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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#1
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821538/reflecting-on-graphs-attributes-of-graph-choice-and-construction-practices-in-biology
#2
Aakanksha Angra, Stephanie M Gardner
Undergraduate biology education reform aims to engage students in scientific practices such as experimental design, experimentation, and data analysis and communication. Graphs are ubiquitous in the biological sciences, and creating effective graphical representations involves quantitative and disciplinary concepts and skills. Past studies document student difficulties with graphing within the contexts of classroom or national assessments without evaluating student reasoning. Operating under the metarepresentational competence framework, we conducted think-aloud interviews to reveal differences in reasoning and graph quality between undergraduate biology students, graduate students, and professors in a pen-and-paper graphing task...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#3
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776714/the-bonding-picture-in-hypervalent-xf3-x%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cl-br-i-at-fluorides-revisited-with-quantum-chemical-topology
#4
Mohamed Amaouch, Dumitru-Claudiu Sergentu, David Steinmetz, Rémi Maurice, Nicolas Galland, Julien Pilmé
Hypervalent XF3 (X = Cl, Br, I, At) fluorides exhibit T-shaped C2V equilibrium structures with the heavier of them, AtF3 , also revealing an almost isoenergetic planar D3h structure. Factors explaining this behavior based on simple "chemical intuition" are currently missing. In this work, we combine non-relativistic (ClF3 ), scalar-relativistic and two-component (X = Br - At) density functional theory calculations, and bonding analyses based on the electron localization function and the quantum theory of atoms in molecules...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744252/deficits-in-approximate-number-system-acuity-and-mathematical-abilities-in-6-5-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm
#5
Melissa E Libertus, Lea Forsman, Ulrika Adén, Kerstin Hellgren
Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children's ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82) and term-born children (n = 89) completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity) task and a standardized math test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#6
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725296/revisiting-folk-moral-realism
#7
Thomas Pölzler
Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714711/children-understand-that-agents-maximize-expected-utilities
#8
Julian Jara-Ettinger, Sammy Floyd, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Laura E Schulz
A growing set of studies suggests that our ability to infer, and reason about, mental states is supported by the assumption that agents maximize utilities-the rewards they attain minus the costs they incur. This assumption enables observers to work backward from agents' observed behavior to their underlying beliefs, preferences, and competencies. Intuitively, however, agents may have incomplete, uncertain, or wrong beliefs about what they want. More formally, agents try to maximize their expected utilities...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709305/information-trimming-sufficient-statistics-mutual-information-and-predictability-from-effective-channel-states
#9
Ryan G James, John R Mahoney, James P Crutchfield
One of the most basic characterizations of the relationship between two random variables, X and Y, is the value of their mutual information. Unfortunately, calculating it analytically and estimating it empirically are often stymied by the extremely large dimension of the variables. One might hope to replace such a high-dimensional variable by a smaller one that preserves its relationship with the other. It is well known that either X (or Y) can be replaced by its minimal sufficient statistic about Y (or X) while preserving the mutual information...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686588/inherent-limitations-of-probabilistic-models-for-protein-dna-binding-specificity
#10
Shuxiang Ruan, Gary D Stormo
The specificities of transcription factors are most commonly represented with probabilistic models. These models provide a probability for each base occurring at each position within the binding site and the positions are assumed to contribute independently. The model is simple and intuitive and is the basis for many motif discovery algorithms. However, the model also has inherent limitations that prevent it from accurately representing true binding probabilities, especially for the highest affinity sites under conditions of high protein concentration...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671478/a-qualitative-study-exploring-factors-influencing-clinical-decision-making-for-influenza-like-illness-in-solapur-city-maharashtra-india
#11
A S Ahankari, P R Myles, S Tsang, F Khan, S Atre, T Langley, A Kudale, M Bains
The co-existence of different types of medical systems (medical pluralism) is a typical feature of India's healthcare system. For conditions such as influenza-like illness (ILI), where non-specific disease signs/symptoms exist, clinical reasoning in the context of medical pluralism becomes crucial. Recognising this need, we undertook a qualitative study, which explored factors underpinning clinical decisions on diagnosis and management of ILI. The study involved semi-structured interviews including clinical vignettes with 20 healthcare practitioners (working within allopathy, homeopathy and Ayurveda) working in the private healthcare sector in Solapur city, India...
July 3, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658946/heating-enhanced-dielectrophoresis-for-aligned-single-walled-carbon-nanotube-film-of-ultrahigh-density
#12
Qingyuan Gu, Maud Guezo, Hervé Folliot, Thomas Batte, Slimane Loualiche, Julie Stervinou
In this paper, we demonstrate that the alignment density of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be greatly improved by heating-enhanced dielectrophoresis (HE-DEP) process. The observations by scanning electron microscope (SEM) suggest ultrahigh alignment density and good alignment quality of SWCNTs. The intuitive alignment density of individualized SWCNTs is much higher than the currently reported best results. The reason of this HE-DEP process is explained by simulation work and ascribed to the heating-enhanced convection process, and the "convection force" induced by the heating effect is assessed in a novel way...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657313/novel-methods-for-prioritizing-close-in-analogs-from-structure-activity-relationship-matrices
#13
Liying Zhang, Kjell Johnson, Jeremy Starr, Jared Milbank, Andrew M Kuhn, Christopher Poss, Robert V Stanton, Veerabahu Shanmugasundaram
Here we describe the development of novel methods for compound evaluation and prioritization based on the structure-activity relationship matrix (SARM) framework. The SARM data structure allows automatic and exhaustive extraction of SAR patterns from data sets and their organization into a chemically intuitive scaffold/functional-group format. While SARMs have been used in the retrospective analysis of SAR discontinuity and identifying underexplored regions of chemistry space, there have been only a few attempts to apply SARMs prospectively in the prioritization of "close-in" analogs...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651546/allocating-health-care-resources-a-questionnaire-experiment-on-the-predictive-success-of-rules
#14
Marlies Ahlert, Lars Schwettmann
BACKGROUND: The topic of this paper is related to equity in health within a country. In public health care sectors of many countries decisions on priority setting with respect to treatment of different types of diseases or patient groups are implicitly or explicitly made. Priorities are realized by allocation decisions for medical resources where moral judgments play an important role with respect to goals and measures that should be applied. The aim of this study is to explore the moral intuitions held in the German society related to priorities in medical treatment...
June 26, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629648/ten-reasons-to-embrace-scientism
#15
Rik Peels
A strong version of scientism, such as that of Alex Rosenberg, says, roughly, that natural science reliably delivers rational belief or knowledge, whereas common sense sources of belief, such as moral intuition, memory, and introspection, do not. In this paper I discuss ten reasons that adherents of scientism have or might put forward in defence of scientism. The aim is to show which considerations could plausibly count in favour of scientism and what this implies for the way scientism ought to be formulated...
June 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582254/studies-involving-people-with-dementia-and-touchscreen-technology-a-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Phil Joddrell, Arlene J Astell
BACKGROUND: Devices using touchscreen interfaces such as tablets and smartphones have been highlighted as potentially suitable for people with dementia due to their intuitive and simple control method. This population experience a lack of meaningful, engaging activities, yet the potential use of the touchscreen format to address this issue has not been fully realized. OBJECTIVE: To identify and synthesize the existing body of literature involving the use of touchscreen technology and people with dementia in order to guide future research in this area...
November 4, 2016: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558050/citizen-science-a-new-perspective-to-advance-spatial-pattern-evaluation-in-hydrology
#17
Julian Koch, Simon Stisen
Citizen science opens new pathways that can complement traditional scientific practice. Intuition and reasoning often make humans more effective than computer algorithms in various realms of problem solving. In particular, a simple visual comparison of spatial patterns is a task where humans are often considered to be more reliable than computer algorithms. However, in practice, science still largely depends on computer based solutions, which inevitably gives benefits such as speed and the possibility to automatize processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557945/how-entrustment-is-informed-by-holistic-judgments-across-time-in-a-family-medicine-residency-program-an-ethnographic-nonparticipant-observational-study
#18
Margaretha H Sagasser, Cornelia R M G Fluit, Chris van Weel, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Anneke W M Kramer
PURPOSE: Entrustment has mainly been conceptualized as delegating discrete professional tasks. Because residents provide most of their patient care independently, not all resident performance is visible to supervisors; the entrustment process involves more than granting discrete tasks. This study explored how supervisors made entrustment decisions based on residents' performance in a long-term family medicine training program. METHOD: A qualitative nonparticipant observational study was conducted in 2014-2015 at competency-based family medicine residency programs in the Netherlands...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554318/anti-cancer-compounds-targeted-to-vdac-potential-and-perspectives
#19
Simona Reina, Vito De Pinto
VDAC (Voltage-Dependent Anion selective Channel) is a small family of abundant pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Their role range from the most intuitive, the formation of a hydrophilic conduit through the membrane thanks to its beta-barrel structure, to less understood functions that make them essential actors in the cross-talk between the bioenergetics metabolism and the cytosol components. Due to this localization, VDAC1, in particular, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, hexokinase and tubulin binding, and in the Warburg effect...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544082/a-resource-of-potential-drug-targets-and-strategic-decision-making-for-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-pharmacotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Richard L Horner, Kevin P Grace, Andrew Wellman
There is currently no pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but there is no principled a priori reason why there should not be one. This review identifies a rational decision-making strategy with the necessary logical underpinnings that any reasonable approach would be expected to navigate to develop a viable pharmacotherapy for OSA. The process first involves phenotyping an individual to quantify and characterize the critical predisposing factor(s) to their OSA pathogenesis and identify, a priori, if the patient is likely to benefit from a pharmacotherapy that targets those factors...
July 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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