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Intuitive reasoning

Emma C Tecwyn, Stephanie Denison, Emily J E Messer, Daphna Buchsbaum
The ability to reason about probabilities has ecological relevance for many species. Recent research has shown that both preverbal infants and non-human great apes can make predictions about single-item samples randomly drawn from populations by reasoning about proportions. To further explore the evolutionary origins of this ability, we conducted the first investigation of probabilistic inference in a monkey species (capuchins; Sapajus spp.). Across four experiments, capuchins (N = 19) were presented with two populations of food items that differed in their relative distribution of preferred and non-preferred items, such that one population was more likely to yield a preferred item...
October 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
Jane H Williams, Stacy M Carter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Carlos Cárdenas, Farnaz Heidar-Zadeh, Paul W Ayers
We present benchmark values for the electronic chemical potential and chemical hardness from reference data for ionization potentials and electron affinities. In cases where the energies needed to compute these quantities are not available, we estimate the ionization potential of the metastable (di)anions by extrapolation along the isoelectronic series, taking care to ensure that the extrapolated data satisfy reasonable intuitive rules to the maximum possible extent. We also propose suitable values for the chemical potential and chemical hardness of zero-electron species...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Yuan Huang, Jin Liu, Huangdi Yi, Ben-Chang Shia, Shuangge Ma
In profiling studies, the analysis of a single dataset often leads to unsatisfactory results because of the small sample size. Multi-dataset analysis utilizes information of multiple independent datasets and outperforms single-dataset analysis. Among the available multi-dataset analysis methods, integrative analysis methods aggregate and analyze raw data and outperform meta-analysis methods, which analyze multiple datasets separately and then pool summary statistics. In this study, we conduct integrative analysis and marker selection under the heterogeneity structure, which allows different datasets to have overlapping but not necessarily identical sets of markers...
September 25, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Antonio Nenna, Gwyn Beattie, Massimo Chello, Fraser W H Sutherland
The optimal degree of revascularization for patients with chronic multivessel coronary artery disease remains an unsolved issue. Intuitively, complete revascularization decreases cardiovascular events and improves outcomes compared to incomplete procedures, but in recent years the concept of incomplete revascularization moved from a sub-optimal or a defective treatment towards the most appropriate revascularization technique in some categories of patients. A reasonable level of incomplete anatomic revascularization has been shown to be safe and achievable with both percutaneous (PCI) and surgical procedures (CABG), despite with different long-term outcomes...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Rosa Jiménez-Paneque
The use of p-value and statistical significance have been questioned since the early 80s in the last century until today. Much has been discussed about it in the field of statistics and its applications, especially in Epidemiology and Public Health. As a matter of fact, the p-value and its equivalent, statistical significance, are difficult concepts to grasp for the many health professionals some way involved in research applied to their work areas. However, its meaning should be clear in intuitive terms although it is based on theoretical concepts of the field of Statistics...
2016: Medwave
Robert J Robbins, Leonard Krishtalka, John C Wooley
BACKGROUND: Efforts to harmonize genomic data standards used by the biodiversity and metagenomic research communities have shown that prokaryotic data cannot be understood or represented in a traditional, classical biological context for conceptual reasons, not technical ones. RESULTS: Biology, like physics, has a fundamental duality-the classical macroscale eukaryotic realm vs. the quantum microscale microbial realm-with the two realms differing profoundly, and counter-intuitively, from one another...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Marjorie Rhodes, Henry Wellman
We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
Andrew L Cohen, Sara Sidlowski, Adrian Staub
We examine whether judgments of posterior probabilities in Bayesian reasoning problems are affected by reasoners' beliefs about corresponding real-world probabilities. In an internet-based task, participants were asked to determine the probability that a hypothesis is true (posterior probability, e.g., a person has a disease, given a positive medical test) based on relevant probabilities (e.g., that any person has the disease and the true and false positive rates of the test). We varied whether the correct posterior probability was close to, or far from, independent intuitive estimates of the corresponding 'real-world' probability...
September 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Huidong Li, Hao Feng, Yaoming Xie, Henry F Schaefer Iii
The 2014 synthesis of the remarkable dimagnesium compound Mg2 [C4 (CH3 )2 (Si(CH3 )3 )2 ](C3 H7 )2 (C4 H8 O)2 may point the way to a new chapter in alkaline earth organometallic chemistry. Accordingly, we have studied the known Mg compound and the analogous Be, Ca, Sr, and Ba structures. Although most of our theoretical predictions come from density functional methods, the latter have been benchmarked using coupled cluster theory including single, double, and perturbative triplet excitations, CCSD(T) using cc-pVTZ basis sets...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Leonid Perlovsky
Logic is a fundamental reason why computational accounts of the mind have failed. Combinatorial complexity preventing computational accounts is equivalent to the Gödelian incompleteness of logic. The mind is not logical, but only logical states and processes in the mind are accessible to subjective consciousness. For this reason, intuitions of psychologists, cognitive scientists, and mathematicians modeling the mind are biased toward logic. This is also true about the changes proposed in After Phrenology (Anderson 2014)...
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Honghua Chang, Ruth Rosenholtz
Traditional models of visual search such as feature integration theory (FIT; Treisman & Gelade, 1980), have suggested that a key factor determining task difficulty consists of whether or not the search target contains a "basic feature" not found in the other display items (distractors). Here we discriminate between such traditional models and our recent texture tiling model (TTM) of search (Rosenholtz, Huang, Raj, Balas, & Ilie, 2012b), by designing new experiments that directly pit these models against each other...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Wouter van Riel, Jeroen Langeveld, Paulien Herder, François Clemens
Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Lynn Groß, Carmen Herrmann
We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Xiaodan Liang, Yunchao Wei, Yunpeng Chen, Xiaohui Shen, Jianchao Yang, Liang Lin, Shuicheng Yan
An intuition on human segmentation is that when a human is moving in a video, the video-context (e.g., appearance and motion clues) may potentially infer reasonable mask information for the whole human body. Inspired by this, based on popular deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), we explore a very-weakly supervised learning framework for human segmentation task, where only an imperfect human detector is available along with massive weakly-labeled YouTube videos. In our solution, the video-context guided human mask inference and CNN based segmentation network learning iterate to mutually enhance each other until no further improvement gains...
August 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Silvia B Lovato, Sandra R Waxman
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Paul H Garthwaite, Inge Koch
Quadratic forms capture multivariate information in a single number, making them useful, for example, in hypothesis testing. When a quadratic form is large and hence interesting, it might be informative to partition the quadratic form into contributions of individual variables. In this paper it is argued that meaningful partitions can be formed, though the precise partition that is determined will depend on the criterion used to select it. An intuitively reasonable criterion is proposed and the partition to which it leads is determined...
March 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics
Gülden Ülkümen, Craig R Fox, Bertram F Malle
We argue that people intuitively distinguish epistemic (knowable) uncertainty from aleatory (random) uncertainty and show that the relative salience of these dimensions is reflected in natural language use. We hypothesize that (e.g., "I am fairly confident," "I am 90% sure," "I am reasonably certain") communicate a subjective assessment of primarily epistemic uncertainty, whereas (e.g., "I believe it is fairly likely," "I'd say there is a 90% chance," "I think there is a high probability") communicate a subjective assessment of primarily aleatory uncertainty...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Zoé van Dyck, Beate M Herbert, Christian Happ, Gillian V Kleveman, Claus Vögele
Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC)...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
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