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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640816/topographic-independent-component-analysis-reveals-random-scrambling-of-orientation-in-visual-space
#1
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Luis M Martinez, Jesús Malo
Neurons at primary visual cortex (V1) in humans and other species are edge filters organized in orientation maps. In these maps, neurons with similar orientation preference are clustered together in iso-orientation domains. These maps have two fundamental properties: (1) retinotopy, i.e. correspondence between displacements at the image space and displacements at the cortical surface, and (2) a trade-off between good coverage of the visual field with all orientations and continuity of iso-orientation domains in the cortical space...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639175/valence-and-origin-of-emotional-words-influence-on-subsequent-perception-of-ambiguous-stimuli-in-terms-of-competence-versus-warmth
#2
Kamil K Imbir
The aim of this study was to examine whether the valence and origin of emotional words can alter perception of ambiguous objects in terms of warmth versus competence, fundamental dimensions of social cognition. 60 individuals were invited into the study focusing on the limits of intuition. They were asked to try to guess the meaning of Japanese pictorial signs in terms of their warmth versus competence connotations. Before each trial a subsequent memory load task was applied. Participants were supposed to read and remember words creating a factorial manipulation of valence (three levels) and origins (three levels: automatic, neutral and reflective) of affective connotations presenting to them for 500 ms...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638975/does-grasping-capacity-influence-object-size-estimates-it-depends-on-the-context
#3
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Linkenauger, Witt, and Proffitt (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(5), 1432-1441, 2011, Experiment 2) reported that right-handers estimated objects as smaller if they intended to grasp them in their right rather than their left hand. Based on the action-specific account, they argued that this scaling effect occurred because participants believed their right hand could grasp larger objects. However, Collier and Lawson (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(4), 749-769, 2017) failed to replicate this effect...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#4
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632384/finite-field-method-for-nonlinear-optical-property-prediction-using-rational-function-approximants
#5
Anand H G Patel, Ahmed A K Mohammed, Peter A Limacher, Paul Woodson Ayers
The finite-field (FF) method is a quick, easy-to-implement tool for the prediction of nonlinear optical properties. Here, we present and explore a novel variant of the FF method, which uses a rational function to fit a molecule's energy with respect to an electric field. Similarly to previous FF methods, factors crucial for the method's accuracy were tuned. These factors include: the number of terms in the function, the distribution of fields used to construct the approximation, and the initial field in the approximation...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613841/estimating-a-representative-value-and-proportion-of-true-zeros-for-censored-analytical-data-with-applications-to-contaminated-site-assessment
#6
Claus P Haslauer, Jessica R Meyer, András Bárdossy, Beth L Parker
This paper demonstrates a maximum likelihood (ML)-based approach to derive representative ("best guess") contaminant concentrations from data with censored values (e.g., less than the detection limit). The method represents an advancement over existing techniques because it is capable of estimating the proportion of measurements that are true zeros and incorporating varying levels of censorship (e.g., sample specific detection limits, changes through time in method detection). The ability of the method to estimate the proportion of true zeros is validated using precipitation data...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594334/self-consistent-hybrid-functionals-for-solids-a-fully-automated-implementation
#7
Alessandro Erba
A fully-automated algorithm for the determination of the system-specific optimal fraction of exact exchange in self-consistent hybrid functionals of the density-functional-theory is illustrated, as implemented into the public CRYSTAL program. The exchange fraction of this new class of functionals is self-consistently updated proportionally to the inverse of the dielectric response of the system within an iterative procedure [Phys. Rev. B 89, 195112 (2014)]. Each iteration of the present scheme, in turn, implies convergence of a self-consistent-field (SCF) and a coupled-perturbed-Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham (CPHF/KS) procedure...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586114/a-phosphokinome-based-screen-uncovers-new-drug-synergies-for-cancer-driven-by-liver-specific-gain-of-non-oncogenic-rtks
#8
Yannan Fan, Maria Arechederra, Sylvie Richelme, Fabrice Daian, Chiara Novello, Julien Calderaro, Luca Di Tommaso, Guillaume Morcrette, Sandra Rebouissou, Matteo Donadon, Emanuela Morenghi, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Massimo Roncalli, Rosanna Dono, Flavio Maina
Genetic mutations leading to oncogenic variants of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequent events during tumorigenesis; however, the cellular vulnerability to non-oncogenic RTK fluctuations has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrated genetically that liver subtle increases in wild-type Met RTK levels are sufficient for spontaneous tumors in mice (Alb-R26(Met) ), conceptually illustrating how the shift from physiological to pathological conditions results from slight perturbations in signaling dosage...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583674/three-dimensional-data-tracking-dynamic-optimization-simulations-of-human-locomotion-generated-by-direct-collocation
#9
Yi-Chung Lin, Marcus G Pandy
The aim of this study was to perform full-body three-dimensional (3D) dynamic optimization simulations of human locomotion by driving a neuromusculoskeletal model toward in vivo measurements of body-segmental kinematics and ground reaction forces. Gait data were recorded from 5 healthy participants who walked at their preferred speeds and ran at 2m/s. Participant-specific data-tracking dynamic optimization solutions were generated for one stride cycle using direct collocation in tandem with an OpenSim-MATLAB interface...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577274/unexpected-events-disrupt-visuomotor-working-memory-and-increase-guessing
#10
R Dawn Finzi, Bradley R Postle, Timothy F Brady, Adam R Aron
When an unexpected event, such as a car horn honking, occurs in daily life, it often disrupts our train of thought. In the lab, this effect was recently modeled with a task in which verbal working memory (WM) was disrupted by unexpected auditory events (Wessel et al. in Nature Communications, 7, 11195, 2016). Here we tested whether this effect extends to a different type of WM-namely, visuomotor. We found that unexpected auditory events similarly decremented visuomotor WM. Moreover, this effect persisted for many more trials than had previously been shown for verbal WM, and the effect occurred for two different types of unexpected auditory events...
June 2, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573021/dog-growls-express-various-contextual-and-affective-content-for-human-listeners
#11
T Faragó, N Takács, Á Miklósi, P Pongrácz
Vocal expressions of emotions follow simple rules to encode the inner state of the caller into acoustic parameters, not just within species, but also in cross-species communication. Humans use these structural rules to attribute emotions to dog vocalizations, especially to barks, which match with their contexts. In contrast, humans were found to be unable to differentiate between playful and threatening growls, probably because single growls' aggression level was assessed based on acoustic size cues. To resolve this contradiction, we played back natural growl bouts from three social contexts (food guarding, threatening and playing) to humans, who had to rate the emotional load and guess the context of the playbacks...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570301/clinical-examination-for-diagnosing-circulatory-shock
#12
Bart Hiemstra, Ruben J Eck, Frederik Keus, Iwan C C van der Horst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the acute setting of circulatory shock, physicians largely depend on clinical examination and basic laboratory values. The daily use of clinical examination for diagnostic purposes contrasts sharp with the limited number of studies. We aim to provide an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination in estimating circulatory shock reflected by an inadequate cardiac output (CO). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies showed poor correlations between CO and mottling, capillary refill time or central-to-peripheral temperature gradients in univariable analyses...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557469/using-implicit-association-tests-in-age-heterogeneous-samples-the-importance-of-cognitive-abilities-and-quad-model-processes
#13
Cornelia Wrzus, Boris Egloff, Michaela Riediger
Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i...
May 29, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548089/finding-multiple-reaction-pathways-via-global-optimization-of-action
#14
Juyong Lee, In-Ho Lee, InSuk Joung, Jooyoung Lee, Bernard R Brooks
Global searching for reaction pathways is a long-standing challenge in computational chemistry and biology. Most existing approaches perform only local searches due to computational complexity. Here we present a computational approach, Action-CSA, to find multiple diverse reaction pathways connecting fixed initial and final states through global optimization of the Onsager-Machlup action using the conformational space annealing (CSA) method. Action-CSA successfully overcomes large energy barriers via crossovers and mutations of pathways and finds all possible pathways of small systems without initial guesses on pathways...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545006/cognitive-control-and-reward-loss-processing-in-internet-gaming-disorder-results-from-a-comparison-with-recreational-internet-game-users
#15
G Dong, H Li, L Wang, M N Potenza
Although playing of Internet games may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most game-users do not develop problems and only a relatively small subset experiences IGD. Game playing may have positive health associations, whereas IGD has been repeatedly associated with negative health measures, and it is thus important to understand differences between individuals with IGD, recreational (non-problematic) game use (RGU) and non-/low-frequency game use (NLFGU). Individuals with IGD have shown differences in neural activations from non-gamers, yet few studies have examined neural differences between individuals with IGD, RGU and NLFGU...
March 30, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540740/the-incomplete-glutathione-puzzle-just-guessing-at-numbers-and-figures
#16
Marcel Deponte
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It supposably comprises (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids and iron-sulfur clusters. Furthermore, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I review the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527314/accuracy-and-precision-of-thickness-determination-from-position-averaged-convergent-beam-electron-diffraction-patterns-using-a-single-parameter-metric
#17
J A Pollock, M Weyland, D J Taplin, L J Allen, S D Findlay
Position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns are formed by averaging the transmission diffraction pattern while scanning an atomically-fine electron probe across a sample. Visual comparison between experimental and simulated patterns is increasingly being used for sample thickness determination. We explore automating the comparison via a simple sum square difference metric. The thickness determination is shown to be accurate (i.e. the best-guess deduced thickness generally concurs with the true thickness), though factors such as noise, mistilt and inelastic scattering reduce the precision (i...
May 10, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521952/-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-lesions-are-not-guessing-games
#18
EDITORIAL
Gérard Lorette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509408/insulin-associated-weight-gain-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-what-can-be-done
#19
REVIEW
Adrian Brown, Nicola Guess, Anne Dornhorst, Shahrad Taheri, Gary Frost
Insulin therapy (IT) is initiated for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when glycaemic targets are not met with diet and other hypoglycaemic agents. The initiation of IT improves glycaemic control and reduces the risk of microvascular complications. There is, however, an associated weight gain following IT, which may adversely affect diabetic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 3 to 9 kg insulin associated weight gain (IAWG) is reported to occur in the first year of initiating IT, consisting predominantly of adipose tissue...
May 16, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506498/sweet-spot-matching-a-thin-layer-chromatography-based-countercurrent-solvent-system-selection-strategy
#20
Yang Liu, J Brent Friesen, Edyta M Grzelak, Qingfei Fan, Ting Tang, Kemal Durić, Birgit U Jaki, James B McAlpine, Scott G Franzblau, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli
TLC-based strategies were proposed in 1979 (Hostettmann et al.) and 2005 (Friesen & Pauli; GUESS method) to minimize the number of partitioning experiments required for countercurrent separation (CCS) solvent system selection. As semi-empirical approaches, both proposed that the K values defining the sweet spot of optimal CCS corresponded to a matching Rf value range from the silica gel TLC plate developed in the organic phase of a biphasic or a corresponding monophasic solvent system. Despite their simplicity, there has been an absence of theoretical support and a deficiency of reported experimental evidence...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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