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Aliona Tsypes, Max Owens, Greg Hajcak, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in children is important for the identification and prevention of future suicide risk. However, although abnormalities in reward responsiveness might constitute one potential transdiagnostic mechanism of risk for NSSI, no studies have examined initial response to reward in children with a history of NSSI. The goal of the present study was to address this important gap in the literature. To objectively assess initial response to reward, we utilized the feedback negativity (FN) event-related potential, a well-established psychophysiological marker of reward responsiveness...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Andrée-Ann Cyr, Nicole D Anderson
Studies have shown that generating errors prior to studying information (pencil-?) can improve target retention relative to passive (i.e., errorless) study, provided that cues and targets are semantically related (pencil-ink) and not unrelated (pencil-frog). In two experiments, we manipulated semantic proximity of errors to targets during trial-and-error to examine whether it would modulate this error generation benefit. In Experiment 1, participants were shown a cue (band-?) and asked to generate a related word (e...
April 16, 2018: Memory
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Leandro Liborio, Simone Sturniolo, Dominik Jochym
The stopping site of the muon in a muon-spin relaxation experiment is in general unknown. There are some techniques that can be used to guess the muon stopping site, but they often rely on approximations and are not generally applicable to all cases. In this work, we propose a purely theoretical method to predict muon stopping sites in crystalline materials from first principles. The method is based on a combination of ab initio calculations, random structure searching, and machine learning, and it has successfully predicted the MuT and MuBC stopping sites of muonium in Si, diamond, and Ge, as well as the muonium stopping site in LiF, without any recourse to experimental results...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chien-Kai Chang, Mary Wen-Reng Ho, Sarina Hui-Lin Chien
People go beyond the inferences afforded by a person's observable features to make guesses about personality traits or even social memberships such as political affiliations. The present study extended Hu et al. (2016) to further investigate the influence of provincial appearance on differentiating KMT (Kuomintang) and DPP (Democratic Progressive Party) candidates by headshot photos with three experiments. In Experiment 1 (Membership categorization task), participants categorized the photos from the pilot study (where the difference between the perceived age of KMT and DPP candidates was reduced) and divided into four blocks by their perceived age...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Aleksandar Poleksic, Lei Xie
Motivation: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the main causes of death and a major financial burden on the world's economy. Due to the limitations of the animal model, computational prediction of serious, rare ADRs is invaluable. However, current state-of-the-art computational methods do not yield significantly better predictions of rare ADRs than random guessing. Results: We present a novel method, based on the theory of "compressed sensing", which can accurately predict serious side-effects of candidate and market drugs...
March 29, 2018: Bioinformatics
Hieu Nguyen, Hien Kieu, Zhaoyang Wang, Hanh N D Le
Presented in this paper is an effective technique to acquire the three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the human face without the use of active lighting and artificial patterns. The technique is based on binocular stereo imaging and digital image correlation, and it includes two key steps: camera calibration and image matching. The camera calibration involves a pinhole model and a bundle-adjustment approach, and the governing equations of the 3D digitization process are described. For reliable pixel-to-pixel image matching, the skin pores and freckles or lentigines on the human face serve as the required pattern features to facilitate the process...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Yuxuan Chen, Mark Spivack
An iterated marching method is presented for the reconstruction of rough perfectly reflecting one-dimensional (1D) surfaces from scattered data arising from a scalar wave at grazing incidence. This is based on coupled integral equations adapted from an earlier approach using the parabolic equation, relating the scattered field at a plane to the unknown surface. Taking the flat surface as an initial guess, these are solved here using at most three iterations. The method is applied to scattered field data generated from the full Helmholtz equations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Jean R N Haler, Denis Morsa, Philippe Lecomte, Christine Jérôme, Johann Far, Edwin De Pauw
Ion Mobility (IM) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS) has been used for several decades, bringing a fast separation dimension to the MS detection. IM-MS is a convenient tool for structural elucidation. The folding of macromolecules is often assessed with the support of computational chemistry. However, this strategy is strongly dependent on computational initial guesses. Here, we propose the analysis of the Collision Cross-Section (CCS) trends of synthetic homopolymers based on a fitting method which does not rely on computational chemistry a prioris of the three-dimensional structures...
March 27, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Natania A Crane, Stephanie M Gorka, Jessica Weafer, Scott A Langenecker, Harriet de Wit, K Luan Phan
One known risk factor for drug use and abuse is sensitivity to rewarding effects of drugs. It is not known whether this risk factor extends to sensitivity to non-drug rewards. In this study with healthy young adults, we examined the association between sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine and a neural indicator of anticipation of monetary reward. We hypothesized that greater euphorigenic response to amphetamine would be associated with greater neural activation to anticipation of monetary reward (Win > Loss)...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Andreas Krause, Thomas A M Pugh, Anita D Bayer, Wei Li, Felix Leung, Alberte Bondeau, Jonathan C Doelman, Florian Humpenöder, Peter Anthoni, Benjamin L Bodirsky, Philippe Ciais, Christoph Müller, Guillermo Murray-Tortarolo, Stefan Olin, Alexander Popp, Stephen Sitch, Elke Stehfest, Almut Arneth
Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF)...
March 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shufang Liu, Aurelien Bustin, Pauline Ferry, Andrei Codreanu, Darius Burschka, Anne Menini, Freddy Odille
PURPOSE: T1 mapping is an emerging MRI research tool to assess diseased myocardial tissue. Recent research has been focusing on the image acquisition protocol and motion correction, yet little attention has been paid to the curve fitting algorithm. METHODS: After nonrigid registration of the image series, a vectorized Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) technique is proposed to improve the robustness of the curve fitting algorithm by allowing spatial regularization of the parametric maps...
March 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Peyman Tavallali, Hana Koorehdavoudi, Joanna Krupa
Intrinsic Frequency (IF) has recently been introduced as an ample signal processing method for analyzing carotid and aortic pulse pressure tracings. The IF method has also been introduced as an effective approach for the analysis of cardiovascular system dynamics. The physiological significance, convergence and accuracy of the IF algorithm has been established in prior works. In this paper, we show that the IF method could be derived by appropriate mathematical approximations from the Navier-Stokes and elasticity equations...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tiffany Guess, Hoyin Lai, Serenah E Smith, Linda Sircy, Kirsten Cunningham, David E Nelson, Erin E McClelland
The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is the primary virulence factor and one of the most commonly studied aspects of this pathogenic yeast. Capsule size can vary widely between strains, has the ability to grow rapidly when introduced to stressful or low nutrient conditions, and has been positively correlated with strain virulence. For these reasons, the size of the capsule is of great interest to C. neoformans researchers. The growth of the C. neoformans capsule is induced during phenotypic testing to help understand the effects of different treatments on the yeast or size differences between strains...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Karl A Hujsak, Eric W Roth, William Kellogg, Yue Li, Vinayak P Dravid
Technological advances in electron microscopy, particularly improved detectors and aberration correctors, have led to higher throughput and less invasive imaging of materials and biological structures by enhancing signal-to-noise ratios at lower electron exposures. Analytical methods, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS), have also benefitted and offer a rich set of local elemental and bonding information with nano-or atomic resolution. However, spatially resolved spectrum imaging with EELS and EDS continue to be difficult to scale due to limited detector collection angles or high signal background, requiring hours or even days for full maps...
March 10, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Scott W Paine, James R Fienup
For large amounts of wavefront error, gradient-based optimization methods for image-based wavefront sensing are unlikely to converge when the starting guess for the wavefront differs greatly from the true wavefront. We use machine learning operating on a point-spread function to determine a good initial estimate of the wavefront. We show that our trained convolutional neural network provides good initial estimates in the presence of simulated detector noise and is more effective than using many random starting guesses for large amounts of wavefront error...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Saad Chahine, Kulamakan Mahan Kulasegaram, Sarah Wright, Sandra Monteiro, Lawrence E M Grierson, Cassandra Barber, Stefanie S Sebok-Syer, Meghan McConnell, Wendy Yen, Andre De Champlain, Claire Touchie
There exists an assumption that improving medical education will improve patient care. While seemingly logical, this premise has rarely been investigated. In this Invited Commentary, the authors propose the use of big data to test this assumption. The authors present a few example research studies linking education and patient care outcomes and argue that using big data may more easily facilitate the process needed to investigate this assumption. The authors also propose that collaboration is needed to link educational and health care data...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Marjorie A Bowman, Anne Victoria Neale, Dean A Seehusen
This issue includes several excellent observational studies prompted by physicians' clinical questions. Many people use lots of menthol cough drops-does the menthol overall lengthen the cough duration? When should we intensify treatment of older individuals with diabetes? Do occipital nerve blocks work for acute migraine headaches? Did you know that the plantar fascia can rupture? What happens to those patients with chest pain but low pretest probability for serious cardiac disease who are admitted to the hospital? Acupuncture can work well-for the patients-but how can we incorporate it into the usual pace of the family medicine office? Is it a win-lose situation when medical assistant roles are expanded? How many practice sites do physicians have and does that make a difference in the number or type of health personnel shortage areas? What would you guess on the presence of humor in the medical office-more or less than half of the visits; introduced by doctors or patients; primary care or specialty doctors?...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Jeffrey J Starns
Heck and Erdfelder (2016) developed a model that extends discrete-state multinomial processing tree models to response time (RT) data. Their model is an important advance, but it does not have a mechanism to produce the speed-accuracy trade-off, the bedrock empirical observation that rushed decisions are less accurate. I present a similar model, the "discrete-race" model, with a simple mechanism for the speed-accuracy trade-off. In the model, information that supports detection of the stimulus type is available for some proportion of items and unavailable for others...
March 12, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
OBJECTIVES: To investigate which of two sources of information about an older adult's wishes-choices made in an advance directive or proxy's opinion-provides better insight into the older adult's preferences measured in hypothetical clinical situations involving decisional incapacity. METHODS: Secondary analyses of data collected from 157 community-dwelling, decisionally competent adults aged 70 years and over who attended a group information session on advance directives with their proxy...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
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