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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808825/integrating-planning-perception-and-action-for-informed-object-search
#1
Luis J Manso, Marco A Gutierrez, Pablo Bustos, Pilar Bachiller
This paper presents a method to reduce the time spent by a robot with cognitive abilities when looking for objects in unknown locations. It describes how machine learning techniques can be used to decide which places should be inspected first, based on images that the robot acquires passively. The proposal is composed of two concurrent processes. The first one uses the aforementioned images to generate a description of the types of objects found in each object container seen by the robot. This is done passively, regardless of the task being performed...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799435/sure-or-unsure-measuring-students-confidence-and-the-potential-impact-on-patient-safety-in-multiple-choice-questions
#2
Rafael Henrique Rangel, Leona Möller, Helmut Sitter, Tina Stibane, Adam Strzelczyk
BACKGROUND: Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) provide useful information about correct and incorrect answers, but they do not offer information about students' confidence. METHODS: Ninety and another 81 medical students participated each in a curricular neurology multiple-choice exam and indicated their confidence for every single MCQ. Each MCQ had a defined level of potential clinical impact on patient safety (uncritical, risky, harmful). Our first objective was to detect informed (IF), guessed (GU), misinformed (MI), and uninformed (UI) answers...
August 11, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797212/effect-of-conceptual-and-lexical-errorless-versus-trial-and-error-learning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Brandy L Callahan, Nicole D Anderson
Errorless learning (EL), involving presenting the target information during encoding, is generally considered effective for teaching information to memory-impaired populations. However, evidence suggests that trial-and-error learning (TEL) can benefit healthy older adults' memory when guesses are conceptually related to the target. To determine whether TEL can benefit persons with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 24 participants with aMCI were given cues associated with nine target words. Half the sample received Conceptual cues (e...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782949/on-the-density-functional-theory-treatment-of-lanthanide-coordination-compounds-a-comparative-study-in-a-series-of-cu-ln-ln-gd-tb-lu-binuclear-complexes
#4
Marilena Ferbinteanu, Alessandro Stroppa, Marco Scarrozza, Ionel Humelnicu, Dan Maftei, Bogdan Frecus, Fanica Cimpoesu
The nontrivial aspects of electron structure in lanthanide complexes, considering ligand field (LF) and exchange coupling effects, have been investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, taking as a prototypic case study a series of binuclear complexes [LCu(O2COMe)Ln(thd)2], where L(2-) = N,N'-2,2-dimethyl-propylene-di(3-methoxy-salicylidene-iminato) and Ln = Tb, Lu, and Gd. Particular attention has been devoted to the Cu-Tb complex, which shows a quasi-degenerate nonrelativistic ground state...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776608/commentary-getting-into-predictive-processing-s-great-guessing-game-bootstrap-heaven-or-hell
#5
Michał Piekarski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765994/modulation-of-financial-deprivation-on-deception-and-its-neural-correlates
#6
Peng Sun, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Jia Chen, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Xiuyan Guo
Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752377/is-he-important-to-me-source-memory-advantage-for-personally-relevant-cheaters
#7
Meike Kroneisen
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters rather than faces of cooperators. The present study examines memory for social-exchange relevant information. More precisely, faces were shown together with behavior descriptions of cheating, trustworthy and neutral behavior either high or low in relevance for a student population...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747893/the-indecision-model-of-psychophysical-performance-in-dual-presentation-tasks-parameter-estimation-and-comparative-analysis-of-response-formats
#8
Miguel A García-Pérez, Rocío Alcalá-Quintana
Psychophysical data from dual-presentation tasks are often collected with the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) response format, asking observers to guess when uncertain. For an analytical description of performance, psychometric functions are then fitted to data aggregated across the two orders/positions in which stimuli were presented. Yet, order effects make aggregated data uninterpretable, and the bias with which observers guess when uncertain precludes separating sensory from decisional components of performance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734172/clear-evidence-for-item-limits-in-visual-working-memory
#9
Kirsten C S Adam, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
There is a consensus that visual working memory (WM) resources are sharply limited, but debate persists regarding the simple question of whether there is a limit to the total number of items that can be stored concurrently. Zhang and Luck (2008) advanced this debate with an analytic procedure that provided strong evidence for random guessing responses, but their findings can also be described by models that deny guessing while asserting a high prevalence of low precision memories. Here, we used a whole report memory procedure in which subjects reported all items in each trial and indicated whether they were guessing with each response...
July 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725678/hands-on-experience-can-lead-to-systematic-mistakes-a-study-on-adults-understanding-of-sinking-objects
#10
Ramón D Castillo, Talia Waltzer, Heidi Kloos
In line with theories of embodied cognition, hands-on experience is typically assumed to support learning. In the current paper, we explored this issue within the science domain of sinking objects. Adults had to make a guess about which of two objects in a pair would sink faster. The crucial manipulation was whether participants were handed real-life objects (real-objects condition) or were shown static images of objects (static-images condition). Results of Experiment 1 revealed more systematic mistakes in the real-objects than the static-images condition...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715693/recommender-system-based-on-scarce-information-mining
#11
Wei Lu, Fu-Lai Chung, Kunfeng Lai, Liang Zhang
Guessing what user may like is now a typical interface for video recommendation. Nowadays, the highly popular user generated content sites provide various sources of information such as tags for recommendation tasks. Motivated by a real world online video recommendation problem, this work targets at the long tail phenomena of user behavior and the sparsity of item features. A personalized compound recommendation framework for online video recommendation called Dirichlet mixture probit model for information scarcity (DPIS) is hence proposed...
September 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715242/not-all-masks-are-created-equal-masking-success-in-clinical-trials-of-children-and-adolescents
#12
Lauren Jones, Sarah R Black, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad
The current study assessed the success of masking omega-3 (Ω3) and psychotherapy in clinical trials of youth with depression or bipolar spectrum disorder. Participants were youth ages 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed depressive (n = 72) or bipolar spectrum (n = 23) disorders. Inclusion diagnoses were depressive disorder, cyclothymic disorder, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Exclusion diagnoses included bipolar I or II disorder, chronic medical condition or autism. Youth participated in 2 × 2 randomized controlled trials, in which they received Ω3 or placebo (PBO) and psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) or active monitoring (AM)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711735/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-early-visual-cortex-suppresses-conscious-representations-in-a-dichotomous-manner-without-gradually-decreasing-their-precision
#13
Mika Koivisto, Inari Harjuniemi, Henry Railo, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Antti Revonsuo
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of early visual cortex can suppresses visual perception at early stages of processing. The suppression can be measured both with objective forced-choice tasks and with subjective ratings of visual awareness, but there is lack of objective evidence on how and whether the TMS influences the quality of representations. Does TMS decrease the precision of representations in graded manner, or does it lead to dichotomous, "all-or-nothing" suppression. We resolved this question by using a continuous measure of the perceptual error: the observers had to perceive the orientation of a target (Landort-C) and to adjust the orientation of a probe to match that of the target...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683948/3-dimensional-printed-models-for-tavr%C3%A2-planning-why-guess-when-you-can-see
#14
EDITORIAL
Mohamad Alkhouli, Partho P Sengupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674648/to-call-a-cloud-cirrus-sound-symbolism-in-names-for-categories-or-items
#15
Vanja Ković, Jelena Sučević, Suzy J Styles
The aim of the present paper is to experimentally test whether sound symbolism has selective effects on labels with different ranges-of-reference within a simple noun-hierarchy. In two experiments, adult participants learned the make up of two categories of unfamiliar objects ('alien life forms'), and were passively exposed to either category-labels or item-labels, in a learning-by-guessing categorization task. Following category training, participants were tested on their visual discrimination of object pairs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673653/not-just-guess-work-tips-for-observation-brainstorming-and-prototyping
#16
Ryan Krone
Much has been written about brainstorming and prototyping in medical devices. These 2 topics are the crucial ingredients to innovation; which, if well seeded by organized and structured forays into each, will net much higher quality and more valuable results. Structure and process, although slightly counterintuitive as applied to brainstorming and prototyping, can greatly improve the value proposition of the innovation itself.
June 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672371/saccadic-eye-movements-do-not-disrupt-the-deployment-of-feature-based-attention
#17
Zampeta Kalogeropoulou, Martin Rolfs
The tight link of saccades to covert spatial attention has been firmly established, yet their relation to other forms of visual selection remains poorly understood. Here we studied the temporal dynamics of feature-based attention (FBA) during fixation and across saccades. Participants reported the orientation (on a continuous scale) of one of two sets of spatially interspersed Gabors (black or white). We tested performance at different intervals between the onset of a colored cue (black or white, indicating which stimulus was the most probable target; red: neutral condition) and the stimulus...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668470/estimating-the-solute-transport-parameters-of-the-spatial-fractional-advection-dispersion-equation-using-bees-algorithm
#18
Behrouz Mehdinejadiani
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668051/algorithm-based-on-the-thomson-problem-for-determination-of-equilibrium-structures-of-metal-nanoclusters
#19
E Arias, E Florez, J F Pérez-Torres
A new algorithm for the determination of equilibrium structures suitable for metal nanoclusters is proposed. The algorithm performs a stochastic search of the minima associated with the nuclear potential energy function restricted to a sphere (similar to the Thomson problem), in order to guess configurations of the nuclear positions. Subsequently, the guessed configurations are further optimized driven by the total energy function using the conventional gradient descent method. This methodology is equivalent to using the valence shell electron pair repulsion model in guessing initial configurations in the traditional molecular quantum chemistry...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664778/a-fully-customized-baseline-removal-framework-for-spectroscopic-applications
#20
Stephen Giguere, Thomas Boucher, C J Carey, Sridhar Mahadevan, M Darby Dyar
The task of proper baseline or continuum removal is common to nearly all types of spectroscopy. Its goal is to remove any portion of a signal that is irrelevant to features of interest while preserving any predictive information. Despite the importance of baseline removal, median or guessed default parameters are commonly employed, often using commercially available software supplied with instruments. Several published baseline removal algorithms have been shown to be useful for particular spectroscopic applications but their generalizability is ambiguous...
July 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
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