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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101271/the-impact-of-an-interactive-statistics-module-on-novices-development-of-scientific-process-skills-and-attitudes-in-a-first-semester-research-foundations-course
#1
Lynnsay A Marsan, Christina E D'Arcy, Jeffrey T Olimpo
Evidence suggests that incorporating quantitative reasoning exercises into existent curricular frameworks within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is essential for novices' development of conceptual understanding and process skills in these domains. Despite this being the case, such studies acknowledge that students often experience difficulty in applying mathematics in the context of scientific problems. To address this concern, the present study sought to explore the impact of active demonstrations and critical reading exercises on novices' comprehension of basic statistical concepts, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and interpretation of research findings...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095769/pcm-sabre-a-platform-for-benchmarking-and-comparing-outcome-prediction-methods-in-precision-cancer-medicine
#2
Noah Eyal-Altman, Mark Last, Eitan Rubin
BACKGROUND: Numerous publications attempt to predict cancer survival outcome from gene expression data using machine-learning methods. A direct comparison of these works is challenging for the following reasons: (1) inconsistent measures used to evaluate the performance of different models, and (2) incomplete specification of critical stages in the process of knowledge discovery. There is a need for a platform that would allow researchers to replicate previous works and to test the impact of changes in the knowledge discovery process on the accuracy of the induced models...
January 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#3
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073329/the-other-side-of-magic
#4
Vebjørn Ekroll, Bilge Sayim, Johan Wagemans
When magicians perform spectacles that seem to defy the laws of nature, they do so by manipulating psychological reality. Hence, the principles underlying the art of conjuring are potentially of interest to psychological science. Here, we argue that perceptual and cognitive principles governing how humans experience hidden things and reason about them play a central role in many magic tricks. Different from tricks based on many other forms of misdirection, which require considerable skill on the part of the magician, many elements of these tricks are essentially self-working because they rely on automatic perceptual and cognitive processes...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061884/treeman-an-r-package-for-efficient-and-intuitive-manipulation-of-phylogenetic-trees
#5
Dominic J Bennett, Mark D Sutton, Samuel T Turvey
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic trees are hierarchical structures used for representing the inter-relationships between biological entities. They are the most common tool for representing evolution and are essential to a range of fields across the life sciences. The manipulation of phylogenetic trees-in terms of adding or removing tips-is often performed by researchers not just for reasons of management but also for performing simulations in order to understand the processes of evolution. Despite this, the most common programming language among biologists, R, has few class structures well suited to these tasks...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053306/the-development-of-support-intuitions-and-object-causality-in-juvenile-eurasian-jays-garrulus-glandarius
#6
Gabrielle Davidson, Rachael Miller, Elsa Loissel, Lucy G Cheke, Nicola S Clayton
Knowledge about the causal relationship between objects has been studied extensively in human infants, and more recently in adult animals using differential looking time experiments. How knowledge about object support develops in non-human animals has yet to be explored. Here, we studied the ontogeny of support relations in Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius), a bird species known for its sophisticated cognitive abilities. Using an expectancy violation paradigm, we measured looking time responses to possible and impossible video and image stimuli...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048739/tu-ab-207a-03-image-quality-dose-and-clinical-applications
#7
F Dong
: Practicing medical physicists are often time charged with the tasks of evaluating and troubleshooting complex image quality issues related to CT scanners. This course will equip them with a solid and practical understanding of common CT imaging chain and its major components with emphasis on acquisition physics and hardware, reconstruction, artifacts, image quality, dose, and advanced clinical applications. The core objective is to explain the effects of these major system components on the image quality...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048020/tu-ab-207a-00-ct-systems-course
#8
Baojun Li
: Practicing medical physicists are often time charged with the tasks of evaluating and troubleshooting complex image quality issues related to CT scanners. This course will equip them with a solid and practical understanding of common CT imaging chain and its major components with emphasis on acquisition physics and hardware, reconstruction, artifacts, image quality, dose, and advanced clinical applications. The core objective is to explain the effects of these major system components on the image quality...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047355/tu-ab-207a-01-image-acquisition-physics-and-hardware
#9
B Li
: Practicing medical physicists are often time charged with the tasks of evaluating and troubleshooting complex image quality issues related to CT scanners. This course will equip them with a solid and practical understanding of common CT imaging chain and its major components with emphasis on acquisition physics and hardware, reconstruction, artifacts, image quality, dose, and advanced clinical applications. The core objective is to explain the effects of these major system components on the image quality...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046685/tu-ab-207a-02-image-reconstruction-and-artifact-reduction
#10
J Hsieh
: Practicing medical physicists are often time charged with the tasks of evaluating and troubleshooting complex image quality issues related to CT scanners. This course will equip them with a solid and practical understanding of common CT imaging chain and its major components with emphasis on acquisition physics and hardware, reconstruction, artifacts, image quality, dose, and advanced clinical applications. The core objective is to explain the effects of these major system components on the image quality...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040896/why-are-vinyl-cations-sluggish-electrophiles
#11
Peter A Byrne, Shinjiro Kobayashi, Ernst-Ulrich Würthwein, Johannes Ammer, Herbert Mayr
The kinetics of the reactions of the vinyl cations 2 [Ph2C=C+-(4-MeO-C6H4)] and 3 [Me2C=C+-(4-MeO-C6H4)] (generated by laser flash photolysis) with diverse nucleophiles (e.g. pyrroles, halide ions, alcoholic and aqueous solvents) have been determined photometrically. It was found that the reactivity order of the nucleophiles toward these vinyl cations is the same as that towards diarylcarbenium ions (benzhydrylium ions). However, the reaction rates of vinyl cations are affected only half as much by variation of the nucleophiles as those of the benzhydrylium ions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030433/the-case-against-imminent-death-donation
#12
Grace S Lee, Vishnu S Potluri, Peter P Reese
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imminent death donation (IDD) is a proposal to procure organs from patients prior to the withdrawal of life support, which is anticipated to lead to death. In this review, we outline substantial concerns that the transplant community should consider when deliberating the possibility of practicing IDD. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are several compelling theoretical and intuitive reasons to support IDD, its application has been hindered because of inadequate definitions or protocols...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005255/the-roles-of-implicit-understanding-of-engineering-ethics-in-student-teams-discussion
#13
Eun Ah Lee, Magdalena Grohman, Nicholas R Gans, Marco Tacca, Matthew J Brown
Following previous work that shows engineering students possess different levels of understanding of ethics-implicit and explicit-this study focuses on how students' implicit understanding of engineering ethics influences their team discussion process, in cases where there is significant divergence between their explicit and implicit understanding. We observed student teams during group discussions of the ethical issues involved in their engineering design projects. Through the micro-scale discourse analysis based on cognitive ethnography, we found two possible ways in which implicit understanding influenced the discussion...
December 22, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005190/step-counting-a-review-of-measurement-considerations-and-health-related-applications
#14
REVIEW
David R Bassett, Lindsay P Toth, Samuel R LaMunion, Scott E Crouter
Step counting has long been used as a method of measuring distance. Starting in the mid-1900s, researchers became interested in using steps per day to quantify ambulatory physical activity. This line of research gained momentum after 1995, with the introduction of reasonably accurate spring-levered pedometers with digital displays. Since 2010, the use of accelerometer-based "activity trackers" by private citizens has skyrocketed. Steps have several advantages as a metric for assessing physical activity: they are intuitive, easy to measure, objective, and they represent a fundamental unit of human ambulatory activity...
December 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989924/the-need-for-re-defining-cut-off-values-in-heart-failure-from-obesity-to-iron-deficiency
#15
REVIEW
Masaaki Konishi, Stephan von Haehling
The health status of older people is frequently complicated by one or more chronic diseases. Some conditions might have a different meaning in certain groups of elderly subjects, like in frail people or older patients with heart failure. Cut-off values defining these conditions may require adjustment in such groups. Indeed, several such conditions (e.g. obesity and hypercholesterolemia) have been discussed recently in light of so-called paradoxical situations, which are - counter-intuitively - associated with better outcome instead of a negative impact on survival in the general population...
October 27, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981654/knowing-how-we-know-an-epistemological-rationale-for-the-medical-humanities
#16
Neville Chiavaroli
CONTEXT: Although their inclusion in medical curricula internationally is increasing, the medical humanities still face challenges to their role and place in the curriculum. Justifications supporting the inclusion of humanities content, methods and perspectives in medical curricula have generally been proposed along instrumental, intrinsic and critical lines. However, recent literature in the field has turned to 'ways of knowing' as representing an alternative, essentially epistemological, perspective on the matter...
January 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981181/stress-potentiates-decision-biases-a-stress-induced-deliberation-to-intuition-sidi-model
#17
REVIEW
Rongjun Yu
Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966682/beyond-the-electrostatic-model-the-significant-roles-of-orbital-interaction-and-the-dispersion-effect-in-aqueous-%C3%AF-systems
#18
Rundong Zhao, Rui-Qin Zhang
The electrostatic model, which is widely used to explain π-involved interactions, gives an intuitive picture of these intermolecular interactions and has successfully predicted many phenomena in recent decades. Still, this simple model faces problems in certain cases and it has come under fire in previous studies on π-π stacking interactions. Here, employing ab initio calculations, we have identified several counter examples in aqueous-π systems which cannot be explained adequately using the classical electrostatic model, and revealed the underlying reason...
January 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924279/accelerating-in-vitro-studies-on-circadian-clock-systems-using-an-automated-sampling-device
#19
Yoshihiko Furuike, Jun Abe, Atsushi Mukaiyama, Shuji Akiyama
KaiC, a core protein of the cyanobacterial circadian clock, is rhythmically autophosphorylated and autodephosphorylated with a period of approximately 24 h in the presence of two other Kai proteins, KaiA and KaiB. In vitro experiments to investigate the KaiC phosphorylation cycle consume considerable time and effort. To automate the fractionation, quantification, and evaluation steps, we developed a suite consisting of an automated sampling device equipped with an 8-channel temperature controller and accompanying analysis software...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911038/quantitating-the-cell-turning-images-into-numbers-with-imagej
#20
REVIEW
Ellen T Arena, Curtis T Rueden, Mark C Hiner, Shulei Wang, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri
Modern biological research particularly in the fields of developmental and cell biology has been transformed by the rapid evolution of the light microscope. The light microscope, long a mainstay of the experimental biologist, is now used for a wide array of biological experimental scenarios and sample types. Much of the great developments in advanced biological imaging have been driven by the digital imaging revolution with powerful processors and algorithms. In particular, this combination of advanced imaging and computational analysis has resulted in the drive of the modern biologist to not only visually inspect dynamic phenomena, but to quantify the involved processes...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
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