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Intuitive reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966776/an-automated-method-to-find-reaction-mechanisms-and-solve-the-kinetics-in-organometallic-catalysis
#1
J A Varela, S A Vázquez, E Martínez-Núñez
A novel computational method is proposed in this work for use in discovering reaction mechanisms and solving the kinetics of transition metal-catalyzed reactions. The method does not rely on either chemical intuition or assumed a priori mechanisms, and it works in a fully automated fashion. Its core is a procedure, recently developed by one of the authors, that combines accelerated direct dynamics with an efficient geometry-based post-processing algorithm to find transition states (Martinez-Nunez, E., J. Comput...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957035/sample-size-estimation-for-random-effects-models-balancing-precision-and-feasibility-in-panel-studies
#2
Scott Weichenthal, Jill Baumgartner, James A Hanley
Panel study designs are common in environmental epidemiology, whereby repeated measurements are collected from a panel of subjects to evaluate short-term within-subject changes in response variables over time. In planning such studies, questions of how many subjects to include and how many different exposure conditions to measure are commonly asked at the design stage. In practice, these choices are constrained by budget, logistics, and participant burden and must be carefully balanced against statistical considerations of precision and power...
November 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956412/clinical-judgment-is-a-schema-conceptual-proposals-and-training-perspectives
#3
Marc Nagels
Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept...
August 17, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950962/formalizing-emotion-concepts-within-a-bayesian-model-of-theory-of-mind
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca Saxe, Sean Dae Houlihan
Sensitivity to others' emotions is foundational for many aspects of human life, yet computational models do not currently approach the sensitivity and specificity of human emotion knowledge. Perception of isolated physical expressions largely supplies ambiguous, low-dimensional, and noisy information about others' emotional states. By contrast, observers attribute specific granular emotions to another person based on inferences of how she interprets (or 'appraises') external events in relation to her other mental states (goals, beliefs, moral values, costs)...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944638/-unknown-title
#5
(no author information available yet)
Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept...
August 17, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919670/the-moral-insignificance-of-self-consciousness
#6
Joshua Shepherd
In this paper, I examine the claim that self-consciousness is highly morally significant, such that the fact that an entity is self-conscious generates strong moral reasons against harming or killing that entity. This claim is apparently very intuitive, but I argue it is false. I consider two ways to defend this claim: one indirect, the other direct. The best-known arguments relevant to self-consciousness's significance take the indirect route. I examine them and argue that (a) in various ways they depend on unwarranted assumptions about self-consciousness's functional significance, and (b) once these assumptions are undermined, motivation for these arguments dissipates...
June 2017: Eur J Philos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903676/the-influence-of-effortful-thought-and-cognitive-proficiencies-on-the-conjunction-fallacy-implications-for-dual-process-theories-of-reasoning-and-judgment
#7
Laura D Scherer, J Frank Yates, S Glenn Baker, Kathrene D Valentine
Human judgment often violates normative standards, and virtually no judgment error has received as much attention as the conjunction fallacy. Judgment errors have historically served as evidence for dual-process theories of reasoning, insofar as these errors are assumed to arise from reliance on a fast and intuitive mental process, and are corrected via effortful deliberative reasoning. In the present research, three experiments tested the notion that conjunction errors are reduced by effortful thought. Predictions based on three different dual-process theory perspectives were tested: lax monitoring, override failure, and the Tripartite Model...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877364/are-great-apes-able-to-reason-from-multi-item-samples-to-populations-of-food-items
#8
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples...
October 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866501/imagining-replications-graphical-prediction-discrete-visualizations-improve-recall-estimation-of-effect-uncertainty
#9
Jessica Hullman, Matthew Kay, Yea-Seul Kim, Samana Shrestha
People often have erroneous intuitions about the results of uncertain processes, such as scientific experiments. Many uncertainty visualizations assume considerable statistical knowledge, but have been shown to prompt erroneous conclusions even when users possess this knowledge. Active learning approaches been shown to improve statistical reasoning, but are rarely applied in visualizing uncertainty in scientific reports. We present a controlled study to evaluate the impact of an interactive, graphical uncertainty prediction technique for communicating uncertainty in experiment results...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866124/modeling-the-peak-of-emergence-in-systems-design-and-katachi
#10
REVIEW
Beth Cardier, H T Goranson, Niccolo Casas, Patric Lundberg, Alessio Erioli, Ryuji Takaki, Dénes Nagy, Larry D Sanford
It is difficult to model emergence in biological systems using reductionist paradigms. A requirement for computational modeling is that individual entities can be recorded parametrically and related logically, but their transformation into systems cannot be captured this way. The problem stems from an inability to formally represent system-level interactions and implicit influences, such as context, shifts in causal agency or scale, and self-reference. This hampers biological systems modeling and its computational counterpart, indicating a need for new fundamental abstraction frameworks that include system-level characteristics...
August 30, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863170/intuitive-intellectual-property-law-a-nationally-representative-test-of-the-plagiarism-fallacy
#11
Anne A Fast, Kristina R Olson, Gregory N Mandel
Studies with convenience samples have suggested that the lay public's conception of intellectual property laws, including how the laws should regulate and why they should exist, are largely incommensurate with the actual intended purpose of intellectual property laws and their history in the United States. In this paper, we test whether these findings generalize to a more diverse and representative sample. The major findings from past work were replicated in the current study. When presented with several potential reasons for IP protection, the lay public endorsed plagiarism and felt that acknowledging the original source of a creative work should make copying that work permissible-viewpoints strongly divergent from lawmakers' intent and the law itself...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852361/the-scarcity-of-orthopaedic-physician-scientists
#12
Joseph A Buckwalter, Jacob M Elkins
Breakthrough advances in medicine almost uniformly result from the translation of new basic scientific knowledge into clinical practice, rather than from assessment, modification or refinement of current methods of diagnosis and treatment. However, as is intuitively understood, those most responsible for scientific conception and creation-scientists - are generally not the ones applying these advances at the patient's bedside or the operating room, and vice versa. Recognition of the scarcity of clinicians with a background that prepares them to develop new basic knowledge, and to critically evaluate the underlying scientific basis of methods of diagnosis and treatment, has led to initiatives including federally funded Physician-Scientist programs, whereby young, motivated scholars begin a rigorous training, which encompasses education and mentorship within both medical and scientific fields, culminating in the conferment of both MD and PhD degrees...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846125/intuitive-judgement-in-the-context-of-osteopathic-clinical-reasoning
#13
Torsten Liem
Previous research into osteopathic clinical and diagnostic decision making suggests that reasoning is commonly based on highly analytical as well as intuitive processes. According to the dual-process theory, the intuitive and analytical processing that leads to decision making is equally important in diagnostic reasoning. This article aims to explore the underlying and influencing factors that may lead to the development and reliability of intuition in clinical decision making generally and in osteopathic clinical reasoning specifically...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821538/reflecting-on-graphs-attributes-of-graph-choice-and-construction-practices-in-biology
#15
Aakanksha Angra, Stephanie M Gardner
Undergraduate biology education reform aims to engage students in scientific practices such as experimental design, experimentation, and data analysis and communication. Graphs are ubiquitous in the biological sciences, and creating effective graphical representations involves quantitative and disciplinary concepts and skills. Past studies document student difficulties with graphing within the contexts of classroom or national assessments without evaluating student reasoning. Operating under the metarepresentational competence framework, we conducted think-aloud interviews to reveal differences in reasoning and graph quality between undergraduate biology students, graduate students, and professors in a pen-and-paper graphing task...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#16
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776714/the-bonding-picture-in-hypervalent-xf3-x%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cl-br-i-at-fluorides-revisited-with-quantum-chemical-topology
#17
Mohamed Amaouch, Dumitru-Claudiu Sergentu, David Steinmetz, Rémi Maurice, Nicolas Galland, Julien Pilmé
Hypervalent XF3 (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides exhibit T-shaped C2V equilibrium structures with the heavier of them, AtF3 , also revealing an almost isoenergetic planar D3h structure. Factors explaining this behavior based on simple "chemical intuition" are currently missing. In this work, we combine non-relativistic (ClF3 ), scalar-relativistic and two-component (X = Br - At) density functional theory calculations, and bonding analyses based on the electron localization function and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744252/deficits-in-approximate-number-system-acuity-and-mathematical-abilities-in-6-5-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm
#18
Melissa E Libertus, Lea Forsman, Ulrika Adén, Kerstin Hellgren
Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children's ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82) and term-born children (n = 89) completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity) task and a standardized math test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#19
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725296/revisiting-folk-moral-realism
#20
Thomas Pölzler
Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
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