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BACKGROUND: Diets reduced or low in carbohydrates are becoming increasingly popular. The replacement foods and their accompanying nutrients determine the health effects of such diets. However, little is known about the dietary intake of people consuming reduced or low carbohydrate diets. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake of individuals aged 16-75 years consuming less than 40% of energy from carbohydrate (n = 430) was compared with individuals consuming equal to or more than 40% energy from carbohydrate (n = 1833) using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Satoru Otsuru, Kathleen M Overholt, Timothy S Olson, Ted J Hofmann, Adam J Guess, Victoria M Velazquez, Takashi Kaito, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Despite years of extensive investigation, the cellular origin of heterotopic ossification (HO) has not been fully elucidated. We have previously shown that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells, characterized by the immunophenotype CD45-/CD44+/CXCR4+, contributed to the formation of heterotopic bone induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. In contrast, other reports have demonstrated the contribution of CD45+ hematopoietic derived cells to HO. Therefore, in this study, we developed a novel triple transgenic mouse strain that allows us to visualize CD45+ cells with red fluorescence and mature osteoblasts with green fluorescence...
October 7, 2016: Bone
Aravind Chandrasekaran, Justin Chan, Carmay Lim, Lee-Wei Yang
Structure-encoded conformational dynamics are crucial for biomolecular functions. However, there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that dynamics plays a role in guiding protein-nucleic acid interactions. Here, we show that protein-DNA docking orientation is a function of protein intrinsic dynamics but the binding site itself does not display unique patterns in the examined spectrum of motions. This revelation is made possible by a novel technique that locates 'dynamics interfaces' in proteins across which protein parts are anti-correlated in their slowest dynamics...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Yilun Wu, Xicheng Lu, Jinshu Su, Peixin Chen
Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Joan Cano, Francesc Lloret, Miguel Julve
Theoretical calculations on a series of molecular models based on amino derivatives of linear and cycled acenes acting as organic linkers between two copper(ii) ions have shown a wire-like magnetic behaviour, so that the intermetallic magnetic communication does not vanish when the linker becomes larger due to its polyradical nature. Hence, these models can be considered as molecular magnetic wires, which can be used as active components for molecular spintronics, where the information transport is based on spin carriers instead of the more conventional charge transport...
October 10, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Moritz Berning, Anita Hardon
This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their "trying out" of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
Atsuko Miyawaki, Kansuporn Sriyudthsak, Masami Yokota Hirai, Fumihide Shiraishi
Mathematical modeling of large-scale metabolic networks usually requires smoothing of metabolite time-series data to account for measurement or biological errors. Accordingly, the accuracy of smoothing curves strongly affects the subsequent estimation of model parameters. Here, an efficient parametric method is proposed for smoothing metabolite time-series data, and its performance is evaluated. To simplify parameter estimation, the method uses S-system-type equations with simple power law-type efflux terms...
September 28, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Stephen Sf Yip, John Kim, Thibaud Coroller, Chintan Parmar, Emmanuel Rios Velazquez, Elizabeth Huynh, Raymond Mak, Hugo Jwl Aerts
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET)-based radiomics has been used to non-invasively quantify the metabolic tumor phenotypes; however, little is known about the relationship between these phenotypes and underlying somatic mutations. This study assessed the association and predictive power of (18)F-FDG-PET-based radiomic features for somatic mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: 348 NSCLC patients underwent diagnostic (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scans and were tested for genetic mutations...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marion Castera, Véronique Kuhn, Franck Medina
OBJECTIVE: Anomia is the second most common disorder after episodic memory loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to develop a speech therapy protocol for patients with Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE≥15) and suffering from a lack of words, in order to improve access to words. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We stimulated the three stages in the men: - stimulation of lexical selection involved working on the multiple meanings of a word, searching for the relevant and specific features of a word in order to make a guess, and bringing to mind a target word from specific features; - stimulation of morphological encoding involved extracting the meaning of a morpheme by comparing two words, one of which is derived from the other, and then identifying the meaning of an affix by slipping it into a sentence; - phonological encoding was stimulated by the isolation of the initial two-syllable words and merging them to form a third word...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Melissa L-H Võ, Avigael M Aizenman, Jeremy M Wolfe
People are surprisingly bad at knowing where they have looked in a scene. We tested participants' ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each experiment, participants performed a change-detection (Exp.1) or search (Exp.2) task. On 25% of trials, after 3 seconds of viewing the scene, participants were asked to indicate where they thought they had just fixated. They responded by making mouse clicks on 12 locations in the unchanged scene. After 135 trials, observers saw 10 new scenes and were asked to put 12 clicks where they thought someone else would have looked...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Carola Salvi, Emanuela Bricolo, John Kounios, Edward Bowden, Mark Beeman
How accurate are insights compared to analytical solutions? In four experiments, we investigated how participants' solving strategies influenced their solution accuracies across different types of problems, including one that was linguistic, one that was visual and two that were mixed visual-linguistic. In each experiment, participants' self-judged insight solutions were, on average, more accurate than their analytic ones. We hypothesised that insight solutions have superior accuracy because they emerge into consciousness in an all-or-nothing fashion when the unconscious solving process is complete, whereas analytic solutions can be guesses based on conscious, prematurely terminated, processing...
2016: Thinking & Reasoning
Hamed Arshad, Abbas Rasoolzadegan
Authentication and key agreement schemes play a very important role in enhancing the level of security of telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). Recently, Amin and Biswas demonstrated that the authentication scheme proposed by Giri et al. is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks and privileged insider attacks and also does not provide user anonymity. They also proposed an improved authentication scheme, claiming that it resists various security attacks. However, this paper demonstrates that Amin and Biswas's scheme is defenseless against off-line password guessing attacks and replay attacks and also does not provide perfect forward secrecy...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Alyssa Power, Jean-Francois Lemay, Suzette Cooke
: Construct: Clinical reasoning assessment is a growing area of interest in the medical education literature. Script concordance testing (SCT) evaluates clinical reasoning in conditions of uncertainty and has emerged as an innovative tool in the domain of clinical reasoning assessment. SCT quantifies the degree of concordance between a learner and an experienced clinician and attempts to capture the breadth of responses of expert clinicians, acknowledging the significant yet acceptable variation in practice under situations of uncertainty...
September 23, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Mikki H Phan, Joseph R Keebler, Barbara S Chaparro
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. BACKGROUND: Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool...
September 19, 2016: Human Factors
Scott K Hansen, Velimir V Vesselinov
We develop empirically-grounded error envelopes for localization of a point contamination release event in the saturated zone of a previously uncharacterized heterogeneous aquifer into which a number of plume-intercepting wells have been drilled. We assume that flow direction in the aquifer is known exactly and velocity is known to within a factor of two of our best guess from well observations prior to source identification. Other aquifer and source parameters must be estimated by interpretation of well breakthrough data via the advection-dispersion equation...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Kristian Sandberg, Jakob Udby Blicher, Simon Hviid Del Pin, Lau Møller Andersen, Geraint Rees, Ryota Kanai
Across a century or more, ambiguous stimuli have been studied scientifically because they provide a method for studying the internal mechanisms of the brain while ensuring an unchanging external stimulus. In recent years, several studies have reported correlations between perceptual dynamics during bistable perception and particular brain characteristics such as the grey matter volume of areas in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the relative GABA concentration in the occipital lobe. Here, we attempt to replicate previous results using similar paradigms to those used in the studies first reporting the correlations...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
William R Hogan, Werner Ceusters
BACKGROUND: Disease and diagnosis have been the subject of much ontological inquiry. However, the insights gained therein have not yet been well enough applied to the study, management, and improvement of data quality in electronic health records (EHR) and administrative systems. Data in these systems suffer from workarounds clinicians are forced to apply due to limitations in the current state-of-the art in system design which ignore the various types of entities that diagnoses as information content entities can be and are about...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Marta Castela, Edgar Erdfelder
The recognition heuristic (RH) theory predicts that, in comparative judgment tasks, if one object is recognized and the other is not, the recognized one is chosen. The memory-state heuristic (MSH) extends the RH by assuming that choices are not affected by recognition judgments per se, but by the memory states underlying these judgments (i.e., recognition certainty, uncertainty, or rejection certainty). Specifically, the larger the discrepancy between memory states, the larger the probability of choosing the object in the higher state...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Victor Alfred, Thomas Vaccari
Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. Deregulation of ESCRT activity is observed in neuro-degenerative diseases, virus infection and cancer. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis involving ESCRTs have not yet fully come into focus. Here, we review the current knowledge of ESCRT function in health and disease and provide educated guesses for future research and focused therapeutic intervention...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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