keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Intuitive reasoning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512524/promoting-the-multidimensional-character-of-scientific-reasoning
#1
William S Bradshaw, Jennifer Nelson, Byron J Adams, John D Bell
This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher-order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently-each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#2
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500981/some-consequences-of-normal-aging-for-generating-conceptual-explanations-a-case-study-of-vitalist-biology
#3
Nathan Tardiff, Igor Bascandziev, Kaitlin Sandor, Susan Carey, Deborah Zaitchik
Accumulating evidence suggests that not only diseases of old age, but also normal aging, affect elderly adults' ability to draw on the framework theories that structure our abstract causal-explanatory knowledge, knowledge that we use to make sense of the world. One such framework theory, the cross-culturally universal vitalist biology, gives meaning to the abstract concepts life and death. Previous work shows that many elderly adults are animists, claiming that active, moving entities such as the sun and the wind are alive (Zaitchik & Solomon, 2008)...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493757/argumentation-and-the-diffusion-of-counter-intuitive-beliefs
#4
Nicolas Claidière, Emmanuel Trouche, Hugo Mercier
Research in cultural evolution has focused on the spread of intuitive or minimally counterintuitive beliefs. However, some very counterintuitive beliefs can also spread successfully, at least in some communities-scientific theories being the most prominent example. We suggest that argumentation could be an important factor in the spread of some very counterintuitive beliefs. A first experiment demonstrates that argumentation enables the spread of the counterintuitive answer to a reasoning problem in large discussion groups, whereas this spread is limited or absent when participants can show their answers to each other but cannot discuss...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477112/image-based-high-content-screening-automating-the-quantification-process-for-dna-damage-induced-foci
#5
Yi Chieh Lim
Visual inspection of cellular activities based on conventional fluorescence microscope is a fundamental tool to study the role of DNA damage response (DDR). In the context of drug discovery where the capture of thousands of images is required across parallel experiments, this presents a challenge to data collection and analysis. Manual scoring is laborious and often reliant on trained personnel to intuit biological meaning through visual reasoning. On the other hand, high content screening combines the automation of microscopy image acquisition and analysis in a single platform to quantify cellular events of interests...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474227/brief-report-intuitive-and-reflective-reasoning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Mark Brosnan, Chris Ashwin, Marcus Lewton
Dual Process Theory has recently been applied to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to suggest that reasoning by people with ASD and people with higher levels of ASD-like traits can be characterised by reduced intuitive and greater reflective processing. 26 adolescents and adults with ASD and 22 adolescent and adult controls completed an assessment of ASD-like traits, the cognitive reflections test (CRT) to measure intuitive and reflective reasoning and an index of general cognitive ability. The ASD group produced less intuitive responses, and the degree of ASD-like traits showed a negative correlation with intuitive responses and positive correlation with reflective responses on the CRT...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471111/intelligent-diagnosis-of-jaundice-with-dynamic-uncertain-causality-graph-model
#7
Shao-Rui Hao, Shi-Chao Geng, Lin-Xiao Fan, Jia-Jia Chen, Qin Zhang, Lan-Juan Li
Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors...
May 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464865/empathy-in-psychoanalysis-and-medical-education-what-can-we-learn-from-each-other
#8
Henriette Löffler-Stastka, Felicitas Datz, Karoline Parth, Ingrid Preusche, Xenia Bukowski, Charles Seidman
BACKGROUND: Several research areas, including medical education (ME), focus on empathy as an important topic in interpersonal relationships. This focus is central to the use of communication skills related to empathy and even more crucial to provide information in a way that makes patients feel more involved in the treatment process. Psychoanalysis (PA) provides its initial concept of empathy based on affective aspects including findings from neuroscience and brain research. Enhancing cooperation between ME and PA can help to integrate both aspects of empathy into a longitudinal training program...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442501/chlorokb-a-web-application-for-the-integration-of-knowledge-related-to-chloroplast-metabolic-network
#9
Pauline Gloaguen, Sylvain Bournais, Claude Alban, Stephane Ravanel, Daphne Seigneurin-Berny, Michel Matringe, Marianne Tardif, Marcel Kuntz, Myriam Ferro, Christophe Bruley, Norbert Rolland, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilles Curien
CONTEXT: Higher plants, as autotrophic organisms, are effective sources of molecules. They hold great promise for metabolic engineering, but the behavior of plant metabolism at the network level is still incompletely described. Although structural models (stoichiometry matrices) and pathway databases are extremely useful, they cannot describe the complexity of the metabolic context and new tools are required to visually represent integrated biocurated knowledge for use by both humans and computers...
April 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432008/turkish-version-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-validity-and-reliability-among-university-students
#10
Murat Bas, Kezban Esen Karaca, Duygu Saglam, Gozde Arıtıcı, Ecem Cengiz, Selen Köksal, Aylin Hasbay Buyukkaragoz
Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22...
July 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430994/personhood-and-natural-kinds-why-cognitive-status-need-not-affect-moral-status
#11
Joseph Vukov
Lockean accounts of personhood propose that an individual is a person just in case that individual is characterized by some advanced cognitive capacity. On these accounts, human beings with severe cognitive impairment are not persons. Some accept this result-I do not. In this paper, I therefore advance and defend an account of personhood that secures personhood for human beings who are cognitively impaired. On the account for which I argue, an individual is a person just in case that individual belongs to a natural kind that is normally characterized by advanced cognitive capacities...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425112/beyond-guidelines-discretionary-practice-in-face-to-face-triage-nursing
#12
Lars E F Johannessen
This article draws on ethnographic data from a Norwegian emergency primary care clinic (EPCC) to explore nurses' discretionary application of guidelines. Specifically, it analyses nurses' discretionary use of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) when performing face-to-face triage, that is, assessing the urgency of patients' complaints. The analysis shows how nurses assessed patients at odds with MTS prescriptions by collecting supplementary data, engaging in differential diagnostic and holistic reasoning, relying on emotion and intuition, and allowing colleagues and patients to influence their reasoning...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421175/factors-influencing-usability-of-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-excessive-alcohol-consumption-think-aloud-and-interview-studies
#13
David Crane, Claire Garnett, Jamie Brown, Robert West, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. To optimize engagement and reduce the high rates of attrition associated with the use of digital interventions, it is necessary to ensure that an app's design and functionality is appropriate for its intended purposes and target population. AIMS: To understand the usability of an app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption. METHOD: The app, Drink Less, contains a core module focusing on goal setting, supplemented by five additional modules: self-monitoring and feedback, identity change, cognitive bias re-training, action planning, and social comparison...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414018/psychological-flexibility-mediates-change-in-intuitive-eating-regulation-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-interventions
#14
Essi Sairanen, Asko Tolvanen, Leila Karhunen, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Sanni Lindroos, Katri Peuhkuri, Riitta Korpela, Miikka Ermes, Elina Mattila, Raimo Lappalainen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the promising results related to intuitive eating, few studies have attempted to explain the processes encouraging this adaptive eating behaviour. The focus of the present study was on exploring mechanisms of change in intuitive eating and weight in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions. Mediation provides important information regarding the treatment processes and theoretical models related to specific treatment approaches. The study investigates whether psychological flexibility, mindfulness skills and sense of coherence mediated the interventions' effect on intuitive eating and weight...
April 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405907/bayesian-data-analysis-for-newcomers
#15
John K Kruschke, Torrin M Liddell
This article explains the foundational concepts of Bayesian data analysis using virtually no mathematical notation. Bayesian ideas already match your intuitions from everyday reasoning and from traditional data analysis. Simple examples of Bayesian data analysis are presented that illustrate how the information delivered by a Bayesian analysis can be directly interpreted. Bayesian approaches to null-value assessment are discussed. The article clarifies misconceptions about Bayesian methods that newcomers might have acquired elsewhere...
April 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398230/integrating-spherical-panoramas-and-maps-for-visualization-of-cultural-heritage-objects-using-virtual-reality-technology
#16
Mila Koeva, Mila Luleva, Plamen Maldjanski
Development and virtual representation of 3D models of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects has triggered great interest over the past decade. The main reason for this is the rapid development in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing, laser scanning, and computer vision. The advantages of using 3D models for restoration, preservation, and documentation of valuable historical and architectural objects have been numerously demonstrated by scientists in the field. Moreover, 3D model visualization in virtual reality has been recognized as an efficient, fast, and easy way of representing a variety of objects worldwide for present-day users, who have stringent requirements and high expectations...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396649/when-age-and-culture-interact-in-an-easy-and-yet-cognitively-demanding-task-older-adults-but-not-younger-adults-showed-the-expected-cultural-differences
#17
Jinkyung Na, Chih-Mao Huang, Denise C Park
The interaction between age and culture can have various implications for cognition as age represents the effect of biological processes whereas culture represents the effect of sustaining experiences. Nevertheless, their interaction has rarely been examined. Thus, based on the fact that Asians are more intuitive in reasoning than Americans, we examined how this cultural difference might interact with age. Young and old participants from the US and Singapore performed a categorization task (living vs. non-living)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392747/-in-between-and-other-reasonable-ways-to-deal-with-risk-and-uncertainty-a-review-article
#18
Jens O Zinn
How people deal with risk and uncertainty has fuelled public and academic debate in recent decades. Researchers have shown that common distinctions between rational and 'irrational' strategies underestimate the complexity of how people approach an uncertain future. I suggested in 2008 that strategies in-between do not follow standards of instrumental rationality nor they are 'irrational' but follow their own logic which works well under particular circumstances. Strategies such as trust, intuition and emotion are an important part of the mix when people deal with risk and uncertainty...
November 16, 2016: Health, Risk & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391179/weak-coupling-between-magnetically-inequivalent-spins-the-deceptively-simple-complicated-spectrum-of-a-13-c-labeled-trimethylated-amine
#19
Ulric B le Paige, Bauke Smits, Peter 't Hart, Fons Lefeber, Nathaniel I Martin, Hugo van Ingen
Magnetic inequivalence of nuclear spins is well known to cause additional splittings that complicate spectral analysis. Here, we present an extraordinary case of magnetic inequivalence, manifested in the 13-spin system of a (13)C,(15)N-labeled trimethylated amine. All methyl group protons are chemically equivalent due to the molecular symmetry, but not all are magnetically equivalent as they have different (1)JCH and (3)JCH couplings. In general, spectra of such a large spin system can be expected to be extremely complicated by the presence of hundreds if not thousands of extra lines, caused by the strong coupling between inequivalent nuclei...
May 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384604/people-watching-the-perception-of-the-relative-body-proportions-of-the-self-and-others
#20
Sally A Linkenauger, Laura R Kirby, Kathleen C McCulloch, Matthew R Longo
We have an abundance of perceptual information from multiple modalities specifying our body proportions. Consequently, it seems reasonable for researchers to assume that we have an accurate perception of our body proportions. In contrast to this intuition, recent research has shown large, striking distortions in people's perceptions of the relative proportions of their own bodies. Specifically, individuals show large distortions when estimating the length of their body parts with a corporal metric, such as the hand, but not with a non-corporal object of the same length (Linkenauger et al...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
keyword
keyword
69058
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"