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Intuitive reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#1
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895239/making-space-for-spatial-proportions
#2
Percival G Matthews, Edward M Hubbard
The three target articles presented in this special issue converged on an emerging theme: the importance of spatial proportional reasoning. They suggest that the ability to map between symbolic fractions (like 1/5) and nonsymbolic, spatial representations of their sizes or magnitudes may be especially important for building robust fractions knowledge. In this commentary, we first reflect upon where these findings stand in a larger theoretical context, largely borrowed from mathematics education research. Next, we emphasize parallels between this work and emerging work suggesting that nonsymbolic proportional reasoning may provide an intuitive foundation for understanding fraction magnitudes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884254/troponin-testing-for-clinicians
#3
REVIEW
John E Brush, Sanjay Kaul, Harlan M Krumholz
The analytical performance of troponin assays has improved markedly in the last 2 decades. The variety of assays, their evolution over time, and their critical importance in influencing care, mandates the need for skills in their use. There are 3 critical elements necessary for optimal use of troponin testing in clinical care, as follows: 1) the analytical performance of the assay; 2) the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the test result; and 3) the clinical reasoning for ordering and the proper clinical context for interpreting the test result...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879113/dynamical-analysis-of-a-toxin-producing-phytoplankton-zooplankton-model-with-refuge
#4
Juan Li, Yongzhong Song, Hui Wan
To study the impacts of toxin produced by phytoplankton and refuges provided for phytoplankton on phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions in lakes, we establish a simple phytoplankton-zooplankton system with Holling type II response function. The existence and stability of positive equilibria are discussed. Bifurcation analyses are given by using normal form theory which reveals reasonably the mechanisms and nonlinear dynamics of the effects of toxin and refuges, including Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of co-dimension 2 and 3...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876760/changes-of-bivalent-chromatin-coincide-with-increased-expression-of-developmental-genes-in-cancer
#5
Stephan H Bernhart, Helene Kretzmer, Lesca M Holdt, Frank Jühling, Ole Ammerpohl, Anke K Bergmann, Bernd H Northoff, Gero Doose, Reiner Siebert, Peter F Stadler, Steve Hoffmann
Bivalent (poised or paused) chromatin comprises activating and repressing histone modifications at the same location. This combination of epigenetic marks at promoter or enhancer regions keeps genes expressed at low levels but poised for rapid activation. Typically, DNA at bivalent promoters is only lowly methylated in normal cells, but frequently shows elevated methylation levels in cancer samples. Here, we developed a universal classifier built from chromatin data that can identify cancer samples solely from hypermethylation of bivalent chromatin...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875175/proact-iterative-design-of-a-patient-centered-visualization-for-effective-prostate-cancer-health-risk-communication
#6
Anzu Hakone, Lane Harrison, Alvitta Ottley, Nathan Winters, Caitlin Gutheil, Paul K J Han, Remco Chang
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, and yet most cases represent localized cancer for which the optimal treatment is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that the available treatment options, including surgery and conservative treatment, result in a similar prognosis for most men with localized prostate cancer. However, approximately 90% of patients choose surgery over conservative treatment, despite the risk of severe side effects like erectile dysfunction and incontinence. Recent medical research suggests that a key reason is the lack of patient-centered tools that can effectively communicate personalized risk information and enable them to make better health decisions...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873543/hearing-aid-fitting-and-fine-tuning-based-on-estimated-individual-traits
#7
Christoph Völker, Stephan M A Ernst, Birger Kollmeier
OBJECTIVE: A generalised concept for hearing aid fitting and fine-tuning based on estimated individual traits is presented along first implementations in this report. DESIGN: To estimate the individual traits, a set of auditory model-based performance measures is used to generate promising candidates within the algorithm's parameter space for a subsequent subjective rating. For the subjective assessment, a fast and intuitive multi-stimulus test denoted as combined discrimination and classification (CoDiCl) is presented to capture user preferences for an optimised setting...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866989/do-interoceptive-awareness-and-interoceptive-responsiveness-mediate-the-relationship-between-body-appreciation-and-intuitive-eating-in-young-women
#8
Alana Oswald, Janine Chapman, Carlene Wilson
The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: 'interoceptive awareness' (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and 'interoceptive responsiveness' (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: 'unconditional permission to eat'; 'reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues', and 'eating for physical rather than emotional reasons'...
November 17, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#9
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
November 16, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862985/theory-analysis-of-the-dental-hygiene-human-needs-conceptual-model
#10
L MacDonald, D M Bowen
PURPOSE: Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862180/accuracy-of-intuition-in-clinical-decision-making-among-novice-clinicians
#11
Amanda Price, Kristen Zulkosky, Krista White, Jean Pretz
AIMS: To assess the reliance on intuitive and analytical approaches during clinical decision-making among novice clinicians and whether that reliance is associated with accurate decision-making. BACKGROUND: Nurse educators and managers tend to emphasize analysis over intuition during clinical decision-making though nurses typically report some reliance on intuition in their practice. We hypothesized that under certain conditions, reliance on intuition would support accurate decision-making, even among novices...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818310/identifying-complexity-in-infectious-diseases-inpatient-settings-an-observation-study
#12
Don Roosan, Charlene Weir, Matthew Samore, Makoto Jones, Mumtahena Rahman, Gregory J Stoddard, Guilherme Del Fiol
BACKGROUND: Understanding complexity in healthcare has the potential to reduce decision and treatment uncertainty. Therefore, identifying both patient and task complexity may offer better task allocation and design recommendation for next-generation health information technology system design. OBJECTIVE: To identify the specific complexity-contributing factors in the infectious disease domain and the relationship with the complexity perceived by clinicians. METHOD: We observed and audio recorded the clinical rounds of three infectious disease teams...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816844/fast-logic-examining-the-time-course-assumption-of-dual-process-theory
#13
Bence Bago, Wim De Neys
Influential dual process models of human thinking posit that reasoners typically produce a fast, intuitive heuristic (i.e., Type-1) response which might subsequently be overridden and corrected by slower, deliberative processing (i.e., Type-2). In this study we directly tested this time course assumption. We used a two response paradigm in which participants have to give an immediate answer and afterwards are allowed extra time before giving a final response. In four experiments we used a range of procedures (e...
November 3, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798333/intuitive-eating-dimensions-were-differently-associated-with-food-intake-in-the-general-population-based-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-study
#14
Géraldine M Camilleri, Caroline Méjean, France Bellisle, Valentina A Andreeva, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Serge Hercberg, Sandrine Péneau
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating (IE) is characterized by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional cues and not considering certain foods to be forbidden. Evidence supports an inverse association of IE with body mass index (BMI), but little is known about its association with food intake. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relation between IE and food intake in a large sample from the general adult population. METHODS: A total of 9581 men and 31,955 women aged ≥18 y participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782919/the-causes-of-errors-in-clinical-reasoning-cognitive-biases-knowledge-deficits-and-dual-process-thinking
#15
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Sylvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782511/differential-steric-effects-in-cl-reactions-with-aligned-chd3-v1-1-by-the-r-0-and-q-1-transitions-i-attacking-the-excited-c-h-bond
#16
Fengyan Wang, Kopin Liu
When a CHD3 molecule is pumped to the C-H stretching-excited state by absorbing a linearly polarized infrared (IR) photon via the R(0) branch of the v1 = 1←0 transition, the rotational angular momentum j of the prepared state jK=10 preferentially lies in a plane perpendicular to the IR polarization axis εIR. By way of contrast, when the Q(1) branch is used, the state of jK=1±1 is prepared with j aligned along the direction of εIR. Reported here is a detailed study of the title reaction by actively controlling the collision geometries under these two IR-excitation schemes at collision energy Ec = 8...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768861/factors-impacting-upon-timely-and-adequate-allocation-of-prehospital-medical-assistance-and-resources-to-cardiac-arrest-patients
#17
Camilla Hardeland, Kjetil Sunde, Helge Ramsdal, Susan R Hebbert, Linda Soilammi, Fredrik Westmark, Fredrik Nordum, Andreas E Hansen, Jon E Steen-Hansen, Theresa M Olasveengen
AIM: Explore, understand and address issues that impact upon timely and adequate allocation of prehospital medical assistance and resources to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: Mixed-methods design obtaining data for one year in three emergency medical communication centres (EMCC); Oslo-Akershus (OA), Vestfold-Telemark (VT) and Østfold (Ø). Data collection included quantitative data from analysis of dispatch logs, ambulance records and audio files...
December 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744528/intuitive-probabilistic-inference-in-capuchin-monkeys
#18
Emma C Tecwyn, Stephanie Denison, Emily J E Messer, Daphna Buchsbaum
The ability to reason about probabilities has ecological relevance for many species. Recent research has shown that both preverbal infants and non-human great apes can make predictions about single-item samples randomly drawn from populations by reasoning about proportions. To further explore the evolutionary origins of this ability, we conducted the first investigation of probabilistic inference in a monkey species (capuchins; Sapajus spp.). Across four experiments, capuchins (N = 19) were presented with two populations of food items that differed in their relative distribution of preferred and non-preferred items, such that one population was more likely to yield a preferred item...
October 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716156/an-empirical-study-of-the-underscreened-in-organised-cervical-screening-experts-focus-on-increasing-opportunity-as-a-way-of-reducing-differences-in-screening-rates
#19
Jane H Williams, Stacy M Carter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711480/benchmark-values-of-chemical-potential-and-chemical-hardness-for-atoms-and-atomic-ions-including-unstable-anions-from-the-energies-of-isoelectronic-series
#20
Carlos Cárdenas, Farnaz Heidar-Zadeh, Paul W Ayers
We present benchmark values for the electronic chemical potential and chemical hardness from reference data for ionization potentials and electron affinities. In cases where the energies needed to compute these quantities are not available, we estimate the ionization potential of the metastable (di)anions by extrapolation along the isoelectronic series, taking care to ensure that the extrapolated data satisfy reasonable intuitive rules to the maximum possible extent. We also propose suitable values for the chemical potential and chemical hardness of zero-electron species...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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