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P Kanzow, N Schuelper, D Witt, T Wassmann, S Sennhenn-Kirchner, A Wiegand, T Raupach
INTRODUCTION: Various scoring approaches for Multiple True-False (MTF) items exist. This study aimed at comparing scoring results obtained with different scoring approaches and to assess the effect of item cues on each scoring approaches' result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different scoring approaches (MTF, Count-2, Count-3, "Vorkauf-Method," PS50 , Dichotomized MTF, "Blasberg-Method," Multiple response (MR), Correction for Guessing, "Ripkey-Method," Morgan-Method, Balanced Scoring Method) were retrospectively applied to all MTF items used within electronic examinations of undergraduate dental students at the University Medical Center Göttingen in the winter term 2016/2017 (1297 marking events)...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Younbyoung Chae, Ye-Seul Lee, Paul Enck
Because acupuncture treatment is defined by the process of needles penetrating the body, placebo needles were originally developed with non-penetrating mechanisms. However, whether placebo needles are valid controls in acupuncture research is subject of an ongoing debate. The present review provides an overview of the characteristics of placebo needles and how they differ from placebo pills in two aspects: (1) physiological response and (2) blinding efficacy. We argue that placebo needles elicit physiological responses similar to real acupuncture and therefore provide similar clinical efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Zhendong Wu, Niklas Boke-Olén, Rasmus Fensholt, Jonas Ardö, Lars Eklundh, Veiko Lehsten
Biogeochemical models use meteorological forcing data derived with different approaches (e.g. based on interpolation or reanalysis of observation data or a hybrid hereof) to simulate ecosystem processes such as gross primary productivity (GPP). This study assesses the impact of different widely used climate datasets on simulated gross primary productivity and evaluates the suitability of them for reproducing the global and regional carbon cycle as mapped from independent GPP data. We simulate GPP with the biogeochemical model LPJ-GUESS using six historical climate datasets (CRU, CRUNCEP, ECMWF, NCEP, PRINCETON, and WFDEI)...
2018: PloS One
Christoph Helma, David Vorgrimmler, Denis Gebele, Martin Gütlein, Barbara Engeli, Jürg Zarn, Benoit Schilter, Elena Lo Piparo
This study compares the accuracy of (Q)SAR/read-across predictions with the experimental variability of chronic lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) from in vivo experiments. We could demonstrate that predictions of the lazy structure-activity relationships (lazar) algorithm within the applicability domain of the training data have the same variability as the experimental training data. Predictions with a lower similarity threshold (i.e., a larger distance from the applicability domain) are also significantly better than random guessing, but the errors to be expected are higher and a manual inspection of prediction results is highly recommended...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Martine W F T Verhees, Janne Houben, Eva Ceulemans, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Guy Bosmans
BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in the (therapeutic) use of intranasal oxytocin administration in children, the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely unclear to date. The current study is the first double-blind randomized controlled trial to examine side-effects following single administration of oxytocin nasal spray in elementary school-aged children. METHODS: One hundred children (8-12 years old) were randomly assigned to receive oxytocin or placebo nasal spray...
June 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Bin Huang, Dongya Jia, Jingchen Feng, Herbert Levine, José N Onuchic, Mingyang Lu
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in traditional mathematical modeling of gene regulatory circuits is the insufficient knowledge of kinetic parameters. These parameters are often inferred from existing experimental data and/or educated guesses, which can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially for large networks. RESULTS: We present a user-friendly computational tool for the community to use our newly developed method named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE), to explore the robust dynamical features of gene regulatory circuits without the requirement of detailed kinetic parameters...
June 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
K Blum, W Jacobs, E J Modestino, N DiNubile, D Baron, T McLaughlin, D Siwicki, I Elman, M Moran, E R Braverman, P K Thanos, R D Badgaiyan
The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-reviewed studies that warn against the chronic use of opioid medications, as well as the lack of evidence to support long-term use of opioids for pain. This paradigm must change if we are to indeed change the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management...
October 4, 2018: SEJ surgery and pain
J Michael Brown
Methods are evaluated in solution of the inverse problem associated with determination of elastic moduli for crystals of arbitrary symmetry from elastic wave velocities measured in many crystallographic directions. A package of MATLAB functions provides a robust and flexible environment for analysis of ultrasonic, Brillouin, or Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering datasets. Three inverse algorithms are considered: the gradient-based methods of Levenberg-Marquardt and Backus-Gilbert, and a non-gradient-based (Nelder-Mead) simplex approach...
June 1, 2018: Ultrasonics
Takaaki Noguchi, Kosuke Ebina, Makoto Hirao, Satoru Otsuru, Adam J Guess, Ryota Kawase, Tohru Ohama, Shizuya Yamashita, Yuki Etani, Gensuke Okamura, Hideki Yoshikawa
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays crucial roles not only in lipid metabolism but also in bone metabolism. Specifically ApoE4, one of major ApoE isoforms, has been demonstrated to be associated with increased risk of developing osteoporosis compared to another major isoform ApoE3. However, the detailed mechanism of how the different ApoE isoforms affect bone metabolism remains unclear. Micro-CT analyses of distal femora demonstrated severely decreased bone mass in 48-week-old female homozygous ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice compared to age- and gender-matched wild type C57BL/6 J (WT) mice...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Stuart Lubarsky, Valérie Dory, Sarkis Meterissian, Carole Lambert, Robert Gagnon
INTRODUCTION: In a script concordance test (SCT), examinees are asked to judge the effect of a new piece of clinical information on a proposed hypothesis. Answers are collected using a Likert-type scale (ranging from -2 to +2, with '0' indicating no effect), and compared with those of a reference panel of 'experts'. It has been argued, however, that SCT may be susceptible to the influences of gaming and guesswork. This study aims to address some of the mounting concern over the response process validity of SCT scores...
June 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Ana Radonjic, Xiaomao Ding, Avery Krieger, Stacey Aston, Anya C Hurlbert, David H Brainard
Previous studies have shown that humans can discriminate spectral changes in illumination and that this sensitivity depends both on the chromatic direction of the illumination change and on the ensemble of surfaces in the scene. These studies, however, always used stimulus scenes with a fixed surface-reflectance layout. Here we compared illumination discrimination for scenes in which the surface reflectance layout remains fixed (fixed-surfaces condition) to those in which surface reflectances were shuffled randomly across scenes, but with the mean scene reflectance held approximately constant (shuffled-surfaces condition)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Leeann Whitehair, John Hurley, Steve Provost
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore how team processes support nursing teams in hospital units during every day work. BACKGROUND: Due to their close proximity to patients, nurses are central to the process of maintaining patient safety. Globally, changes in models of care delivery by nurses, inclusive of team nursing are being considered. DESIGN AND METHODS: This qualitative study used purposive sampling in a single hospital and participants were nurses employed to work on a paediatric unit...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Shana Adise, Charles F Geier, Nicole J Roberts, Corey N White, Kathleen L Keller
The reward surfeit model of overeating suggests that heightened brain response to rewards contributes to overeating and subsequent weight gain. However, previous studies have not tested whether brain response to reward is associated with food intake, particularly during childhood, a period of dynamic development in reward and inhibitory control neurocircuitry. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 7-11-year-old children (n = 59; healthy weight, n = 31; overweight, n = 28; 54% female) while they played a modified card-guessing paradigm to examine blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to anticipating and winning rewards (food, money, neutral)...
June 8, 2018: Appetite
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Schizotypy offers a useful, multidimensional framework for understanding the development and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Nonclinically ascertained young adults who endorse positive and negative schizotypy traits exhibit similar, albeit milder, versions of the symptoms and impairment seen in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that negative, but not positive, schizotypy is associated with impairment in free-recall, recognition, and source memory. Furthermore, these deficits appear to result from context processing deficits in negative schizotypy...
June 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Paul M Bays
The discrete resource model of working memory proposes that each individual has a fixed upper limit on the number of items they can store at one time,due to division of memory into a few independent "slots". According to this model, responses on short-term memory tasks consist of a mixture of noisy recall (when the tested item is in memory) and random guessing (when the item is not in memory). This provides two opportunities to estimate capacity for each observer: first, based on their frequency of random guesses, and second, based on the set size at which the variability of stored items reaches a plateau...
June 2, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Michael K Scullin, Mark A McDaniel, Michelle N Dasse, Ji Hae Lee, Courtney A Kurinec, Claudina Tami, Madison L Krueger
For nearly 50 years, psychologists have studied prospective memory, or the ability to execute delayed intentions. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding as to whether initial encoding of the intention must be elaborative and strategic, or whether some components of successful encoding can occur in a perfunctory, transient manner. In eight studies (N = 680), we instructed participants to remember to press the Q key if they saw words representing fruits (cue) during an ongoing lexical decision task. They then typed what they were thinking and responded whether they encoded fruits as a general category, as specific exemplars, or hardly thought about it at all...
2018: PloS One
Sudharsan Madhavan, Erica M Cherry Kemmerling
BACKGROUND: Computational modeling of cardiovascular flow is a growing and useful field, but such simulations usually require the researcher to guess the flow's inlet and outlet conditions since they are difficult and expensive to measure. It is critical to determine the amount of uncertainty introduced by these assumptions in order to evaluate the degree to which cardiovascular flow simulations are accurate. Our work begins to address this question by examining the sensitivity of flow to several different assumed velocity inlet and outlet conditions in a patient-specific aorta model...
May 30, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
M A Boudewyn, C S Carter
Attention is critical to the construction of mental representations of language context during comprehension. We investigated the consequences of momentary lapses in attention during listening comprehension on neural activity and behavior. Participants listened to two full-length stories while EEG was recorded, and afterwards completed multiple choice comprehension questions. Listening was periodically interrupted by attention probes, in which participants were asked whether their attention immediately preceding the probe's appearance was focused on the story...
May 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Shouzhang Peng, Zhi Li
To adapt to future climate change, appropriate land use patterns are desired. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) emphasizing the dominant role of climate can provide a useful baseline to guide the potential land use adjustment. This work is particularly important for the revegetated regions with intensive human perturbation. However, it has received little attention. This study chose China's Loess Plateau, a typical revegetated region, as an example study area to generate the PNV patterns with high spatial resolution over 2071-2100 with a process-based dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS), and further investigated the potential land use adjustment through comparing the simulated and observed land use patterns...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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