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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101368/polymorphisms-in-the-canine-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-gene-identification-and-variation-among-five-broad-dog-breed-groups
#1
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094058/association-between-dietary-patterns-cadmium-intake-and-chronic-kidney-disease-among-adults
#2
Zumin Shi, Anne W Taylor, Malcolm Riley, Julie Byles, Jianghong Liu, Manny Noakes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Almost one in ten Chinese adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the link between dietary patterns, dietary cadmium intake and CKD has not been studied in China. METHOD: Adults (n = 8429) in the China Health and Nutrition Survey who had at least one 3-day 24 h food record in combination with household food inventory in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009 and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured in 2009. Dietary pattern was identified using factor analysis...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088344/design-control-considerations-for-biologic-device-combination-products
#3
Dave Anderson, Roger Liu, J Anand Subramony, Jon Cammack
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078991/vegetable-organosulfur-compounds-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#4
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Francesco Di Gioia, Georgia Ntatsi
BACKGROUND: Trends in modern pharmaceutical science show an increase in demand for new drugs and diet supplements derived from natural products, while during the last decades, great research is conducted regarding the natural compounds and their medicinal and bioactive properties. Organosulfur compounds are present in many plants and their bioactive properties have been used in folk and traditional medicine throughout the centuries. Not until recently, modern science confirmed and revealed the chemical compounds that are responsible for these properties, the chemistry involved in their biosynthesis and the main mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073451/implications-of-turbulent-flow-in-connecting-capillaries-used-in-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#5
John Halvorson, Abraham M Lenhoff, Monika Dittmann, Dwight R Stoll
The ongoing movement in HPLC toward the use of small columns packed with small particles for high speed separations results in eluted peaks with very small volumetric variances. Avoiding degradation of separation performance under these conditions requires careful consideration of all sources of extra-column peak dispersion. Recent trends towards decreased diameters of connecting capillaries and increased flow rates for analytical-scale separations can result in Reynolds numbers that exceed 2000. This raises the possibility of a transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thereby resulting in a higher than expected pressure drop across the capillary at a given flow rate...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065724/epidemiology-of-dry-eye-disease-in-africa-the-sparse-information-gaps-and-opportunities
#6
REVIEW
A E Osae, U Gehlsen, J Horstmann, S Siebelmann, M E Stern, D B Kumah, P Steven
Dry eye disease (DED) is an increasingly significant clinical problem in developing countries and/or emerging economies. Existing studies on DED conducted in these areas have largely reported on associations between DED and infectious disease (trachoma) and malnutrition (hypovitaminosis A), but current trends of industrialization, urbanization, and modernization in these areas could result in a shift to other forms of DED. Herein, we review the epidemiology of DED in these geographic areas, highlighting potential causes and risk factors of DED while presenting information on diagnostic tools and algorithms and insight into some treatment modalities of DED that could prove useful to clinicians and investigators in these regions...
January 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059761/density-functional-theory-is-straying-from-the-path-toward-the-exact-functional
#7
Michael G Medvedev, Ivan S Bushmarinov, Jianwei Sun, John P Perdew, Konstantin A Lyssenko
The theorems at the core of density functional theory (DFT) state that the energy of a many-electron system in its ground state is fully defined by its electron density distribution. This connection is made via the exact functional for the energy, which minimizes at the exact density. For years, DFT development focused on energies, implicitly assuming that functionals producing better energies become better approximations of the exact functional. We examined the other side of the coin: the energy-minimizing electron densities for atomic species, as produced by 128 historical and modern DFT functionals...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059093/expression-of-pd-l1-and-presence-of-cd8-positive-t-cells-in-pre-treatment-specimens-of-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#8
Emeka K Enwere, Elizabeth N Kornaga, Michelle Dean, Theodora A Koulis, Tien Phan, Maria Kalantarian, Martin Köbel, Prafull Ghatage, Anthony M Magliocco, Susan P Lees-Miller, Corinne M Doll
Several of the cancer immunotherapies under investigation or in clinical use target the programmed death-ligand 1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling axis. PD-L1 expression in tumor samples has been used as a predictive marker for response to these therapeutics, and may also have independent prognostic utility when assessed along with immune cell markers. Our objectives were to assess the expression of PD-L1 in tumor specimens from a uniformly treated patient cohort with locally advanced cervical cancer, and to determine its prognostic significance along with the density of tumor-infiltrating T cells...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050779/a-current-perspective-on-cancer-immune-therapy-step-by-step-approach-to-constructing-the-magic-bullet
#9
REVIEW
Gabriele D'Errico, Heather L Machado, Bruno Sainz
Immunotherapy is the new trend in cancer treatment due to the selectivity, long lasting effects, and demonstrated improved overall survival and tolerance, when compared to patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. Despite these positive results, immunotherapy is still far from becoming the perfect magic bullet to fight cancer, largely due to the facts that immunotherapy is not effective in all patients nor in all cancer types. How and when will immunotherapy overcome these hurdles? In this review we take a step back to walk side by side with the pioneers of immunotherapy in order to understand what steps need to be taken today to make immunotherapy effective across all cancers...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049819/brain-enlargement-and-dental-reduction-were-not-linked-in-hominin-evolution
#10
Aida Gómez-Robles, Jeroen B Smaers, Ralph L Holloway, P David Polly, Bernard A Wood
The large brain and small postcanine teeth of modern humans are among our most distinctive features, and trends in their evolution are well studied within the hominin clade. Classic accounts hypothesize that larger brains and smaller teeth coevolved because behavioral changes associated with increased brain size allowed a subsequent dental reduction. However, recent studies have found mismatches between trends in brain enlargement and posterior tooth size reduction in some hominin species. We use a multiple-variance Brownian motion approach in association with evolutionary simulations to measure the tempo and mode of the evolution of endocranial and dental size and shape within the hominin clade...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048700/tu-d-bra-00-treatment-planning-system-commissioning-and-qa
#11
Greg Salomons
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048038/tu-d-bra-01-tps-commissioning-and-qa-planning-and-monitoring
#12
G Salomons
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047794/su-g-iep3-09-investigating-the-interplay-of-antiscatter-grids-with-modern-detectors-and-image-processing-in-digital-radiography
#13
A Sanchez, K Little, M Baad, I Reiser, Z F Lu, K Feinstein
PURPOSE: To use phantom and simulation experiments to relate technique factors, patient size and antiscatter grid use to image quality in portable digital radiography (DR), in light of advancements in detector design and image processing. METHODS: Image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on a portable DR system (MobileDaRt Evolution, Shimadzu) was measured by imaging four aluminum inserts of varying thickness, superimposed on a Lucite slab phantom using a pediatric abdominal protocol...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047373/tu-d-bra-02-recommendations-of-mppg-5-and-practical-implementation-strategies
#14
J Smilowitz
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046707/tu-d-bra-03-tps-commissioning-and-qa-incorporating-the-entire-planning-process
#15
S Mutic
INTRODUCTION: Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042860/cmos-electrochemical-instrumentation-for-biosensor-microsystems-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Haitao Li, Xiaowen Liu, Lin Li, Xiaoyi Mu, Roman Genov, Andrew J Mason
Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits...
December 31, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029168/trends-in-regenerative-medicine-repigmentation-in-vitiligo-through-melanocyte-stem-cell-mobilization
#17
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Gertrude-E Costin, Dennis R Roop, David A Norris
Vitiligo is the most frequent human pigmentary disorder, characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of mature epidermal melanocytes. Of the current treatments offering partial and temporary relief, ultraviolet (UV) light is the most effective, coordinating an intricate network of keratinocyte and melanocyte factors that control numerous cellular and molecular signaling pathways. This UV-activated process is a classic example of regenerative medicine, inducing functional melanocyte stem cell populations in the hair follicle to divide, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes that regenerate the epidermis through a complex process involving melanocytes and other cell lineages in the skin...
December 28, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000406/zygomatic-root-position-in-recent-and-fossil-hominids
#18
Gerhard W Weber, Viktoria A Krenn
The relative position of the zygomatic root to the dentition plays a crucial role in determining the overall strength of the face in response to bite forces. The powerful superficial head of the masseter arises there and the zygomaticoalveolar crest (ZAC) is discussed as a buttressing feature of the face. For instance, a more forwardly or backwardly positioned zygomatic root or a lower or higher vertical distance to the dentition could be indicative for evolutionary adaptations to particular loading regimes which are associated with diet...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000280/modern-implant-dentistry-based-on-osseointegration-50%C3%A2-years-of-progress-current-trends-and-open-questions
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Buser, Lars Sennerby, Hugo De Bruyn
In the 1960s and 1970s, implant-supported prostheses based on subperiosteal or blade implants had a poor reputation because of questionable clinical outcomes and lack of scientific documentation. The change to a scientifically sound discipline was initiated by the two scientific pioneers of modern implant dentistry, Professor P. I. Brånemark from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden and Professor André Schroeder from the University of Bern in Switzerland. Together with their teams, and independently of each other, they laid the foundation for the most significant development and paradigm shift in dental medicine...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000274/digital-technology-in-fixed-implant-prosthodontics
#20
REVIEW
Tim Joda, Marco Ferrari, German O Gallucci, Julia-Gabriela Wittneben, Urs Brägger
Digital protocols are increasingly influencing prosthodontic treatment concepts. Implant-supported single-unit and short-span reconstructions will benefit mostly from the present digital trends. In these protocols, monolithic implant crowns connected to prefabricated titanium abutments, which are created based on data obtained from an intraoral scan followed by virtual design and production, without the need of a physical master cast, have to be considered in lieu of conventional manufacturing techniques for posterior implant restorations...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
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