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Modern trends

Kashish Goel, Tanush Gupta, Dhaval Kolte, Sahil Khera, Gregg C Fonarow, Deepak L Bhatt, Mandeep Singh, Charanjit S Rihal
Importance: There are concerns whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at centers without on-site cardiac surgery is safe outside of a tightly regulated research environment. Objective: To analyze the outcomes and temporal trends of inpatient PCI at centers without on-site cardiac surgery in an unselected and nationally representative population of the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: A national inpatient sample (N = 6 912 232) was used to identify patients who underwent inpatient PCI in the United States from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
H Brzobohatá, V Krajíček, Z Horák, P Sedlak, J Velemínská
During the past twelve centuries, the stature of Central European inhabitants has increased significantly with corresponding changes in the size of lower limb bones. The aim of our study was to determine whether these changes have occurred strictly in relation to size or if the shape of skeletal structures has been altered simultaneously. Diachronic size and shape changes in the proximal part of tibia in a Central European population (Czech Republic) were studied using geometric morphometrics (principal components analysis, Hotelling's test, linear discriminant analysis)...
October 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Kenneth J Helmandollar, Jon H Meyerle
This article outlines the unique resources available in the US Military to investigate epidemiologic trends, disease pathology, and clinical outcomes. These resources are available to military researchers and civilian collaborators and provide an invaluable research platform.
October 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Janos Minarovits, Hans Helmut Niller
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several distinct hematological and epithelial malignancies, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and others. The association with several malignant tumors of local and worldwide distribution makes EBV one of the most important tumor viruses. Furthermore, because EBV can cause posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, transplant medicine has to deal with EBV as a major pathogenic virus second only to cytomegalovirus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chunjiang An, Gordon Huang, Yao Yao, Shan Zhao
Electrocoagulation is a simple and efficient treatment method involving the electrodissolution of sacrificial anodes and formation of hydroxo-metal products as coagulants, while the simultaneous production of hydrogen at the cathode facilitates the pollutant removal by flotation. Oil is one of the most important hydrocarbon products in the modern world. It can cause environmental pollution during various stages of production, transportation, refining and use. Electrocoagulation treatment is particularly effective for destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by neutralizing charges and bonding oil pollutants to generated flocs and hydrogen bubbles...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Milan Nagy, Pavel Mučaji
This overview paper describes in its introductory part bitter-tasting herbal drugs in the context of their traditional use in the loss of appetite and digestive disorders. Then, it mentions current knowledge on signals origin in bitter taste receptors leading to different, unexpected physiological processes. Newly observed biological effects of bitter tastants are correlated with modern trends of their complex study with an aim to develop new drugs primarily acting on bitter taste receptors.Key words: T2R bitter taste receptors GPCR bitters glucose homeostasis asthma ghrelin GLP-1 solitary chemosensory cells...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Waqar Haque, Vivek Verma, Anam Haque, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
PURPOSE: In certain ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) subpopulations, there is no consensus regarding whether to postoperatively irradiate; decisions are often made based on potential risk of cardiac toxicities. Given the utility of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data for studying cardiac mortality in invasive disease, this is the first such study specific for DCIS patients, evaluating trends in cardiac mortality after left-sided radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: The SEER database was queried for patients with DCIS that received RT and had known unilaterality...
November 17, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jennifer Boyes, Panagis Drakatos, Ian Jarrold, Judy Smith, Joerg Steier
PURPOSE: Excessive daytime sleepiness is the most common complaint reported in sleep clinics. We hypothesised that utilising modern media to deliver an online Epworth Sleepiness Scale, age- and gender-related differences in subjective daytime sleepiness could be assessed. METHODS: Age, gender and online Epworth Sleepiness Scale (range 0-24 points) of 39,448 subjects were recorded between January 2013 and November 2015. RESULTS: A significant trend, for males but not females, was found between age and Epworth score (p < 0...
November 12, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Jing Chen, Wei Chen, Guozhang Zeng, Guimei Li
The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional outcomes of Chinese urban children under five years old, in 2009, 2012, and 2015. Cluster random sampling methods were used to select children under five years old in Xiamen, one of five special economic zones in China. Subjects (N = 71,229) under five years old (39,413 boys, 31,816 girls) were examined at three different times (22,576 in 2009, 24,816 in 2012, and 23,837 in 2015). Significant differences in the boys' height and weight (p < 0...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
C Weng, M G Kahn
OBJECTIVES: To reflect on the notable events and significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) in the year of 2015 and discuss near-term trends impacting CRI. METHODS: We selected key publications that highlight not only important recent advances in CRI but also notable events likely to have significant impact on CRI activities over the next few years or longer, and consulted the discussions in relevant scientific communities and an online living textbook for modern clinical trials...
November 10, 2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
Shani S Reich, Robert C Null, Peter J Timoney, Jason A Sokol
PURPOSE: To assess current members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ASOPRS) regarding preference in surgical techniques for orbital decompression in Graves' disease. METHODS: A 10-question web-based, anonymous survey was distributed to oculoplastic surgeons utilizing the ASOPRS listserv. The questions addressed the number of years of experience performing orbital decompression surgery, preferred surgical techniques, and whether orbital decompression was performed in collaboration with an ENT surgeon...
November 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yiteng Zhai, Yew-Soon Ong, Ivor W Tsang
Today, modern databases with "Big Dimensionality" are experiencing a growing trend. Existing approaches that require the calculations of pairwise feature correlations in their algorithmic designs have scored miserably on such databases, since computing the full correlation matrix (i.e., square of dimensionality in size) is computationally very intensive (i.e., million features would translate to trillion correlations). This poses a notable challenge that has received much lesser attention in the field of machine learning and data mining research...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Valentina Abet, Fabiana Filace, Javier Recio, Julio Alvarez-Builla, Carolina Burgos
In this review we highlight the most modern trends in the prodrug strategy. In drug research and development, the prodrug concept has found a number of useful applications. Selected examples of this approach are provided in this paper and they are classified according to the aim of their design.
October 29, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Christine Sm Lau, Injoon Lee, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort. METHODS: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Elena Prada, Lynn M Atuyambe, Nakeisha M Blades, Justine N Bukenya, Christopher Garimoi Orach, Akinrinola Bankole
BACKGROUND: In Uganda, abortion is permitted only when the life of a woman is in danger. This restriction compels the perpetuation of the practice in secrecy and often under unsafe conditions. In 2003, 294,000 induced abortions were estimated to occur each year in Uganda. Since then, no other research on abortion incidence has been conducted in the country. METHODS: Data from 418 health facilities were used to estimate the number and rate of induced abortion in 2013...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey M Ting, Swapnil Tale, Anatolii A Purchel, Seamus D Jones, Lakmini Widanapathirana, Zachary P Tolstyka, Li Guo, Steven J Guillaudeu, Frank S Bates, Theresa M Reineke
Polymeric excipients are crucial ingredients in modern pills, increasing the therapeutic bioavailability, safety, stability, and accessibility of lifesaving products to combat diseases in developed and developing countries worldwide. Because many early-pipeline drugs are clinically intractable due to hydrophobicity and crystallinity, new solubilizing excipients can reposition successful and even failed compounds to more effective and inexpensive oral formulations. With assistance from high-throughput controlled polymerization and screening tools, we employed a strategic, molecular evolution approach to systematically modulate designer excipients based on the cyclic imide chemical groups of an important (yet relatively insoluble) drug phenytoin...
October 26, 2016: ACS Central Science
Dale Fisher, Paul Wicks, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
The development of new therapies has a rich history, evolves quickly with societal trends, and will have an exciting future. The last century has seen an exponential increase in complex interactions between medical practitioners, pharmaceutical companies, governments and patients. We believe technology and societal expectations will open up the opportunity for more individuals to participate as information becomes more freely available and inequality less acceptable. Corporations must recognize that usual market forces do not function ideally in a setting where health is regarded as a human right, and as modern consumers, patients will increasingly take control of their own data, wellbeing, and even the means of production for developing their own treatments...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Shion A Lim, Kathryn M Hart, Michael J Harms, Susan Marqusee
Proper folding of proteins is critical to producing the biological machinery essential for cellular function. The rates and energetics of a protein's folding process, which is described by its energy landscape, are encoded in the amino acid sequence. Over the course of evolution, this landscape must be maintained such that the protein folds and remains folded over a biologically relevant time scale. How exactly a protein's energy landscape is maintained or altered throughout evolution is unclear. To study how a protein's energy landscape changed over time, we characterized the folding trajectories of ancestral proteins of the ribonuclease H (RNase H) family using ancestral sequence reconstruction to access the evolutionary history between RNases H from mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrew H Knoll, Michael J Follows
Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic marine animals across multiple phyla record secular trends in morphology, environmental distribution, and inferred behaviour that are parsimoniously explained in terms of increased selection pressure from durophagous predators. Another systemic change in Mesozoic marine ecosystems, less widely appreciated than the first, may help to explain the observed animal record. Fossils, biomarker molecules, and molecular clocks indicate a major shift in phytoplankton composition, as mixotrophic dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids and, later, diatoms radiated across shelves...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A P Bonartsev, G A Bonartseva, V L Myshkina, V V Voinova, T K Mahina, I I Zharkova, S G Yakovlev, A L Zernov, E V Ivanova, E A Akoulina, E S Kuznetsova, V A Zhuikov, S G Alekseeva, V V Podgorskii, I V Bessonov, M N Kopitsyna, A S Morozov, E Y Milanovskiy, Z N Tyugay, G S Bykova, M P Kirpichnikov, K V Shaitan
Production of novel polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications, and biomaterials based on them is a promising trend in modern bioengineering. We studied the ability of an effective strain-producer Azotobacter chroococcum 7B to synthesize not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer (PHB) and its main copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), but also a novel copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (PHB4MV). For the biosynthesis of PHB copolymers, we used carboxylic acids as additional carbon sources and monomer precursors in the chain of synthesized copolymers...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
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