compromised immune status. With the rising trend of people afflicted with diabetes mellitus globally, this fulminating infection may pose a serious threat to the medical fraternity. A high index of suspicion and abdominal CT scan usually helps to establish the diagnosis at an early stage and thereby facilitating aggressive antimicrobial therapy and percutaneous drainage where indicated...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Joseph E Brenner
The knowledge accumulated in West and East is incomplete in different ways. The mainstream Western approach has contributed the basis for modern science, but indications have appeared in the Western literature that something has been missing in it that Eastern thought could offer. This paper explores the similarities and differences between Eastern and Western approaches to knowledge and whether a trend exists toward their conjunction or convergence. I suggest that a process of conjunction of these different modes of exploration of what the concepts of 'Life and Mind' really entail, at the interface of philosophy and science, is taking place in the areas of information and biomathics...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Dave Collins, Howie J Carson
Over the past 15 years there has been much research into the PETTLEP model of motor imagery, originally designed to improve the quality and impact of imagery interventions on sport performance. This article reviews the most recent trends within this research. Despite a suggested change of underpinning mechanisms involved, there is much support for the positive impact of the model when applied within the sporting context and with engaged participants. The model also appears to have provided impact in fields other than sport, such as medicine and music...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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