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Intuitive reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#1
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582254/studies-involving-people-with-dementia-and-touchscreen-technology-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Phil Joddrell, Arlene J Astell
BACKGROUND: Devices using touchscreen interfaces such as tablets and smartphones have been highlighted as potentially suitable for people with dementia due to their intuitive and simple control method. This population experience a lack of meaningful, engaging activities, yet the potential use of the touchscreen format to address this issue has not been fully realized. OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesize the existing body of literature involving the use of touchscreen technology and people with dementia in order to guide future research in this area...
November 4, 2016: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558050/citizen-science-a-new-perspective-to-advance-spatial-pattern-evaluation-in-hydrology
#3
Julian Koch, Simon Stisen
Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning often make humans more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which inevitably gives benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557945/how-entrustment-is-informed-by-holistic-judgments-across-time-in-a-family-medicine-residency-program-an-ethnographic-nonparticipant-observational-study
#4
Margaretha H Sagasser, Cornelia R M G Fluit, Chris van Weel, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Anneke W M Kramer
PURPOSE: Entrustment has mainly been conceptualized as delegating discrete professional tasks. Because residents provide most of their patient care independently, not all resident performance is visible to supervisors; the entrustment process involves more than granting discrete tasks. This study explored how supervisors made entrustment decisions based on residents' performance in a long-term family medicine training program. METHOD: A qualitative nonparticipant observational study was conducted in 2014-2015 at competency-based family medicine residency programs in the Netherlands...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554318/anti-cancer-compounds-targeted-to-vdac-potential-and-perspectives
#5
Simona Reina, Vito De Pinto
VDAC (Voltage-Dependent Anion selective Channel) is a small family of abundant pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Their role range from the most intuitive, the formation of a hydrophilic conduit through the membrane thanks to its beta-barrel structure, to less understood functions that make them essential actors in the cross-talk between the bioenergetics metabolism and the cytosol components. Due to this localization, VDAC1, in particular, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, hexokinase and tubulin binding, and in the Warburg effect...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544082/a-resource-of-potential-drug-targets-and-strategic-decision-making-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-pharmacotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Richard L Horner, Kevin P Grace, Andrew Wellman
There is currently no pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but there is no principled a priori reason why there should not be one. This review identifies a rational decision-making strategy with the necessary logical underpinnings that any reasonable approach would be expected to navigate to develop a viable pharmacotherapy for OSA. The process first involves phenotyping an individual to quantify and characterize the critical predisposing factor(s) to their OSA pathogenesis and identify, a priori, if the patient is likely to benefit from a pharmacotherapy that targets those factors...
May 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537565/surrogate-and-clinical-endpoints-for-studies-in-peripheral-artery-occlusive-disease-are-statistics-the-brakes
#7
Matthias W Waliszewski, Ulf Redlich, Victor Breul, Jörg Tautenhahn
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to present the available clinical and surrogate endpoints that may be used in future studies performed in patients with peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). Importantly, we describe statistical limitations of the most commonly used endpoints and offer some guidance with respect to study design for a given sample size. The proposed endpoints may be used in studies using surgical or interventional revascularization and/or drug treatments. METHODS: Considering recently published study endpoints and designs, the usefulness of these endpoints for reimbursement is evaluated...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536918/-cognitive-errors-in-diagnostic-decision-making
#8
REVIEW
Martin Gäbler
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making...
May 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512524/promoting-the-multidimensional-character-of-scientific-reasoning
#9
William S Bradshaw, Jennifer Nelson, Byron J Adams, John D Bell
This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher-order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently-each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504021/the-theory-of-dyadic-morality-reinventing-moral-judgment-by-redefining-harm
#10
Chelsea Schein, Kurt Gray
The nature of harm-and therefore moral judgment-may be misunderstood. Rather than an objective matter of reason, we argue that harm should be redefined as an intuitively perceived continuum. This redefinition provides a new understanding of moral content and mechanism-the constructionist Theory of Dyadic Morality (TDM). TDM suggests that acts are condemned proportional to three elements: norm violations, negative affect, and-importantly-perceived harm. This harm is dyadic, involving an intentional agent causing damage to a vulnerable patient (A→P)...
May 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500981/some-consequences-of-normal-aging-for-generating-conceptual-explanations-a-case-study-of-vitalist-biology
#11
Nathan Tardiff, Igor Bascandziev, Kaitlin Sandor, Susan Carey, Deborah Zaitchik
Accumulating evidence suggests that not only diseases of old age, but also normal aging, affect elderly adults' ability to draw on the framework theories that structure our abstract causal-explanatory knowledge, knowledge that we use to make sense of the world. One such framework theory, the cross-culturally universal vitalist biology, gives meaning to the abstract concepts life and death. Previous work shows that many elderly adults are animists, claiming that active, moving entities such as the sun and the wind are alive (Zaitchik & Solomon, 2008)...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493757/argumentation-and-the-diffusion-of-counter-intuitive-beliefs
#12
Nicolas Claidière, Emmanuel Trouche, Hugo Mercier
Research in cultural evolution has focused on the spread of intuitive or minimally counterintuitive beliefs. However, some very counterintuitive beliefs can also spread successfully, at least in some communities-scientific theories being the most prominent example. We suggest that argumentation could be an important factor in the spread of some very counterintuitive beliefs. A first experiment demonstrates that argumentation enables the spread of the counterintuitive answer to a reasoning problem in large discussion groups, whereas this spread is limited or absent when participants can show their answers to each other but cannot discuss...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477112/image-based-high-content-screening-automating-the-quantification-process-for-dna-damage-induced-foci
#13
Yi Chieh Lim
Visual inspection of cellular activities based on conventional fluorescence microscope is a fundamental tool to study the role of DNA damage response (DDR). In the context of drug discovery where the capture of thousands of images is required across parallel experiments, this presents a challenge to data collection and analysis. Manual scoring is laborious and often reliant on trained personnel to intuit biological meaning through visual reasoning. On the other hand, high content screening combines the automation of microscopy image acquisition and analysis in a single platform to quantify cellular events of interests...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474227/brief-report-intuitive-and-reflective-reasoning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Mark Brosnan, Chris Ashwin, Marcus Lewton
Dual Process Theory has recently been applied to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to suggest that reasoning by people with ASD and people with higher levels of ASD-like traits can be characterised by reduced intuitive and greater reflective processing. 26 adolescents and adults with ASD and 22 adolescent and adult controls completed an assessment of ASD-like traits, the cognitive reflections test (CRT) to measure intuitive and reflective reasoning and an index of general cognitive ability. The ASD group produced less intuitive responses, and the degree of ASD-like traits showed a negative correlation with intuitive responses and positive correlation with reflective responses on the CRT...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471111/intelligent-diagnosis-of-jaundice-with-dynamic-uncertain-causality-graph-model
#15
Shao-Rui Hao, Shi-Chao Geng, Lin-Xiao Fan, Jia-Jia Chen, Qin Zhang, Lan-Juan Li
Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors...
May 2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464865/empathy-in-psychoanalysis-and-medical-education-what-can-we-learn-from-each-other
#16
Henriette Löffler-Stastka, Felicitas Datz, Karoline Parth, Ingrid Preusche, Xenia Bukowski, Charles Seidman
BACKGROUND: Several research areas, including medical education (ME), focus on empathy as an important topic in interpersonal relationships. This focus is central to the use of communication skills related to empathy and even more crucial to provide information in a way that makes patients feel more involved in the treatment process. Psychoanalysis (PA) provides its initial concept of empathy based on affective aspects including findings from neuroscience and brain research. Enhancing cooperation between ME and PA can help to integrate both aspects of empathy into a longitudinal training program...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442501/chlorokb-a-web-application-for-the-integration-of-knowledge-related-to-chloroplast-metabolic-network
#17
Pauline Gloaguen, Sylvain Bournais, Claude Alban, Stéphane Ravanel, Daphné Seigneurin-Berny, Michel Matringe, Marianne Tardif, Marcel Kuntz, Myriam Ferro, Christophe Bruley, Norbert Rolland, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilles Curien
Higher plants, as autotrophic organisms, are effective sources of molecules. They hold great promise for metabolic engineering, but the behavior of plant metabolism at the network level is still incompletely described. Although structural models (stoichiometry matrices) and pathway databases are extremely useful, they cannot describe the complexity of the metabolic context, and new tools are required to visually represent integrated biocurated knowledge for use by both humans and computers. Here, we describe ChloroKB, a Web application (http://chlorokb...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432008/turkish-version-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-validity-and-reliability-among-university-students
#18
Murat Bas, Kezban Esen Karaca, Duygu Saglam, Gozde Arıtıcı, Ecem Cengiz, Selen Köksal, Aylin Hasbay Buyukkaragoz
Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22...
July 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430994/personhood-and-natural-kinds-why-cognitive-status-need-not-affect-moral-status
#19
Joseph Vukov
Lockean accounts of personhood propose that an individual is a person just in case that individual is characterized by some advanced cognitive capacity. On these accounts, human beings with severe cognitive impairment are not persons. Some accept this result-I do not. In this paper, I therefore advance and defend an account of personhood that secures personhood for human beings who are cognitively impaired. On the account for which I argue, an individual is a person just in case that individual belongs to a natural kind that is normally characterized by advanced cognitive capacities...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425112/beyond-guidelines-discretionary-practice-in-face-to-face-triage-nursing
#20
Lars E F Johannessen
This article draws on ethnographic data from a Norwegian emergency primary care clinic (EPCC) to explore nurses' discretionary application of guidelines. Specifically, it analyses nurses' discretionary use of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) when performing face-to-face triage, that is, assessing the urgency of patients' complaints. The analysis shows how nurses assessed patients at odds with MTS prescriptions by collecting supplementary data, engaging in differential diagnostic and holistic reasoning, relying on emotion and intuition, and allowing colleagues and patients to influence their reasoning...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
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