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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724965/aflow-sym-platform-for-the-complete-automatic-and-self-consistent-symmetry-analysis-of-crystals
#1
David Hicks, Corey Oses, Eric Gossett, Geena Gomez, Richard H Taylor, Cormac Toher, Michael J Mehl, Ohad Levy, Stefano Curtarolo
Determination of the symmetry profile of structures is a persistent challenge in materials science. Results often vary amongst standard packages, hindering autonomous materials development by requiring continuous user attention and educated guesses. This article presents a robust procedure for evaluating the complete suite of symmetry properties, featuring various representations for the point, factor and space groups, site symmetries and Wyckoff positions. The protocol determines a system-specific mapping tolerance that yields symmetry operations entirely commensurate with fundamental crystallographic principles...
May 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655466/the-educated-guess-determining-drug-doses-in-exotic-animals-using-evidence-based-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Marike Visser, Seth C Oster
Lack of species-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is a challenge for pharmaceutical and dose selection. If available, dose extrapolation can be accomplished via basic equations. If unavailable, several methods have been described. Linear scaling uses an established milligrams per kilograms dose based on weight. This does not allow for differences in species drug metabolism, sometimes resulting in toxicity. Allometric scaling correlates body weight and metabolic rate but fails for drugs with significant hepatic metabolism and cannot be extrapolated to avians or reptiles...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538109/a-call-to-investigate-the-relationship-between-education-and-health-outcomes-using-big-data
#3
Saad Chahine, Kulamakan Mahan Kulasegaram, Sarah Wright, Sandra Monteiro, Lawrence E M Grierson, Cassandra Barber, Stefanie S Sebok-Syer, Meghan McConnell, Wendy Yen, Andre De Champlain, Claire Touchie
There exists an assumption that improving medical education will improve patient care. While seemingly logical, this premise has rarely been investigated. In this Invited Commentary, the authors propose the use of big data to test this assumption. The authors present a few example research studies linking education and patient care outcomes and argue that using big data may more easily facilitate the process needed to investigate this assumption. The authors also propose that collaboration is needed to link educational and health care data...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274085/-i-guess-i-do-have-to-take-back-what-i-said-before-about-television-pregnant-women-s-understandings-and-use-of-televisual-representations-of-childbearing
#4
Danielle Bessett, Stef Murawsky
Research on television as a source of childbearing information is divided on its importance. Drawing from a sample of 64 pregnant women in the greater New York and Connecticut metropolitan area, we examine how women understand the influence of television on their expectations for pregnancy and birth. A sizable minority (44%) regularly watched reality television programmes on childbearing; all engaged in active viewing practices, such as recognising programme formula and evaluating plausibility of depictions...
March 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274050/the-first-ct-scan-of-the-brain-entering-the-neurologic-information-age
#5
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain transitioned clinical neurology from the educated-guess world to the real computer-age world. One of the first CT scans-published by the British neuroradiologist James Ambrose-showed an intracranial hemorrhage and also suggested the use of iodine to demonstrate abnormal blood-brain barrier. In the USA, CT scans were rapidly commercialized and first placed at Mayo Clinic and Massachusetts General Hospital in the summer of 1973. CT scanning of the brain has revolutionized diagnostic acute neurology and neurosurgery and was the overture to an even larger revolution-magnetic resonance imaging...
December 22, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851373/a-pragmatic-lifestyle-modification-programme-reduces-the-incidence-of-predictors-of-cardio-metabolic-disease-and-dysglycaemia-in-a-young-healthy-urban-south-asian-population-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mahen Wijesuriya, Nikolaos Fountoulakis, Nicola Guess, Sarath Banneheka, Laksha Vasantharajah, Martin Gulliford, Giancarlo Viberti, Luigi Gnudi, Janaka Karalliedde
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in young urban South-Asians. We tested the effect of a pragmatic trimonthly lifestyle modification (LSM) programme (P-LSM) versus a less-intensive 12-monthly control LSM (C-LSM) intervention on a primary composite endpoint of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease (new onset T2DM, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and markers of cardio-renal disease) in participants aged 5-40 years with risk factors for T2DM...
August 30, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586114/a-phosphokinome-based-screen-uncovers-new-drug-synergies-for-cancer-driven-by-liver-specific-gain-of-nononcogenic-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#7
Yannan Fan, Maria Arechederra, Sylvie Richelme, Fabrice Daian, Chiara Novello, Julien Calderaro, Luca Di Tommaso, Guillaume Morcrette, Sandra Rebouissou, Matteo Donadon, Emanuela Morenghi, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Massimo Roncalli, Rosanna Dono, Flavio Maina
Genetic mutations leading to oncogenic variants of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequent events during tumorigenesis; however, the cellular vulnerability to nononcogenic RTK fluctuations has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrated genetically that in the liver subtle increases in wild-type Met RTK levels are sufficient for spontaneous tumors in mice (Alb-R26Met ), conceptually illustrating how the shift from physiological to pathological conditions results from slight perturbations in signaling dosage...
November 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570301/clinical-examination-for-diagnosing-circulatory-shock
#8
Bart Hiemstra, Ruben J Eck, Frederik Keus, Iwan C C van der Horst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the acute setting of circulatory shock, physicians largely depend on clinical examination and basic laboratory values. The daily use of clinical examination for diagnostic purposes contrasts sharp with the limited number of studies. We aim to provide an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination in estimating circulatory shock reflected by an inadequate cardiac output (CO). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies showed poor correlations between CO and mottling, capillary refill time or central-to-peripheral temperature gradients in univariable analyses...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415145/medical-marijuana-challenges-and-risk-issues-for-health-care-providers
#9
John C West
Laws on medical marijuana and recreational use of marijuana are sweeping the country and presenting real dilemmas for health care providers and facilities. However, due to disagreements between federal and state law, there are no easy answers. Additionally, the case law and statutory law on these issues is exceedingly sparse. It may take years for all of the issues to be ironed out, but health care facilities will need to act in the meantime on what may be little more than educated guesses. It may not be appropriate to simply prohibit the use of medical marijuana, but accommodating it also has risk...
April 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367465/the-impact-of-3-option-responses-to-multiple-choice-questions-on-guessing-strategies-and-cut-score-determinations
#10
Kenneth D Royal, Myrah R Stockdale
INTRODUCTION: Research has asserted MCQ items using three response options (one correct answer with two distractors) is comparable to, and possibly preferable over, traditional MCQ item formats consisting of four response options (e.g., one correct answer with three distractors), or five response options (e.g., one correct answer with four distractors). Some medical educators have also adopted the practice of using 3-option responses on MCQ exams as a response to the difficulty experienced in generating additional plausible distractors...
April 2017: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346515/gender-differences-in-reward-and-punishment-for-monetary-and-social-feedback-in-children-an-erp-study
#11
Ying Ding, Encong Wang, Yuchen Zou, Yan Song, Xue Xiao, Wanyi Huang, Yanfang Li
Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303355/false-memory-susceptibility-in-coma-survivors-with-and-without-a-near-death-experience
#12
Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Hedwige Dehon, Steven Laureys
It has been postulated that memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers' (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual's attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229487/the-mourning-process-of-older-people-with-dementia-who-lost-their-spouse
#13
Akiko Watanabe, Sayuri Suwa
AIMS: To explore the mourning process of people with dementia who have lost their spouse, using family caregivers' and professionals' perspectives and to devise grief care for people with dementia. BACKGROUND: There have been studies on the loss of one's spouse; however, little is known about widows and widowers with dementia as they may find it hard to tell their perception and feelings to others accurately because of cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185227/target-present-guessing-as-a-function-of-target-prevalence-and-accumulated-information-in-visual-search
#14
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response...
May 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068461/a-new-prediction-model-for-evaluating-treatment-resistant-depression
#15
Alexander Kautzky, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Julien Mendlewicz, Joseph Zohar, Alessandro Serretti, Rupert Lanzenberger, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Despite a broad arsenal of antidepressants, about a third of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond sufficiently to adequate treatment. Using the data pool of the Group for the Study of Resistant Depression and machine learning, we intended to draw new insights featuring 48 clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial predictors for treatment outcome. METHOD: Patients were enrolled starting from January 2000 and diagnosed according to DSM-IV...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883873/doctors-attitudes-regarding-not-for-resuscitation-orders
#16
Gaya Sritharan, Amber C Mills, Michele R Levinson, Anthea L Gellie
Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders. Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations. Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team...
December 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#17
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
March 2018: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721526/educated-guesses-and-other-ways-to-address-the-pharmacological-uncertainty-of-designer-drugs-an-exploratory-study-of-experimentation-through-an-online-drug-forum
#18
Moritz Berning, Anita Hardon
This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their "trying out" of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662118/justify-your-answer-the-role-of-written-think-aloud-in-script-concordance-testing
#19
Alyssa Power, Jean-Francois Lemay, Suzette Cooke
Construct: Clinical reasoning assessment is a growing area of interest in the medical education literature. Script concordance testing (SCT) evaluates clinical reasoning in conditions of uncertainty and has emerged as an innovative tool in the domain of clinical reasoning assessment. SCT quantifies the degree of concordance between a learner and an experienced clinician and attempts to capture the breadth of responses of expert clinicians, acknowledging the significant yet acceptable variation in practice under situations of uncertainty...
January 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631343/when-membranes-need-an-escrt-endosomal-sorting-and-membrane-remodelling-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Victor Alfred, Thomas Vaccari
Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. Deregulation of ESCRT activity is observed in neuro-degenerative diseases, virus infection and cancer. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis involving ESCRTs have not yet fully come into focus. Here, we review the current knowledge of ESCRT function in health and disease and provide educated guesses for future research and focused therapeutic intervention...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
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