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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527314/accuracy-and-precision-of-thickness-determination-from-position-averaged-convergent-beam-electron-diffraction-patterns-using-a-single-parameter-metric
#1
J A Pollock, M Weyland, D J Taplin, L J Allen, S D Findlay
Position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns are formed by averaging the transmission diffraction pattern while scanning an atomically-fine electron probe across a sample. Visual comparison between experimental and simulated patterns is increasingly being used for sample thickness determination. We explore automating the comparison via a simple sum square difference metric. The thickness determination is shown to be accurate (i.e. the best-guess deduced thickness generally concurs with the true thickness), though factors such as noise, mistilt and inelastic scattering reduce the precision (i...
May 10, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521952/-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-lesions-are-not-guessing-games
#2
EDITORIAL
Gérard Lorette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509408/insulin-associated-weight-gain-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-what-can-be-done
#3
REVIEW
Adrian Brown, Nicola Guess, Anne Dornhorst, Shahrad Taheri, Gary Frost
Insulin therapy (IT) is initiated for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when glycaemic targets are not met with diet and other hypoglycaemic agents. The initiation of IT improves glycaemic control and reduces the risk of microvascular complications. There is, however, an associated weight gain following IT, which may adversely affect diabetic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 3 to 9 kg insulin associated weight gain (IAWG) is reported to occur in the first year of initiating IT, consisting predominantly of adipose tissue...
May 16, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506498/sweet-spot-matching-a-thin-layer-chromatography-based-countercurrent-solvent-system-selection-strategy
#4
Yang Liu, J Brent Friesen, Edyta M Grzelak, Qingfei Fan, Ting Tang, Kemal Durić, Birgit U Jaki, James B McAlpine, Scott G Franzblau, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli
TLC-based strategies were proposed in 1979 (Hostettmann et al.) and 2005 (Friesen & Pauli; GUESS method) to minimize the number of partitioning experiments required for countercurrent separation (CCS) solvent system selection. As semi-empirical approaches, both proposed that the K values defining the sweet spot of optimal CCS corresponded to a matching Rf value range from the silica gel TLC plate developed in the organic phase of a biphasic or a corresponding monophasic solvent system. Despite their simplicity, there has been an absence of theoretical support and a deficiency of reported experimental evidence...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498538/hanging-out-with-the-right-crowd-peer-influence-on-risk-taking-behavior-in-adolescence
#5
Jorien Van Hoorn, Eveline A Crone, Linda Van Leijenhorst
Peer influence plays a key role in the increase of risk-taking behavior during adolescence. However, its underlying processes are not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social norms, conveyed through peer advice, on risk-taking behavior in 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (N = 76). Participants played a card-guessing task alone and with online peer advice. Results showed that risk-taking increased in the presence of peers. The results further showed that adolescents took into account the uncertainty associated with gambles, as well as the social norms conveyed by peers...
March 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484951/empirical-evidence-for-resource-rational-anchoring-and-adjustment
#6
Falk Lieder, Thomas L Griffiths, Quentin J M Huys, Noah D Goodman
People's estimates of numerical quantities are systematically biased towards their initial guess. This anchoring bias is usually interpreted as sign of human irrationality, but it has recently been suggested that the anchoring bias instead results from people's rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. If this were true, then adjustment should decrease with the relative cost of time. To test this hypothesis, we designed a new numerical estimation paradigm that controls people's knowledge and varies the cost of time and error independently while allowing people to invest as much or as little time and effort into refining their estimate as they wish...
May 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482480/a-hydrothermal-route-to-multicolor-luminescent-carbon-dots-from-adenosine-disodium-triphosphate-for-bioimaging
#7
Ming Zhang, Cheng Chi, Ping Yuan, Yutian Su, Maoni Shao, Ninglin Zhou
In this work, phosphor and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots (N-P-doped CDs) were developed for bioimaging. The as-synthesized N-P-doped CDs emit a bright blue coloured fluorescence after exposure to a 365nm UV-lamp illumination. It is also demonstrated that the fluorescence of CDs is resistant to the interference of metal ions, saline solution, and high ionic strength environments. The bright fluorescence nature of the N-P-doped CDs has proven them to be excellent probes for cellular imaging. And this guess is further confirmed by using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM)...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473002/surrogate-prediction-of-quality-of-life-and-desire-for-treatment-a-guess-of-a-guess
#8
Scott Snyder, Halima Amjad
In conditions, such as dementia, stroke, or critical illness, clinicians often rely on substituted judgment through a surrogate to assist in medical decision making. Surrogates may face tough decisions regarding whether to pursue or forego surgery, tube feeding, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Surrogates often have little confidence in their decision (Majesko et al., 2012), though substituted judgment relies on the surrogate to determine the decision that the patient would have made. Prior studies suggest that surrogates predict patient preferences with only 68% accuracy (Shalowitz et al...
May 5, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467847/spin-projected-matrix-product-states-versatile-tool-for-strongly-correlated-systems
#9
Zhendong Li, Garnet Kin-Lic Chan
We present a new wave function ansatz that combines the strengths of spin projection with the language of matrix product states (MPS) and matrix product operators (MPO) as used in the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Specifically, spin-projected matrix product states (SP-MPS) are constructed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the spin projector for total spin S and |ΨMPS((N,M))⟩ is an MPS wave function with a given particle number N and spin projection M. This new ansatz possesses several attractive features: (1) It provides a much simpler route to achieve spin adaptation (i...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459867/security-enhanced-multi-factor-biometric-authentication-scheme-using-bio-hash-function
#10
Younsung Choi, Youngsook Lee, Jongho Moon, Dongho Won
With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456261/a-star-tracker-on-orbit-calibration-method-based-on-vector-pattern-match
#11
Jian Li, Kun Xiong, Xinguo Wei, Guangjun Zhang
On-orbit calibration is aimed at revising the star trackers' measurement model parameters and maintaining its attitude accuracy. The performance of existing calibration methods is quite poor. Among all the model parameters, the estimation of the principal point location is very challenging due to its vulnerability against measurement errors, yet, that it is the only parameter depicting the optical axis' projecting position on the image plane makes it of great significance. Its estimation error adds fixed bias to the output attitudes...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456208/a-new-near-linear-scaling-efficient-and-accurate-open-shell-domain-based-local-pair-natural-orbital-coupled-cluster-singles-and-doubles-theory
#12
Masaaki Saitow, Ute Becker, Christoph Riplinger, Edward F Valeev, Frank Neese
The Coupled-Cluster expansion, truncated after single and double excitations (CCSD), provides accurate and reliable molecular electronic wave functions and energies for many molecular systems around their equilibrium geometries. However, the high computational cost, which is well-known to scale as O(N(6)) with system size N, has limited its practical application to small systems consisting of not more than approximately 20-30 atoms. To overcome these limitations, low-order scaling approximations to CCSD have been intensively investigated over the past few years...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452499/flow-navigation-by-smart-microswimmers-via-reinforcement-learning
#13
Simona Colabrese, Kristian Gustavsson, Antonio Celani, Luca Biferale
Smart active particles can acquire some limited knowledge of the fluid environment from simple mechanical cues and exert a control on their preferred steering direction. Their goal is to learn the best way to navigate by exploiting the underlying flow whenever possible. As an example, we focus our attention on smart gravitactic swimmers. These are active particles whose task is to reach the highest altitude within some time horizon, given the constraints enforced by fluid mechanics. By means of numerical experiments, we show that swimmers indeed learn nearly optimal strategies just by experience...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442552/the-role-of-anticipated-decision-regret-and-the-patient-s-best-interest-in-sterilisation-and-medically-assisted-reproduction
#14
Heidi Mertes
There is a clear discrepancy in the way those who request medical assistance in pursuit of their reproductive choices are treated. On the one hand, women who request a sterilisation are urged to consider possible future regrets and are sometimes refused treatment in anticipation of such regrets. This is despite the fact that for all age ranges, the majority of women undergoing a sterilisation do not regret the decision. Moreover, women who are voluntarily childless are likely to have a happier and more gratifying life than parents...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426352/the-risky-reading-strategy-revisited-new-simulations-using-e-z-reader
#15
Victoria A McGowan, Erik D Reichle
Eye-movement studies have demonstrated that, relative to college-aged readers, older readers of alphabetic languages like English and German tend to read more slowly, making more frequent and longer fixations and longer saccades, and skipping more words, but also making more frequent regressions. These findings have led to suggestions that older readers either adopt a "risky" strategy of using context to "guess" words as a way of compensating for slower rates of lexical processing, or have a smaller and more asymmetrical perceptual span...
May 9, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415145/medical-marijuana-challenges-and-risk-issues-for-health-care-providers
#16
John C West
Laws on medical marijuana and recreational use of marijuana are sweeping the country and presenting real dilemmas for health care providers and facilities. However, due to disagreements between federal and state law, there are no easy answers. Additionally, the case law and statutory law on these issues is exceedingly sparse. It may take years for all of the issues to be ironed out, but health care facilities will need to act in the meantime on what may be little more than educated guesses. It may not be appropriate to simply prohibit the use of medical marijuana, but accommodating it also has risk...
April 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414737/peer-norm-guesses-and-self-reported-attitudes-towards-performance-related-pay
#17
Nikolaos Georgantzis, Efi Vasileiou, Iordanis Kotzaivazoglou
Due to a variety of reasons, people see themselves differently from how they see others. This basic asymmetry has broad consequences. It leads people to judge themselves and their own behavior differently from how they judge others and others' behavior. This research, first, studies the perceptions and attitudes of Greek Public Sector employees towards the introduction of Performance-Related Pay (PRP) systems trying to reveal whether there is a divergence between individual attitudes and guesses on peers' attitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398132/on-the-reality-of-illusory-conjunctions
#18
Juan Botella, Manuel Suero, Juan I Durán
The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time...
April 11, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388116/performance-of-extended-lagrangian-schemes-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-with-classical-polarizable-force-fields-and-density-functional-theory
#19
Valerio Vitale, Jacek Dziedzic, Alex Albaugh, Anders M N Niklasson, Teresa Head-Gordon, Chris-Kriton Skylaris
Iterative energy minimization with the aim of achieving self-consistency is a common feature of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) and classical molecular dynamics with polarizable force fields. In the former, the electronic degrees of freedom are optimized, while the latter often involves an iterative determination of induced point dipoles. The computational effort of the self-consistency procedure can be reduced by re-using converged solutions from previous time steps. However, this must be done carefully, as not to break time-reversal symmetry, which negatively impacts energy conservation...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387562/if-you-re-not-measuring-you-re-guessing-the-advent-of-objective-concussion-assessments
#20
Steven P Broglio, Kevin M Guskiewicz, John Norwig
Sport-related concussion remains one of the most complex injuries presented to sports medicine professionals. Although the injury has been recognized since ancient times, the concussion-assessment process has seen significant advances over the last 30 years. This review outlines the addition of objective measures to the clinical evaluation of the concussed athlete, beginning in the 1980s and continuing through the modern age. International and domestic organizations now describe standardized symptom reports, neurostatus and neurocognitive-function evaluations, and postural-control measures as standards of medical care, a significant shift from a short time ago...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
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