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Intuitive reasoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439086/using-photography-to-enhance-gp-trainees-reflective-practice-and-professional-development
#1
Rutherford, Emer Forde, Jacqueline Priego-Hernandez, Aurelia Butcher, Clare Wedderburn
The capacity and the commitment to reflect are integral to the practice of medicine and are core components of most general practitioners (GP) training programmes. Teaching through the humanities is a growing area within medical education, but one which is often considered a voluntary 'add-on' for the interested doctor. This article describes an evaluation of a highly innovative pedagogical project which used photography as a means to enhance GP trainees' reflective capacity, self-awareness and professional development...
February 8, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350341/health-priority-to-the-worse-off-and-time
#2
Anders Herlitz
It is a common view that benefits to the worse off should be given priority when health benefits are distributed. This paper addresses how to understand who is worse off in this context when individuals are differently well off at different times. The paper argues that the view that this judgment about who is worse off should be based solely on how well off individuals are when their complete lives are considered (i.e. 'the complete lives view') is implausible in this context. Instead, it is argued that a pluralistic stance toward this issue should be accepted...
January 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345588/the-role-of-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-total-occlusions-rationale-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Harsh Agrawal, Richard Lange, Ruben Montanez, Soma Wali, Khan Omar Mohammad, Subrata Kar, Mohamed Teleb, Debabrata Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of a coronary artery is defined as an occluded segment with no antegrade flow and a known or estimated duration of at least 12 weeks. OBJECTIVE: We considered the current literature describing the indications and clinical outcomes for de-novo CTO- percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and discuss the role of CTO-PCI and future directions for this procedure. METHOD: Databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and CINAHL were searched and relevant studies of CTO-PCI were selected for review...
January 16, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337877/virtual-environments-for-visualizing-structural-health-monitoring-sensor-networks-data-and-metadata
#4
Rebecca Napolitano, Anna Blyth, Branko Glisic
Visualization of sensor networks, data, and metadata is becoming one of the most pivotal aspects of the structural health monitoring (SHM) process. Without the ability to communicate efficiently and effectively between disparate groups working on a project, an SHM system can be underused, misunderstood, or even abandoned. For this reason, this work seeks to evaluate visualization techniques in the field, identify flaws in current practices, and devise a new method for visualizing and accessing SHM data and metadata in 3D...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280164/the-epistemic-costs-of-compromise-in-bioethics
#5
Katrien Devolder, Thomas Douglas
Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether this common sense view can be given a principled basis...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260003/why-sensitive-bacteria-are-resistant-to-hospital-infection-control
#6
Esther van Kleef, Nantasit Luangasanatip, Marc J Bonten, Ben S Cooper
BACKGROUND: Large reductions in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile have been observed in response to multifaceted hospital-based interventions. Reductions in antibiotic-sensitive strains have been smaller or non-existent. It has been argued that since infection control measures, such as hand hygiene, should affect resistant and sensitive strains equally, observed changes must have largely resulted from other factors, including changes in antibiotic use...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#7
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233060/ignoring-theory-and-misinterpreting-evidence-the-false-belief-in-fear-appeals
#8
Gerjo Kok, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Loes T E Kessels, Gill A Ten Hoor, Robert A C Ruiter
Use of fear appeals assumes that when people are emotionally confronted with the negative effects of their behavior they will change that behavior. That reasoning is simple and intuitive, but only true under specific, rare circumstances. Risk-perception theories predict that if people will experience a threat, they want to counter that threat. However, how they do so is determined by their coping efficacy level: if efficacy is high, they may change their behavior in the suggested direction; if efficacy is low, they react defensively...
December 12, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228767/revealing-electron-electron-interactions-within-lewis-pairs-in-chemical-systems
#9
Adam Jonathan Proud, Brendan James Henry Sheppard, Jason Kenneth Pearson
The so-called "Lewis Pair" is a ubiquitous phenomenon in chemistry and is often used as an intuitive construct to predict and rationalize chemical structure and behaviour. Concepts from the very general Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model to the most esoteric reaction mechanism routinely rely on the notion that electrons tend to exist in pairs and that these pairs can be thought of as being localized to a particular region of space. It is precisely this localization that allows one to intuit how these pairs might behave, generally speaking, so that reasonable predictions may be made regarding molecular structure, intermolecular interactions, property trends, and reaction mechanisms, etc...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214014/influence-of-perceived-difficulty-of-cases-on-student-osteopaths-diagnostic-reasoning-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Aurelien L Noyer, Jorge E Esteves, Oliver P Thomson
Background: Diagnostic reasoning refers to the cognitive processes by which clinicians formulate diagnoses. Despite the implications for patient safety and professional identity, research on diagnostic reasoning in osteopathy remains largely theoretical. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perceived task difficulty on the diagnostic reasoning of students osteopaths. Methods: Using a single-blinded, cross sectional study design, sixteen final year pre-registration osteopathy students diagnosed two standardized cases under two context conditions (complex versus control)...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209469/probability-or-reasoning-current-thinking-and-realistic-strategies-for-improved-medical-decisions
#11
REVIEW
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha
A prescriptive model approach in decision making could help achieve better diagnostic accuracy in clinical practice through methods that are less reliant on probabilistic assessments. Various prescriptive measures aimed at regulating factors that influence heuristics and clinical reasoning could support clinical decision-making process. Clinicians could avoid time-consuming decision-making methods that require probabilistic calculations. Intuitively, they could rely on heuristics to obtain an accurate diagnosis in a given clinical setting...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189494/rethinking-remediation-a-model-to-support-the-detailed-diagnosis-of-clinicians-performance-problems-and-the-development-of-effective-remediation-plans
#12
Linda Prescott-Clements, Vicky Voller, Mark Bell, Natasha Nestors, Cees P M van der Vleuten
The successful remediation of clinicians demonstrating poor performance in the workplace is essential to ensure the provision of safe patient care. Clinicians may develop performance problems for numerous reasons, including health, personal factors, the workplace environment, or outdated knowledge/skills. Performance problems are often complex involving multifactorial issues, encompassing knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors. It is important that (where possible and appropriate) clinicians are supported through effective remediation to return them to safe clinical practice...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171005/is-there-a-downside-to-anticipating-the-upside-children-s-and-adults-reasoning-about-how-prior-expectations-shape-future-emotions
#13
Karen Hjortsvang Lara, Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters' pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6-7 years for negative outcomes, 8-10 years for attenuated, and never for positive...
November 24, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169546/telehealth-electronic-monitoring-to-reduce-postdischarge-complications-and-surgical-site-infections-after-arterial-revascularization-with-groin-incision
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Albeir Y Mousa, Mike Broce, Elaine Davis, Barbara McKee, Michael Yacoub
It is intuitive that postdischarge surgical complications are associated with increased patient dissatisfaction, and are directly associated with an increase in medical expenditures. It is also easy to make the connection that many post-hospital discharge surgical complications, including surgical site infections (SSIs), could be influenced or exacerbated by patient comorbidities. The authors of a recent study reported that female gender, obesity, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, coronary artery disease, critical limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea, and neurologic disease were significant predictors of SSIs after vascular reconstruction was performed...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#15
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163313/intuitive-choices-lead-to-intensified-positive-emotions-an-overlooked-reason-for-intuition-bias
#16
Geir Kirkebøen, Gro H H Nordbye
People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163123/closed-loop-hybrid-gaze-brain-machine-interface-based-robotic-arm-control-with-augmented-reality-feedback
#17
Hong Zeng, Yanxin Wang, Changcheng Wu, Aiguo Song, Jia Liu, Peng Ji, Baoguo Xu, Lifeng Zhu, Huijun Li, Pengcheng Wen
Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156372/psychometric-properties-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-ies-2-in-a-culturally-diverse-hispanic-american-sample
#18
Jessica F Saunders, Kristin A Nichols-Lopez, Leslie D Frazier
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating tendency consistently associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes, including lower risk for obesity and eating disorders (EDs). Obesity rates are disproportionately high in Hispanic American populations, yet the properties of intuitive eating remain to be examined in such samples. METHOD: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a Hispanic American sample of adult college students (N=482), and related IES-2 scores to levels of disordered eating, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable consumption, and body shape satisfaction...
November 14, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149038/adherence-to-hunger-training-over-6-months-and-the-effect-on-weight-and-eating-behaviour-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Michelle R Jospe, Rachael W Taylor, Josie Athens, Melyssa Roy, Rachel C Brown
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132635/need-of-informatics-in-designing-interoperable-clinical-registries
#20
Majid Rastegar-Mojarad, Sunghwan Sohn, Liwei Wang, Feichen Shen, Troy C Bleeker, William A Cliby, Hongfang Liu
Clinical registries are designed to collect information relating to a particular condition for research or quality improvement. Intuitively, informatics in the area of data management and extraction plays a central role in clinical registries. Due to various reasons such as lack of informatics awareness or expertise, there may be little informatics involvement in designing clinical registries. In this paper, we studied a clinical registry from two critical perspectives, data quality and interoperability, where informatics can play a role...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
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