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Jing Tang, Alla Y Yurova, Guy Schurgers, Paul A Miller, Stefan Olin, Benjamin Smith, Matthias B Siewert, David Olefeldt, Petter Pilesjö, Anneli Poska
Tundra soils account for 50% of global stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), and it is expected that the amplified climate warming in high latitude could cause loss of this SOC through decomposition. Decomposed SOC could become hydrologically accessible, which increase downstream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and subsequent carbon release to the atmosphere, constituting a positive feedback to climate warming. However, DOC export is often neglected in ecosystem models. In this paper, we incorporate processes related to DOC production, mineralization, diffusion, sorption-desorption, and leaching into a customized arctic version of the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS in order to mechanistically model catchment DOC export, and to link this flux to other ecosystem processes...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hai Li, Xianmin Zhang, Benliang Zhu, Yihua Lu, Heng Wu
This study presents a method for micro-motion detection of the three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF; x, y, θz) precision positioning stage (PPS) based on iterative optimized template matching (IOTM). In this method, a micro-vision system (MVS) is constructed and employed to capture magnified images of the measured PPS's surface with high quality. In addition, an efficient and accurate IOTM algorithm, which includes a pyramid hierarchical matching step for generating the initial guess and an iterative searching step for 3-DOF fine matching, is proposed to detect the micro-motion of the 3-DOF PPS...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Luca Mari, Paolo Carbone, Alessandro Giordani, Dario Petri
Measurement is widely applied because its results are assumed to be more reliable than opinions and guesses, but this reliability is sometimes justified in a stereotyped way. After a critical analysis of such stereotypes, a structural characterization of measurement is proposed, as partly empirical and partly theoretical process, by showing that it is in fact the structure of the process that guarantees the reliability of its results. On this basis the role and the structure of background knowledge in measurement and the justification of the conditions of object-relatedness ("objectivity") and subject-independence ("intersubjectivity") of measurement are specifically discussed...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Fengling Ma, Gail D Heyman, Chunyan Jing, Ying Fu, Brian J Compton, Fen Xu, Kang Lee
The observational learning approach, developed more than a half century ago, suggests that it is possible to promote desirable social behaviors through peer observation. However, this idea has yet to be put to a rigorous empirical test. The current research sought to fill this gap by examining whether honesty can be promoted in children by allowing them to observe a peer's display of honest behavior. The dependent measure was whether 5-year-old children who had cheated by peeking in a guessing game would confess to it...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Alberto Cuzzolin, Giuseppe Deganutti, Veronica Salmaso, Mattia Sturlese, Stefano Moro
Unquestionably water appears to be an active player in noncovalent protein-ligand association processes, as it can either bridge interactions between protein and ligand or can be replaced by the bound ligand. Accordingly, in the last decade, alternative computational methodologies have been sought, that guess the position and thermodynamic profile of water molecules (i.e., hydration sites) in the binding site using either the ligand-bound or ligand-free protein conformation. Herein, we present an alternative approach, named AquaMMapS, that provides a three-dimensional sampling of putative hydration sites...
November 29, 2017: ChemMedChem
JunLiang Liu, Qiuyun Lyu, Qiuhua Wang, Xiangxiang Yu
The traditional username/password or PIN based authentication scheme, which still remains the most popular form of authentication, has been proved insecure, unmemorable and vulnerable to guessing, dictionary attack, key-logger, shoulder-surfing and social engineering. Based on this, a large number of new alternative methods have recently been proposed. However, most of them rely on users being able to accurately recall complex and unmemorable information or using extra hardware (such as a USB Key), which makes authentication more difficult and confusing...
2017: PloS One
Regina Fraas, Juliane Diehm, Matthias Franzreb
Protein modification by covalent coupling of small ligands or markers is an important prerequisite for the use of proteins in many applications. Well-known examples are the use of proteins with fluorescent markers in many in vivo experiments or the binding of biotinylated antibodies via biotin-streptavidin coupling in the frame of numerous bioassays. Multiple protocols were established for the coupling of the respective molecules, e.g., via the C and N-terminus, or via cysteines and lysines exposed at the protein surface...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Mototsugu Fukaya
Background: Although the thread-lifting technique for sagging faces has become more common and popular, medical literature evaluating its effects is scarce. Studies on its long-term prognosis are particularly uncommon. Patients and methods: One hundred individuals who had previously undergone insoluble thread-lifting were retrospectively investigated. Photos in frontal and oblique views from the first and last visits were evaluated by six female individuals by guessing the patients' ages...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
T Hrenar, I Primožič, D Fijan, M Majerić Elenkov
A new procedure for full conformational analyses comprising the statistical analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories was developed and applied. This method included a coordinate space for sampling using molecular dynamics simulations, reduction of dimensionality using tensor decomposition tools, determination of probability distributions in a reduced space, and finally the search for all of the strict extrema points of probability distributions. These extracted extrema points formed an initial guess for geometry optimization and clustering of conformers...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Swithin Razu, Trent M Guess
This study leveraged data from the "Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in Vivo Knee Loads" to create a full-body musculoskeletal model that incorporates subject specific geometries of the right leg in order to concurrently predict knee contact forces, ligament forces, muscle forces, and ground contact forces. The objectives of this paper are twofold: First, to describe an electromyography (EMG)-driven modeling methodology to predict knee contact forces, and second to validate model predictions by evaluating the model predictions against known values for a patient with an instrumented total knee replacement (TKR) for three distinctly different gait styles (normal, smooth, and bouncy gait)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Simone Calvello, Matteo Piccardo, Shashank Vittal Rao, Alessandro Soncini
We have developed and implemented a new ab initio code, Ceres (Computational Emulator of Rare Earth Systems), completely written in C++11, which is dedicated to the efficient calculation of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of the crystal field states arising from the splitting of the ground state spin-orbit multiplet in lanthanide complexes. The new code gains efficiency via an optimized implementation of a direct configurational averaged Hartree-Fock (CAHF) algorithm for the determination of 4f quasi-atomic active orbitals common to all multi-electron spin manifolds contributing to the ground spin-orbit multiplet of the lanthanide ion...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Su-Ling Yeh, Wei-Lun Chou, Pokuan Ho
Most Chinese characters are compounds consisting of a semantic radical indicating semantic category and a phonetic radical cuing the pronunciation of the character. Controversy surrounds whether radicals also go through the same lexical processing as characters and, critically, whether phonetic radicals involve semantic activation since they can also be characters when standing alone. Here we examined these issues using the Stroop task whereby participants responded to the ink color of the character. The key finding was that Stroop effects were found when the character itself had a meaning unrelated to color, but contained a color name phonetic radical (e...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Raeley Guess, Jarin Vaewpanich, Jorge A Coss-Bu, Siriporn Phongjitsiri, Curtis Kennedy, Jeffrey Starke, Satid Thammasitboon
OBJECTIVE: The term ventilator-associated events includes ventilator-associated condition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. We sought to identify potential new risk factors for ventilator-associated condition and infection-related ventilator-associated complication in the PICU population. DESIGN: Matched case control study. SETTING: Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Jeff M Barrett, Jack P Callaghan
A previous mathematical model of ligament force-generation treated their behavior as a population of collagen fibres arranged in parallel. When damage was ignored in this model, an expression for ligament force in terms of the deflection, x, effective stiffness, k, mean collagen slack length, μ, and the standard deviation of slack lengths, σ, was obtained. We present a simple three-step method for determining the three model parameters (k, μ, and σ) from force-deflection data: (1) determine the equation of the line in the linear region of this curve, its slope is k and its x -intercept is -μ; (2) interpolate the force-deflection data when x is -μ to obtain F0; (3) calculate σ with the equation σ=2πF0/k...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Arno M Janssen, Danila Potyagaylo, Olaf Dössel, Thom F Oostendorp
Promising results have been reported in noninvasive estimation of cardiac activation times (AT) using the equivalent dipole layer (EDL) source model in combination with the boundary element method (BEM). However, the assumption of equal anisotropy ratios in the heart that underlies the EDL model does not reflect reality. In the present study, we quantify the errors of the nonlinear AT imaging based on the EDL approximation. Nine different excitation patterns (sinus rhythm and eight ectopic beats) were simulated with the monodomain model...
November 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Ali Bahrami Rad, Trygve Eftestøl, Unai Irusta, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Lars Wik, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Aggelos K Katsaggelos, Kjersti Engan
AIM: An automatic resuscitation rhythm annotator (ARA) would facilitate and enhance retrospective analysis of resuscitation data, contributing to a better understanding of the interplay between therapy and patient response. The objective of this study was to define, implement, and demonstrate an ARA architecture for complete resuscitation episodes, including chest compression pauses (CC-pauses) and chest compression intervals (CC-intervals). METHODS: We analyzed 126...
November 6, 2017: Resuscitation
Hua Guo, Pei Wang, Xiyong Zhang, Yuanfei Huang, Fangchao Ma
In order to improve the security in remote authentication systems, numerous biometric-based authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed. Recently, Moon et al. presented an authentication scheme to remedy the flaws of Lu et al.'s scheme, and claimed that their improved protocol supports the required security properties. Unfortunately, we found that Moon et al.'s scheme still has weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Moon et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to insider attack, server spoofing attack, user impersonation attack and guessing attack...
2017: PloS One
Xin-Wei Fei, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Wei Huang, Bing-Jie Xu, Shuang Wang, Wei Chen, Yun-Guang Han, Guang-Can Guo, Zheng-Fu Han
Quantum random number generation attracts considerable attention, since its randomness inherently originates in quantum mechanics, but not mathematical assumptions. Randomness certification, e.g. entropy estimation, becomes a key issue in the context of quantum random number generation protocol. We study a self-testing protocol based on dimension witness, with the assumption of independent devices. It addresses the random number extraction problem in a practical prepare-and-measure scenario with uncharacterized devices...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Satoru Otsuru, Laura Desbourdes, Adam J Guess, Ted J Hofmann, Theresa Relation, Takashi Kaito, Massimo Dominici, Masahiro Iwamoto, Edwin M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Systemic infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been shown to induce acute acceleration of growth velocity in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) despite minimal engraftment of infused MSCs in bones. Using an animal model of OI we have previously shown that MSC infusion stimulates chondrocyte proliferation in the growth plate and that this enhanced proliferation is also observed with infusion of MSC conditioned medium in lieu of MSCs, suggesting that bone growth is due to trophic effects of MSCs...
October 26, 2017: Cytotherapy
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