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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883873/doctors
#1
Gaya Sritharan, Amber C Mills, Michele R Levinson, Anthea L Gellie
Objectives The aims of the present study were to investigate doctors' attitudes regarding the discussion and writing of not for resuscitation (NFR) orders and to identify potential barriers to the completion of these orders.Methods A questionnaire-based convenience study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital. Likert scales and open-ended questions were directed to issues surrounding the discussion, timing, understanding and writing of NFR orders, including legal and personal considerations.Results Doctors thought the presence of an NFR order both should and does alter care delivered by nursing staff, particularly delivery of pain relief, nursing observations and contacting the medical emergency team...
November 25, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#2
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
October 28, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721526/educated-guesses-and-other-ways-to-address-the-pharmacological-uncertainty-of-designer-drugs-an-exploratory-study-of-experimentation-through-an-online-drug-forum
#3
Moritz Berning, Anita Hardon
This study examines how experimentation with designer drugs is mediated by the Internet. We selected a popular drug forum that presents reports on self-experimentation with little or even completely unexplored designer drugs to examine: (1) how participants report their "trying out" of new compounds and (2) how participants reduce the pharmacological uncertainty associated with using these substances. Our methods included passive observation online, engaging more actively with the online community using an avatar, and off-line interviews with key interlocutors to validate our online findings...
September 2016: Contemporary Drug Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662118/justify-your-answer-the-role-of-written-think-aloud-in-script-concordance-testing
#4
Alyssa Power, Jean-Francois Lemay, Suzette Cooke
: Construct: Clinical reasoning assessment is a growing area of interest in the medical education literature. Script concordance testing (SCT) evaluates clinical reasoning in conditions of uncertainty and has emerged as an innovative tool in the domain of clinical reasoning assessment. SCT quantifies the degree of concordance between a learner and an experienced clinician and attempts to capture the breadth of responses of expert clinicians, acknowledging the significant yet acceptable variation in practice under situations of uncertainty...
September 23, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631343/when-membranes-need-an-escrt-endosomal-sorting-and-membrane-remodelling-in-health-and-disease
#5
Victor Alfred, Thomas Vaccari
Originally discovered as regulators of cargo sorting during endosomal trafficking, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins are emerging as flexible machines that shape the behaviour of membranes throughout the cell. Deregulation of ESCRT activity is observed in neuro-degenerative diseases, virus infection and cancer. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis involving ESCRTs have not yet fully come into focus. Here, we review the current knowledge of ESCRT function in health and disease and provide educated guesses for future research and focused therapeutic intervention...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506607/characterizing-internet-health-information-seeking-strategies-by-socioeconomic-status-a-mixed-methods-approach
#6
Susan L Perez, Richard L Kravitz, Robert A Bell, Man Shan Chan, Debora A Paterniti
BACKGROUND: The Internet is valuable for those with limited access to health care services because of its low cost and wealth of information. Our objectives were to investigate how the Internet is used to obtain health-related information and how individuals with differing socioeconomic resources navigate it when presented with a health decision. METHODS: Study participants were recruited from public settings and social service agencies. Participants listened to one of two clinical scenarios - consistent with influenza or bacterial meningitis - and then conducted an Internet search...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443674/reflection-of-successful-anticancer-drug-development-processes-in-the-literature
#7
Fabian Heinemann, Torsten Huber, Christian Meisel, Markus Bundschus, Ulf Leser
The development of cancer drugs is time-consuming and expensive. In particular, failures in late-stage clinical trials are a major cost driver for pharmaceutical companies. This puts a high demand on methods that provide insights into the success chances of new potential medicines. In this study, we systematically analyze publication patterns emerging along the drug discovery process of targeted cancer therapies, starting from basic research to drug approval - or failure. We find clear differences in the patterns of approved drugs compared with those that failed in Phase II/III...
July 18, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358006/-limiting-factors-in-the-class-iii-camouflage-treatment-a-potential-protocol
#8
José Chaques Asensi
The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other...
June 2016: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274767/a-survey-on-patients-knowledge-and-expectations-during-informed-consent-for-spinal-surgery-can-we-improve-the-shared-decision-making-process
#9
Sebastian Weckbach, Tugrul Kocak, Heiko Reichel, Friederike Lattig
BACKGROUND: The informed medical consent in surgery requires to some point basic medical knowledge. The treating physicians while explaining the details and risks of the recommended procedure often imply this. We hypothesized, that patients do not have adequate medical understanding to decide about the ongoing therapy and its potential complications based on knowledge jeopardizing the patients' safety. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective database using a multiple choice questionnaire with 10 basic questions about anatomy, clinical symptoms and therapies of spinal diseases in our spine clinic at a German university hospital...
2016: Patient Safety in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234643/estimation-of-a-transient-response-from-steady-state-responses-by-deconvolution-with-built-in-constraints
#10
Bernd Lütkenhöner
Evidence suggests that the steady-state response (SSR) elicited by a periodic train of auditory stimuli can largely be understood as a superposition of transient responses. This study is devoted to the problem of how to estimate that transient response from measured SSRs. The proposed method differs from previous approaches in that the solution can be constrained to be consistent with physiology-based prior knowledge or educated guesses. To achieve this goal, the transient response is not represented by a time series, but by a linear combination of auxiliary functions, called components...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112687/autoimmunity-in-visual-loss
#11
Axel Petzold, Sui Wong, Gordon T Plant
There are a number of autoimmune disorders which can affect visual function. There are a very large number of mechanisms in the visual pathway which could potentially be the targets of autoimmune attack. In practice it is the retina and the anterior visual pathway (optic nerve and chiasm) that are recognised as being affected in autoimmune disorders. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of visual loss in young adults because of the frequency of attacks of optic neuritis in that condition, however the basis of the inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and the confirmation of autoimmunity is lacking...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105741/clueconnect-a-word-array-game-to-promote-student-comprehension-of-key-terminology-in-an-introductory-anatomy-and-physiology-course
#12
Kathryn M Burleson, Jeffrey T Olimpo
The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms...
June 2016: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941665/testing-students-with-special-educational-needs-in-large-scale-assessments-psychometric-properties-of-test-scores-and-associations-with-test-taking-behavior
#13
Steffi Pohl, Anna Südkamp, Katinka Hardt, Claus H Carstensen, Sabine Weinert
Assessing competencies of students with special educational needs in learning (SEN-L) poses a challenge for large-scale assessments (LSAs). For students with SEN-L, the available competence tests may fail to yield test scores of high psychometric quality, which are-at the same time-measurement invariant to test scores of general education students. We investigated whether we can identify a subgroup of students with SEN-L, for which measurement invariant competence measures of adequate psychometric quality may be obtained with tests available in LSAs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853665/don-t-be-shocked-by-the-new
#14
Jeff Solheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831392/spectral-edge-gradient-preserving-spectral-mapping-for-image-fusion
#15
David Connah, Mark S Drew, Graham D Finlayson
This paper describes a novel approach to image fusion for color display. Our goal is to generate an output image whose gradient matches that of the input as closely as possible. We achieve this using a constrained contrast mapping paradigm in the gradient domain, where the structure tensor of a high-dimensional gradient representation is mapped exactly to that of a low-dimensional gradient field which is then reintegrated to form an output. Constraints on output colors are provided by an initial RGB rendering...
December 1, 2015: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831379/single-additive-mechanism-predicts-lateral-interactions-effects-computational-model
#16
Hava Matichin, Shmuel Einav, Hedva Spitzer
The mechanism underlying the lateral interactions (LI) phenomenon is still an enigma. Over the years, several groups have tried to explain the phenomenon and suggested models to predict its psychophysical results. Most of these models comprise both inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms for describing the LI phenomenon. Their studies' assumption that a significant inhibition mechanism exists is based on the classical interpretation of the threshold elevation perceived in psychophysical experiments. In this work, we suggest a different interpretation of the threshold elevation obtained experimentally...
December 1, 2015: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556298/perceptions-of-peer-to-peer-interprofessional-feedback-among-students-in-the-health-professions
#17
Sandrijn M van Schaik, Glenn Regehr, Kevin W Eva, David M Irby, Patricia S O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: Interprofessional teamwork should include interprofessional feedback to optimize performance and collaboration. Social identity theory predicts that hierarchy and stereotypes may limit receptiveness to interprofessional feedback, but literature on this is sparse. This study explores perceptions among health professions students regarding interprofessional peer feedback received after a team exercise. METHOD: In 2012-2013, students from seven health professions schools (medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry, physical therapy, dietetics, and social work) participated in a team-based interprofessional exercise early in clinical training...
June 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26330798/internet-self-diagnosis-in-hand-surgery
#18
Michiel G J S Hageman, Jade Anderson, Robin Blok, Jeroen K J Bossen, David Ring
BACKGROUND: Some Internet sites have programs that attempt to help patients find their diagnosis based on symptoms. This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no factors associated with correspondence between online diagnosis and the hand surgeon's diagnosis in an outpatient hand and upper extremity surgeons' office. METHODS: Eighty-six outpatients were prospectively enrolled and used WebMD® symptom checker to guess their diagnosis. We collected demographic information, hours spent on the Internet per week, and the following questionnaires: Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (C-ESD)...
September 2015: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26313495/racial-disparities-in-knowledge-of-pelvic-floor-disorders-among-community-dwelling-women
#19
Charisse Laura Mandimika, William Murk, Alexandra M Mcpencow, AeuMuro G Lake, Devin Miller, Kathleen Anne Connell, Marsha Kathleen Guess
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial and ethnic differences in knowledge about preventative and curative treatments for pelvic floor disorders (PFD). METHODS: The is a secondary analysis of responses from 416 community-dwelling women, aged 19 to 98 years, living in New Haven County, CT, who completed the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire. Associations between race/ethnicity (categorized as white, African American, and other women of color [combined group of Hispanic, Asian or "other" women] and knowledge proficiency about modifiable risk factors and treatments for PFD were evaluated...
September 2015: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243535/dual-processing-theory-and-experts-reasoning-exploring-thinking-on-national-multiple-choice-questions
#20
Steven J Durning, Ting Dong, Anthony R Artino, Cees van der Vleuten, Eric Holmboe, Lambert Schuwirth
BACKGROUND: An ongoing debate exists in the medical education literature regarding the potential benefits of pattern recognition (non-analytic reasoning), actively comparing and contrasting diagnostic options (analytic reasoning) or using a combination approach. Studies have not, however, explicitly explored faculty's thought processes while tackling clinical problems through the lens of dual process theory to inform this debate. Further, these thought processes have not been studied in relation to the difficulty of the task or other potential mediating influences such as personal factors and fatigue, which could also be influenced by personal factors such as sleep deprivation...
August 2015: Perspectives on Medical Education
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