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Intuitive reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233060/ignoring-theory-and-misinterpreting-evidence-the-false-belief-in-fear-appeals
#1
Gerjo Kok, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Loes T E Kessels, Gill A Ten Hoor, Robert A C Ruiter
Use of fear appeals assumes that when people are emotionally confronted with the negative effects of their behavior they will change that behavior. That reasoning is simple and intuitive, but only true under specific, rare circumstances. Risk-perception theories predict that if people will experience a threat, they want to counter that threat. However, how they do so is determined by their coping efficacy level: if efficacy is high, they may change their behavior in the suggested direction; if efficacy is low, they react defensively...
December 12, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228767/revealing-electron-electron-interactions-within-lewis-pairs-in-chemical-systems
#2
Adam Jonathan Proud, Brendan James Henry Sheppard, Jason Kenneth Pearson
The so-called "Lewis Pair" is a ubiquitous phenomenon in chemistry and is often used as an intuitive construct to predict and rationalize chemical structure and behaviour. Concepts from the very general Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model to the most esoteric reaction mechanism routinely rely on the notion that electrons tend to exist in pairs and that these pairs can be thought of as being localized to a particular region of space. It is precisely this localization that allows one to intuit how these pairs might behave, generally speaking, so that reasonable predictions may be made regarding molecular structure, intermolecular interactions, property trends, and reaction mechanisms, etc...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214014/influence-of-perceived-difficulty-of-cases-on-student-osteopaths-diagnostic-reasoning-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Aurelien L Noyer, Jorge E Esteves, Oliver P Thomson
Background: Diagnostic reasoning refers to the cognitive processes by which clinicians formulate diagnoses. Despite the implications for patient safety and professional identity, research on diagnostic reasoning in osteopathy remains largely theoretical. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived task difficulty on the diagnostic reasoning of students osteopaths. Methods: Using a single-blinded, cross sectional study design, sixteen final year pre-registration osteopathy students diagnosed two standardized cases under two context conditions (complex versus control)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209469/probability-or-reasoning-current-thinking-and-realistic-strategies-for-improved-medical-decisions
#4
REVIEW
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha
A prescriptive model approach in decision making could help achieve better diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice through methods that are less reliant on probabilistic assessments. Various prescriptive measures aimed at regulating factors that influence heuristics and clinical reasoning could support clinical decision-making process. Clinicians could avoid time-consuming decision-making methods that require probabilistic calculations. Intuitively, they could rely on heuristics to obtain an accurate diagnosis in a given clinical setting...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189494/rethinking-remediation-a-model-to-support-the-detailed-diagnosis-of-clinicians-performance-problems-and-the-development-of-effective-remediation-plans
#5
Linda Prescott-Clements, Vicky Voller, Mark Bell, Natasha Nestors, Cees P M van der Vleuten
The successful remediation of clinicians demonstrating poor performance in the workplace is essential to ensure the provision of safe patient care. Clinicians may develop performance problems for numerous reasons, including health, personal factors, the workplace environment, or outdated knowledge/skills. Performance problems are often complex involving multifactorial issues, encompassing knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors. It is important that (where possible and appropriate) clinicians are supported through effective remediation to return them to safe clinical practice...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171005/is-there-a-downside-to-anticipating-the-upside-children-s-and-adults-reasoning-about-how-prior-expectations-shape-future-emotions
#6
Karen Hjortsvang Lara, Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters' pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6-7 years for negative outcomes, 8-10 years for attenuated, and never for positive...
November 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169546/telehealth-electronic-monitoring-to-reduce-postdischarge-complications-and-surgical-site-infections-after-arterial-revascularization-with-groin-incision
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Albeir Y Mousa, Mike Broce, Elaine Davis, Barbara McKee, Michael Yacoub
It is intuitive that postdischarge surgical complications are associated with increased patient dissatisfaction, and are directly associated with an increase in medical expenditures. It is also easy to make the connection that many post-hospital discharge surgical complications, including surgical site infections (SSIs), could be influenced or exacerbated by patient comorbidities. The authors of a recent study reported that female gender, obesity, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, coronary artery disease, critical limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea, and neurologic disease were significant predictors of SSIs after vascular reconstruction was performed...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#8
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163313/intuitive-choices-lead-to-intensified-positive-emotions-an-overlooked-reason-for-intuition-bias
#9
Geir Kirkebøen, Gro H H Nordbye
People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163123/closed-loop-hybrid-gaze-brain-machine-interface-based-robotic-arm-control-with-augmented-reality-feedback
#10
Hong Zeng, Yanxin Wang, Changcheng Wu, Aiguo Song, Jia Liu, Peng Ji, Baoguo Xu, Lifeng Zhu, Huijun Li, Pengcheng Wen
Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156372/psychometric-properties-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-ies-2-in-a-culturally-diverse-hispanic-american-sample
#11
Jessica F Saunders, Kristin A Nichols-Lopez, Leslie D Frazier
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating tendency consistently associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes, including lower risk for obesity and eating disorders (EDs). Obesity rates are disproportionately high in Hispanic American populations, yet the properties of intuitive eating remain to be examined in such samples. METHOD: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a Hispanic American sample of adult college students (N=482), and related IES-2 scores to levels of disordered eating, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable consumption, and body shape satisfaction...
November 14, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149038/adherence-to-hunger-training-over-6-months-and-the-effect-on-weight-and-eating-behaviour-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Michelle R Jospe, Rachael W Taylor, Josie Athens, Melyssa Roy, Rachel C Brown
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132635/need-of-informatics-in-designing-interoperable-clinical-registries
#13
Majid Rastegar-Mojarad, Sunghwan Sohn, Liwei Wang, Feichen Shen, Troy C Bleeker, William A Cliby, Hongfang Liu
Clinical registries are designed to collect information relating to a particular condition for research or quality improvement. Intuitively, informatics in the area of data management and extraction plays a central role in clinical registries. Due to various reasons such as lack of informatics awareness or expertise, there may be little informatics involvement in designing clinical registries. In this paper, we studied a clinical registry from two critical perspectives, data quality and interoperability, where informatics can play a role...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130834/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#14
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126481/quantum-chemical-fragment-precursor-tests-accelerating-de-novo-annotation-of-tandem-mass-spectra
#15
Benjamin G Janesko, Li Li, Rodger Mensing
Tandem mass spectrometry is widely used to assign and distinguish chemical structures in proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and many other areas. Spectral annotation remains a major bottleneck. Our "Quantum Chemical Fragment Precursor Tests" (QC-FPT) approach brings the accuracy and generality of modern quantum chemistry to combinatorial-search-based computer-aided spectral annotation. QC-FPT takes as input the dominant fragment peaks from a particular experiment, and one or more chemically reasonable hypotheses for the precursor ion's three-dimensional structure...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101730/team-reasoning-solving-the-puzzle-of-coordination
#16
Andrew M Colman, Natalie Gold
In many everyday activities, individuals have a common interest in coordinating their actions. Orthodox game theory cannot explain such intuitively obvious forms of coordination as the selection of an outcome that is best for all in a common-interest game. Theories of team reasoning provide a convincing solution by proposing that people are sometimes motivated to maximize the collective payoff of a group and that they adopt a distinctive mode of reasoning from preferences to decisions. This also offers a compelling explanation of cooperation in social dilemmas...
November 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101728/understanding-social-decision-making-from-another-species-perspective
#17
Sarah F Brosnan
One challenge of studying cognition and behavior in other species is designing studies that are intuitive and motivating to the subjects; studies that lack these features may result in false negatives and other outcomes that bias our understanding of animals' abilities and choices. Here, Schmelz, Grueneisen, Kabalak, Jost, and Tomasello (PNAS, 114(28), 7462-7467, 2017) investigated prosocial behavior, in which animals may make decisions that benefit a conspecific, and found that, contrary to much earlier work, when chimpanzees are given a reason to do so, they do make prosocial choices...
November 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065900/grcalculator-an-online-tool-for-calculating-and-mining-dose-response-data
#18
Nicholas A Clark, Marc Hafner, Michal Kouril, Elizabeth H Williams, Jeremy L Muhlich, Marcin Pilarczyk, Mario Niepel, Peter K Sorger, Mario Medvedovic
BACKGROUND: Quantifying the response of cell lines to drugs or other perturbagens is the cornerstone of pre-clinical drug development and pharmacogenomics as well as a means to study factors that contribute to sensitivity and resistance. In dividing cells, traditional metrics derived from dose-response curves such as IC 50 , AUC, and E max , are confounded by the number of cell divisions taking place during the assay, which varies widely for biological and experimental reasons. Hafner et al...
October 24, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062288/perception-of-risk-and-terrorism-related-behavior-change-dual-influences-of-probabilistic-reasoning-and-reality-testing
#19
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052069/robotic-single-site-versus-multiport-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-case-matched-analysis-of-short-and-long-term-costs
#20
Monika E Hagen, Alexandre Balaphas, Michele Podetta, Peter Rohner, Minoa K Jung, Nicolas C Buchs, Leo Buehler, Jona M Mendoza, Philippe Morel
BACKGROUND: Multiport laparoscopy is the gold-standard approach for cholecystectomy, and single-port laparoscopy has been developed to further reduce its invasiveness. A specific robotic single-port platform (da Vinci single-site, Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been released in 2011, which could technically facilitate single-site cholecystectomy. Current data show its feasibility; however, detailed short- and long-term analyses of costs and comparisons relative to multiport laparoscopy are not available to date...
October 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
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