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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439745/some-problems-with-non-inferiority-tests-in-psychotherapy-research-psychodynamic-therapies-as-an-example
#1
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433289/migration-of-antioxidants-from-polylactic-acid-films-a-parameter-estimation-approach-part-i-a-model-including-convective-mass-transfer-coefficient
#2
Hayati Samsudin, Rafael Auras, Gary Burgess, Kirk Dolan, Herlinda Soto-Valdez
A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (Kp,f) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, Kp,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430789/intratumoral-delivery-of-interferon-%C3%AE-secreting-mscs-repolarizes-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-suppresses-neuroblastoma-proliferation-in-vivo
#3
Theresa Relation, Tai Yi, Adam J Guess, Krista La Perle, Satoru Otsuru, Suheyla Hasgur, Massimo Dominici, Christopher Breuer, Edwin M Horwitz
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, remains a therapeutic challenge. However, one promising patient treatment strategy is the delivery of anti-tumor therapeutic agents via mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy. MSCs have been safely utilized to treat genetic bone diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has been shown to decrease tumor proliferation by altering the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430558/therapeutic-angiogenesis-for-peripheral-artery-disease-lessons-learned-in-translational-science
#4
Sunil R Iyer, Brian H Annex
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major health care problem. There have been limited advances in medical therapies, and a huge burden of symptomatic patients with intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia who have limited treatment options. Angiogenesis is the growth and proliferation of blood vessels from existing vasculature. For approximately 2 decades, "therapeutic angiogenesis" has been studied as an investigational approach to treat patients with symptomatic PAD. Despite literally hundreds of positive preclinical studies, results from human clinical studies thus far have been disappointing...
October 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422560/aesthetic-possibilities-in-removable-prosthodontics-part-2-start-with-the-face-not-the-teeth-when-rehearsing-lip-support-and-tooth-positions
#5
J N Besford, A F Sutton
Even dentures exhibiting superb aesthetics are of no use if they visibly move during speech and social intercourse. In this, the second paper of three on removable denture aesthetics, we describe impression making and shaping the wax occlusal record rims. Not only are the impressions important for producing dentures with maximum retention, stability and support, but their extensions and the thickness of their borders have a decisive influence on lip support and profile. This article shows how the contours of the definitive impressions and the wax rims are developed so as to prescribe the overall form of the replacement gums and teeth...
February 9, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402529/psychometric-properties-of-neural-responses-to-monetary-and-social-rewards-across-development
#6
Paige Ethridge, Anna Weinberg
Reward-related event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used to index individual differences that signal the presence or predict the onset of psychopathology. However, relatively little research has explored the psychometric properties of reward-related ERPs. Without understanding their psychometric properties, the value of using ERPs as biomarkers for psychopathology is limited. The present study, therefore, sought to establish the internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) elicited by two types of incentives commonly used in individual differences research - monetary and social rewards...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401801/high-speed-multi-grid-pulse-retrieval-algorithm-for-frequency-resolved-optical-gating
#7
Rana Jafari, Rick Trebino
We use an algorithmic technique called "multi-grid" to improve the speed of convergence of the cross-correlation frequency-resolved-optical-gating (XFROG) pulse-retrieval algorithm for very complex pulses. The multi-grid approach uses a smaller trace (N/4 × N/4) drawn from the original N × N trace for initial iterations, yielding poorer resolution and range, but proceeding ~16 times faster for such iterations. The pulse field rapidly retrieved from this smaller array then provides the initial guess for the larger, full array, significantly reducing the number of iterations required on the full array...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397078/time-frequency-reward-related-delta-prospectively-predicts-the-development-of-adolescent-onset-depression
#8
Brady D Nelson, Zachary P Infantolino, Daniel N Klein, Greg Perlman, Roman Kotov, Greg Hajcak
BACKGROUND: A blunted reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential elicited by feedback indicating monetary gain relative to loss, was recently shown to prospectively predict the development of adolescent-onset depression. Time-frequency-based representations of this activity (e.g., reward-related delta) have also been associated with depression. This study is a reanalysis of the time-domain RewP investigation to examine the incremental value of time-frequency indices in the prediction of adolescent-onset depression...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386667/stability-formulation-for-integrated-opto-mechanic-phase-shifters
#9
Yigit Ozer, Serdar Kocaman
Stability of opto-mechanical phase shifters consisting of waveguides and non-signal carrying control beams is investigated thoroughly and a formula determining the physical limitations has been proposed. Suggested formulation is not only beneficial to determine physical strength of the system but also advantageous to guess the response of the output to the fabrication errors. In the iterative analysis of cantilever and double-clamped beam geometrical configurations, the stability condition is revealed under the strong inter-dependence of the system parameters such as input power, device length and waveguide separation...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385190/the-impact-of-selection-bias-in-randomized-multi-arm-parallel-group-clinical-trials
#10
Diane Uschner, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Nicole Heussen
The impact of selection bias on the results of clinical trials has been analyzed extensively for trials of two treatments, yet its impact in multi-arm trials is still unknown. In this paper, we investigate selection bias in multi-arm trials by its impact on the type I error probability. We propose two models for selection bias, so-called biasing policies, that both extend the classic guessing strategy by Blackwell and Hodges. We derive the distribution of the F-test statistic under the misspecified outcome model and provide a formula for the type I error probability under selection bias...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378468/the-self-reference-effect-in-memory-an-implicit-way-to-assess-affective-self-representations-in-social-anxiety
#11
Sandrine Kalenzaga, Virginie Jouhaud
This study was designed to assess, through the self-reference effect in memory, whether affective self-representations were modulated by the retrieval conditions and the severity of social anxiety. Three groups (high socially anxious, low socially anxious and non-anxious) were compared on a self-referential task that involved encoding affective trait adjectives under three conditions: self-reference encoding, encoding with reference to the perception of self by others, and other-reference encoding. Memory for trait adjectives was tested on both a free recall task and a Remember/Know/Guess recognition task...
January 29, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360359/quadratic-string-method-for-locating-instantons-in-tunneling-splitting-calculations
#12
Marko Tomislav Cvitas
The ring-polymer instanton (RPI) method is an efficient technique for calculating approximate tunneling splittings in high-dimensional molecular systems. In the RPI method, tunneling splitting is evaluated from the properties of the minimum action path (MAP) connecting the symmetric wells, whereby the extensive sampling of the full potential energy surface of the exact quantum-dynamics methods is avoided. Nevertheless, the search for the MAP is usually the most time-consuming step in the standard numerical procedures...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357467/when-uncertain-does-human-self-motion-decision-making-fully-utilize-complete-information
#13
Torin K Clark, Yongwoo Yi, Raquel Galvan-Garza, Maria Carolina Bermudez Rey, Daniel M Merfeld
When forced to choose humans often feel uncertain. Investigations of human perceptual decision-making often employ signal detection theory, which assumes that even when uncertain all available information is fully utilized. However, other studies have suggested or assumed that, when uncertain, human subjects guess totally at random, ignoring available information. When uncertain, do humans simply guess totally at random? Or do humans fully utilize complete information? Or does behavior fall between these two extremes yielding "above chance" performance without fully utilizing complete information? While it is often assumed complete information is fully utilized, even when uncertain, to our knowledge this has never been experimentally confirmed...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347917/does-different-information-disclosure-on-placebo-control-affect-blinding-and-trial-outcomes-a-case-study-of-participant-information-leaflets-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials-of-acupuncture
#14
Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae, Hyangsook Lee
BACKGROUND: While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335423/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-space-allowance-on-measures-of-animal-welfare-in-laboratory-mice
#15
Jeremy D Bailoo, Eimear Murphy, Justin A Varholick, Janja Novak, Rupert Palme, Hanno Würbel
We studied how space allowance affects measures of animal welfare in mice by systematically varying group size and cage type across three levels each in both males and females of two strains of mice (C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ; n = 216 cages, a total of 1152 mice). This allowed us to disentangle the effects of total floor area, group size, stocking density, and individual space allocation on a broad range of measures of welfare, including growth (food and water intake, body mass); stress physiology (glucocorticoid metabolites in faecal boli); emotionality (open field behaviour); brain function (recurrent perseveration in a two-choice guessing task); and home-cage behaviour (activity, stereotypic behaviour)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331899/the-speed-of-memory-errors-shows-the-influence-of-misleading-information-testing-the-diffusion-model-and-discrete-state-models
#16
Jeffrey J Starns, Chad Dubé, Matthew E Frelinger
In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error...
January 11, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331253/evaluation-of-three-machine-learning-models-for-self-referral-decision-support-on-low-back-pain-in-primary-care
#17
Wendy Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Mannes Poel, Catharina G M Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Remko Soer, Hermie Hermens
BACKGROUND: Most people experience low back pain (LBP) at least once in their life and for some patients this evolves into a chronic condition. One way to prevent acute LBP from transiting into chronic LBP, is to ensure that patients receive the right interventions at the right moment. We started research in the design of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support patients with LBP in their self-referral to primary care. For this, we explored the possibilities of using supervised machine learning...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323614/evaluation-of-anionic-surfactants-effects-on-the-skin-barrier-function-based-of-skin-permeability
#18
Mana Okasaka, Koji Kubota, Emi Yamasaki, Jianzhong Yang, Sadaki Takata
Anionic surfactants are often used for cleaning and pharmaceutical purposes because of their strong surfactancy and foaming property. However, they are rarely ingested orally, the skin is a part of human body most affected by surfactants. Barrier function of the skin is very strong, but the anionic surfactants can serious damage it. Recently, amino acid-based surfactants have attracted attentions as safer options owing to their biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity examinations revealed the amino acid-based surfactants are superior to sulfate-based surfactants...
January 11, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316498/the-relation-between-having-siblings-and-children-s-cheating-and-lie-telling-behaviors
#19
Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
The current study investigated how having at least one child sibling influenced children's dishonest behaviors. Furthermore, for those children with a sibling, we examined whether having a younger or older sibling and the age difference between siblings influenced deceptive acts. Children between 3 and 8 years of age (N = 130) completed the temptation resistance paradigm, where they played a guessing game and were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenter's absence. Children's peeking behavior was used as a measure of cheating, and children's responses when asked whether they had peeked were used as measures of lie-telling...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301908/deletion-of-a-long-range-dlx5-enhancer-disrupts-inner-ear-development-in-mice
#20
Kenneth R Johnson, Leona H Gagnon, Cong Tian, Chantal M Longo-Guess, Benjamin E Low, Michael V Wiles, Amy E Kiernan
Distal enhancers are thought to play important roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression during embryonic development, but few predicted enhancer elements have been shown to affect transcription of their endogenous genes or to alter phenotypes when disrupted. Here, we demonstrate that a 123.6 kb deletion within the mouse Slc25a13 gene is associated with reduced transcription of Dlx5, a gene located 660 kb away. Mice homozygous for the Slc25a13 deletion mutation (named hyperspin, hspn) have malformed inner ears and are deaf with balance defects, whereas previously reported Slc25a13 knockout mice showed no phenotypic abnormalities...
January 3, 2018: Genetics
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