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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303355/false-memory-susceptibility-in-coma-survivors-with-and-without-a-near-death-experience
#1
Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Hedwige Dehon, Steven Laureys
It has been postulated that memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers' (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual's attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229487/the-mourning-process-of-older-people-with-dementia-who-lost-their-spouse
#2
Akiko Watanabe, Sayuri Suwa
AIMS: To explore the mourning process of people with dementia who have lost their spouse, using family caregivers' and professionals' perspectives and to devise grief care for people with dementia. BACKGROUND: There have been studies on the loss of one's spouse; however, little is known about widows and widowers with dementia as they may find it hard to tell their perception and feelings to others accurately because of cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185227/target-present-guessing-as-a-function-of-target-prevalence-and-accumulated-information-in-visual-search
#3
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response...
February 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068461/a-new-prediction-model-for-evaluating-treatment-resistant-depression
#4
Alexander Kautzky, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Julien Mendlewicz, Joseph Zohar, Alessandro Serretti, Rupert Lanzenberger, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Despite a broad arsenal of antidepressants, about a third of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond sufficiently to adequate treatment. Using the data pool of the Group for the Study of Resistant Depression and machine learning, we intended to draw new insights featuring 48 clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial predictors for treatment outcome. METHOD: Patients were enrolled starting from January 2000 and diagnosed according to DSM-IV...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883873/doctors
#5
Gaya Sritharan, Amber C Mills, Michele R Levinson, Anthea L Gellie
Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders.Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations.Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team...
November 25, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#6
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
October 28, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721526/educated-guesses-and-other-ways-to-address-the-pharmacological-uncertainty-of-designer-drugs-an-exploratory-study-of-experimentation-through-an-online-drug-forum
#7
Moritz Berning, Anita Hardon
This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their "trying out" of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662118/justify-your-answer-the-role-of-written-think-aloud-in-script-concordance-testing
#8
Alyssa Power, Jean-Francois Lemay, Suzette Cooke
Construct: Clinical reasoning assessment is a growing area of interest in the medical education literature. Script concordance testing (SCT) evaluates clinical reasoning in conditions of uncertainty and has emerged as an innovative tool in the domain of clinical reasoning assessment. SCT quantifies the degree of concordance between a learner and an experienced clinician and attempts to capture the breadth of responses of expert clinicians, acknowledging the significant yet acceptable variation in practice under situations of uncertainty...
January 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631343/when-membranes-need-an-escrt-endosomal-sorting-and-membrane-remodelling-in-health-and-disease
#9
Victor Alfred, Thomas Vaccari
Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. Deregulation of ESCRT activity is observed in neuro-degenerative diseases, virus infection and cancer. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis involving ESCRTs have not yet fully come into focus. Here, we review the current knowledge of ESCRT function in health and disease and provide educated guesses for future research and focused therapeutic intervention...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506607/characterizing-internet-health-information-seeking-strategies-by-socioeconomic-status-a-mixed-methods-approach
#10
Susan L Perez, Richard L Kravitz, Robert A Bell, Man Shan Chan, Debora A Paterniti
BACKGROUND: The Internet is valuable for those with limited access to health care services because of its low cost and wealth of information. Our objectives were to investigate how the Internet is used to obtain health-related information and how individuals with differing socioeconomic resources navigate it when presented with a health decision. METHODS: Study participants were recruited from public settings and social service agencies. Participants listened to one of two clinical scenarios - consistent with influenza or bacterial meningitis - and then conducted an Internet search...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443674/reflection-of-successful-anticancer-drug-development-processes-in-the-literature
#11
Fabian Heinemann, Torsten Huber, Christian Meisel, Markus Bundschus, Ulf Leser
The development of cancer drugs is time-consuming and expensive. In particular, failures in late-stage clinical trials are a major cost driver for pharmaceutical companies. This puts a high demand on methods that provide insights into the success chances of new potential medicines. In this study, we systematically analyze publication patterns emerging along the drug discovery process of targeted cancer therapies, starting from basic research to drug approval - or failure. We find clear differences in the patterns of approved drugs compared with those that failed in Phase II/III...
July 18, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358006/-limiting-factors-in-the-class-iii-camouflage-treatment-a-potential-protocol
#12
José Chaques Asensi
The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other...
June 2016: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274767/a-survey-on-patients-knowledge-and-expectations-during-informed-consent-for-spinal-surgery-can-we-improve-the-shared-decision-making-process
#13
Sebastian Weckbach, Tugrul Kocak, Heiko Reichel, Friederike Lattig
BACKGROUND: The informed medical consent in surgery requires to some point basic medical knowledge. The treating physicians while explaining the details and risks of the recommended procedure often imply this. We hypothesized, that patients do not have adequate medical understanding to decide about the ongoing therapy and its potential complications based on knowledge jeopardizing the patients' safety. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database using a multiple choice questionnaire with 10 basic questions about anatomy, clinical symptoms and therapies of spinal diseases in our spine clinic at a German university hospital...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234643/estimation-of-a-transient-response-from-steady-state-responses-by-deconvolution-with-built-in-constraints
#14
Bernd Lütkenhöner
Evidence suggests that the steady-state response (SSR) elicited by a periodic train of auditory stimuli can largely be understood as a superposition of transient responses. This study is devoted to the problem of how to estimate that transient response from measured SSRs. The proposed method differs from previous approaches in that the solution can be constrained to be consistent with physiology-based prior knowledge or educated guesses. To achieve this goal, the transient response is not represented by a time series, but by a linear combination of auxiliary functions, called components...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112687/autoimmunity-in-visual-loss
#15
REVIEW
Axel Petzold, Sui Wong, Gordon T Plant
There are a number of autoimmune disorders which can affect visual function. There are a very large number of mechanisms in the visual pathway which could potentially be the targets of autoimmune attack. In practice it is the retina and the anterior visual pathway (optic nerve and chiasm) that are recognised as being affected in autoimmune disorders. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of visual loss in young adults because of the frequency of attacks of optic neuritis in that condition, however the basis of the inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and the confirmation of autoimmunity is lacking...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105741/clueconnect-a-word-array-game-to-promote-student-comprehension-of-key-terminology-in-an-introductory-anatomy-and-physiology-course
#16
Kathryn M Burleson, Jeffrey T Olimpo
The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms...
June 2016: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941665/testing-students-with-special-educational-needs-in-large-scale-assessments-psychometric-properties-of-test-scores-and-associations-with-test-taking-behavior
#17
Steffi Pohl, Anna Südkamp, Katinka Hardt, Claus H Carstensen, Sabine Weinert
Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853665/don-t-be-shocked-by-the-new
#18
Jeff Solheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831392/spectral-edge-gradient-preserving-spectral-mapping-for-image-fusion
#19
David Connah, Mark S Drew, Graham D Finlayson
This paper describes a novel approach to image fusion for color display. Our goal is to generate an output image whose gradient matches that of the input as closely as possible. We achieve this using a constrained contrast mapping paradigm in the gradient domain, where the structure tensor of a high-dimensional gradient representation is mapped exactly to that of a low-dimensional gradient field which is then reintegrated to form an output. Constraints on output colors are provided by an initial RGB rendering...
December 1, 2015: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831379/single-additive-mechanism-predicts-lateral-interactions-effects-computational-model
#20
Hava Matichin, Shmuel Einav, Hedva Spitzer
The mechanism underlying the lateral interactions (LI) phenomenon is still an enigma. Over the years, several groups have tried to explain the phenomenon and suggested models to predict its psychophysical results. Most of these models comprise both inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms for describing the LI phenomenon. Their studies' assumption that a significant inhibition mechanism exists is based on the classical interpretation of the threshold elevation perceived in psychophysical experiments. In this work, we suggest a different interpretation of the threshold elevation obtained experimentally...
December 1, 2015: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
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