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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229487/the-mourning-process-of-older-people-with-dementia-who-lost-their-spouse
#1
Akiko Watanabe, Sayuri Suwa
AIMS: To explore the mourning process of people with dementia who have lost their spouse, using family caregivers' and professionals' perspectives and to devise grief care for people with dementia. BACKGROUND: There have been studies on the loss of one's spouse; however, little is known about widows and widowers with dementia as they may find it hard to tell their perception and feelings to others accurately because of cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225288/screenpro-fh-screening-project-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-central-southern-and-eastern-europe-basic-epidemiology
#2
Richard Češka, Tomáš Freiberger, Andrey V Susekov, György Paragh, Željko Reiner, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Katarína Rašlová, Maciej Banach, Branislav Vohnout, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Assen Goudev, Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Dan Gaiţă, Belma Pojskić, Ivan Pećin, Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Olena Mitchenko, Marat V Ezhov, Gustavs Latkovskis, Žaneta Petrulionienė, Zlatko Fras, Nebojsa Tasić, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Tolkun Murataliev, Alexander B Shek, Vladimír Tuka, Alexandros D Tselepis, Elie M Moubarak, Khalid Al Rasadi
INTRODUCTION: Despite great recent progress, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is still underestimated, under-diagnosed and thus undertreated worldwide. We have very little information on exact prevalence of patients with FH in the Central, Eastern and Southern Europe (CESE) region. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological situation in the CESE region from data available. METHODS: All local leaders of the ScreenPro FH project were asked to provide local data on (a) expert guess of FH prevalence (b) the medical facilities focused on FH already in place (c) the diagnostic criteria used (d) the number of patients already evidenced in local database and (e) the availability of therapeutic options (especially plasma apheresis)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222685/evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-imputed-sequence-variant-genotypes-and-their-utility-for-causal-variant-detection-in-cattle
#3
Hubert Pausch, Iona M MacLeod, Ruedi Fries, Reiner Emmerling, Phil J Bowman, Hans D Daetwyler, Michael E Goddard
BACKGROUND: The availability of dense genotypes and whole-genome sequence variants from various sources offers the opportunity to compile large datasets consisting of tens of thousands of individuals with genotypes at millions of polymorphic sites that may enhance the power of genomic analyses. The imputation of missing genotypes ensures that all individuals have genotypes for a shared set of variants. RESULTS: We evaluated the accuracy of imputation from dense genotypes to whole-genome sequence variants in 249 Fleckvieh and 450 Holstein cattle using Minimac and FImpute...
February 21, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217245/genome-wide-association-test-of-multiple-continuous-traits-using-imputed-snps
#4
Baolin Wu, James S Pankow
More and more large cohort studies have conducted or are conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to reveal the genetic components of many complex human diseases. These large cohort studies often collected a broad array of correlated phenotypes that reflect common physiological processes. By jointly analyzing these correlated traits, we can gain more power by aggregating multiple weak effects and shed light on the mechanisms underlying complex human diseases. The majority of existing multi-trait association test methods are based on jointly modeling the multivariate traits conditional on the genotype as covariate, and can readily accommodate the imputed SNPs by using their imputed dosage as a covariate...
2017: Statistics and its Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211193/sequential-allocation-trial-design-in-anesthesia-an-introduction-to-methods-modeling-and-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Matthias Görges, Guohai Zhou, Rollin Brant, J Mark Ansermino
Estimation of the dose-response curve for new anesthetic protocols typically focuses on identifying minimum effective doses. The application of a sequential experimental method is appropriate, as it minimizes sample size requirements by updating dose assignments based on information accrued from successive subjects. One approach is the up-and-down method for estimating the median effective dose in a patient population (ED50 ). Designs better suited for achieving greater than 50% effectiveness, include the biased coin approach, and continual reassessment method...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211180/slope-of-psychometric-functions-and-termination-rule-analysis-for-low-contrast-acuity-charts
#6
Andrew Carkeet, Ian L Bailey
PURPOSE: To assess whether the slopes of psychometric functions for measuring low contrast letter acuity were different from those for measuring high contrast letter acuity. METHODS: Ten participants, wearing their best spectacle correction, were assessed monocularly. Stimuli were logarithmic progression charts, generated on a computer monitor, with nine rows of five randomised Sloan letters generated in either high contrast format (Weber contrast 99.2%) or low contrast format (Weber contrast 18...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210564/more-misinformation-on-breast-cancer-screening
#7
COMMENT
Daniel B Kopans
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209521/impaired-visual-competition-in-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#8
A C Geuzebroek, A V van den Berg
Intense visual training can lead to partial recovery of visual field defects caused by lesions of the primary visual cortex. However, the standard visual detection and discrimination tasks, used to assess this recovery process tend to ignore the complexity of the natural visual environment, where multiple stimuli continuously interact. Visual competition is an essential component for natural search tasks and detecting unexpected events. Our study focused on visual decision-making and to what extent the recovered visual field can compete for attention with the 'intact' visual field...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191593/learning-from-a-contemporary-history-of-immunology
#9
REVIEW
Melvin Cohn
This essay is a selected aspect of the history of contemporary immunology seen from a "what can we learn" point of view. It is limited to the ideas and experiments from which we might draw a take-home message. The emphasis is on the convoluted pathway that was actually used by immunologists to arrive at understanding compared to the direct pathway that could have been used given the knowledge at that time. It takes the reader through the instructionist era of the 1940s to the present by stressing the elements of thinking most conducive to the arrival at a default understanding of the intact immune system...
February 13, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191003/want-more-learn-less-motivation-affects-adolescents-learning-from-negative-feedback
#10
Yun Zhuang, Wenfeng Feng, Yu Liao
The primary goal of the present study was to investigate how positive and negative feedback may differently facilitate learning throughout development. In addition, the role of motivation as a modulating factor was examined. Participants (children, adolescents, and adults) completed two forms of the guess and application task (GAT). Feedback from the Cool-GAT task has low motivational salience because there are no consequences, while feedback from the Hot-GAT task has high motivational salience as it pertains to receiving a reward...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187859/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-cognition-and-delusions-what-do-we-know-what-do-we-guess-and-what-do-we-perhaps-falsely-believe
#11
EDITORIAL
Ryan P Balzan, Steffen Moritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185227/target-present-guessing-as-a-function-of-target-prevalence-and-accumulated-information-in-visual-search
#12
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182835/maximin-optimal-designs-for-cluster-randomized-trials
#13
Sheng Wu, Weng Kee Wong, Catherine M Crespi
We consider design issues for cluster randomized trials (CRTs) with a binary outcome where both unit costs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) in the two arms may be unequal. We first propose a design that maximizes cost efficiency (CE), defined as the ratio of the precision of the efficacy measure to the study cost. Because such designs can be highly sensitive to the unknown ICCs and the anticipated success rates in the two arms, a local strategy based on a single set of best guesses for the ICCs and success rates can be risky...
February 9, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178889/v-elmpirnapred-identification-of-human-pirnas-by-the-voting-based-extreme-learning-machine-v-elm-with-a-new-hybrid-feature
#14
Cong Pian, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Jin Zhang, Zhi Chen, Guang-Le Zhang, Qiang Li, Tao Yang, Liang-Yun Zhang
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) were recently discovered as endogenous small noncoding RNAs. Some recent research suggests that piRNAs may play an important role in cancer. So the precise identification of human piRNAs is a significant work. In this paper, we introduce a series of new features with 80 dimension called short sequence motifs (SSM). A hybrid feature vector with 1444 dimension can be formed by combining 1364 features of [Formula: see text]-mer strings and 80 features of SSM features. We optimize the 1444 dimension features using the feature score criterion (FSC) and list them in descending order according to the scores...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171844/reliability-of-functional-and-predictive-methods-to-estimate-the-hip-joint-centre-in-human-motion-analysis-in-healthy-adults
#15
Hans Kainz, Martin Hajek, Luca Modenese, David J Saxby, David G Lloyd, Christopher P Carty
In human motion analysis predictive or functional methods are used to estimate the location of the hip joint centre (HJC). It has been shown that the Harrington regression equations (HRE) and geometric sphere fit (GSF) method are the most accurate predictive and functional methods, respectively. To date, the comparative reliability of both approaches has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the reliability of the HRE and the GSF methods, (2) analyse the impact of the number of thigh markers used in the GSF method on the reliability, (3) evaluate how alterations to the movements that comprise the functional trials impact HJC estimations using the GSF method, and (4) assess the influence of the initial guess in the GSF method on the HJC estimation...
January 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169897/-%C3%A2-part-of-my-identity-the-impact-of-self-management-on-the-sense-of-self-of-young-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
Laura Clausi, Margaret Schneider
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of young women with type 1 diabetes and the ways in which their self-management of their illness may influence their perceived sense of self. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 7 women aged 18 to 22 years who had been formally given a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, and subsequent member checks were completed. Returned member checks and transcriptions were then analyzed using a form of thematic analysis...
March 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168331/protein-structure-estimation-from-nmr-data-by-matrix-completion
#17
Zhicheng Li, Yang Li, Qiang Lei, Qing Zhao
Knowledge of protein structures is very important to understand their corresponding physical and chemical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the main methods to measure protein structure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage approach to calculate the structure of a protein from a highly incomplete distance matrix, where most data are obtained from NMR. We first randomly "guess" a small part of unobservable distances by utilizing the triangle inequality, which is crucial for the second stage...
February 6, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149920/hybrid-positron-emission-tomography-segmentation-of-heterogeneous-lung-tumors-using-3d-slicer-improved-growcut-algorithm-with-threshold-initialization
#18
Hannah Mary T Thomas, Devadhas Devakumar, Balukrishna Sasidharan, Stephen R Bowen, Danie Kingslin Heck, E James Jebaseelan Samuel
This paper presents an improved GrowCut (IGC), a positron emission tomography-based segmentation algorithm, and tests its clinical applicability. Contrary to the traditional method that requires the user to provide the initial seeds, the IGC algorithm starts with a threshold-based estimate of the tumor and a three-dimensional morphologically grown shell around the tumor as the foreground and background seeds, respectively. The repeatability of IGC from the same observer at multiple time points was compared with the traditional GrowCut algorithm...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125684/losses-and-external-outcomes-interact-to-produce-the-gambler-s-fallacy
#19
Julia A Mossbridge, Christopher J R Roney, Satoru Suzuki
When making serial predictions in a binary decision task, there is a clear tendency to assume that after a series of the same external outcome (e.g., heads in a coin flip), the next outcome will be the opposing one (e.g., tails), even when the outcomes are independent of one another. This so-called "gambler's fallacy" has been replicated robustly. However, what drives gambler's fallacy behavior is unclear. Here we demonstrate that a run of the same external outcome by itself does not lead to gambler's fallacy behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113243/highly-reliable-key-generation-from-electrocardiogram-ecg
#20
Nima Karimian, Zimu Guo, Mark Tehranipoor, Domenic Forte
Traditional passwords are inadequate as cryptographic keys, as they are easy to forge and are vulnerable to guessing. Human biometrics have been proposed as a promising alternative due to their intrinsic nature. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an emerging biometric that is extremely difficult to forge and circumvent, but has not yet been heavily investigated for cryptographic key generation. ECG has challenges with respect to immunity to noise, abnormalities, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel key generation approach that extracts keys from real valued ECG features with high reliability and entropy in mind...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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