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Intuitive reasoning

Maria C Haller, Michael Kammer, Rainer Oberbauer
Pre-emptive kidney transplantation is the recommended strategy for patients with end-stage renal failure in all guidelines [Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), The Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (ANZDATA), European Renal Best Practice Guideline (ERBP), British Transplant Society (BTS)]. This recommendation is intuitive and based on few older studies with considerable limitations. In addition, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the duration of dialysis vintage impacts on graft and patient survival after transplantation...
April 20, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Minxia Luo, Ruirui Zhao
The intuitionistic fuzzy set, as a generation of fuzzy set, can express and process uncertainty much better. Distance measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets are used to indicate the difference degree between the information carried by intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Although some distance measures have been proposed in previous studies, they can not satisfy the axioms of distance measure, or exist counter-intuitive cases. In this paper, we give a new distance measure between intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which is based on a matrix norm and a strictly increasing (or decreasing) binary function...
June 8, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Erick Martins Ratamero, Dom Bellini, Christopher G Dowson, Rudolf A Römer
The ability to precisely visualize the atomic geometry of the interactions between a drug and its protein target in structural models is critical in predicting the correct modifications in previously identified inhibitors to create more effective next generation drugs. It is currently common practice among medicinal chemists while attempting the above to access the information contained in three-dimensional structures by using two-dimensional projections, which can preclude disclosure of useful features. A more accessible and intuitive visualization of the three-dimensional configuration of the atomic geometry in the models can be achieved through the implementation of immersive virtual reality (VR)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Josh Deutsch
The emergence of statistical mechanics for isolated classical systems comes about through chaotic dynamics and ergodicity. Here we review how similar questions can be answered in quantum systems. The crucial point is that individual energy eigenstates behave in many ways like a statistical ensemble. A more detailed statement of this is named the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis (ETH). The reasons for why it works in so many cases are rooted in the early work of Wigner on random matrix theory and our understanding of quantum chaos...
June 4, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Christopher S Hill
Although there is much talk in various literatures of streams of consciousness, and most of us have an intuitive understanding of such talk, we are far from having a full grasp of what it is that unifies streams of consciousness, binding together the individual experiences that serve as their constituents. In recent years, discussion of this topic has been principally concerned with synchronic unity of consciousness-the form of unity that is exhibited by momentary states of consciousness, or in other words, by time slices or temporal segments of streams...
May 29, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Marco Ragni, Ilir Kola, Philip N Johnson-Laird
How individuals choose evidence to test hypotheses is a long-standing puzzle. According to an algorithmic theory that we present, it is based on dual processes: individuals' intuitions depending on mental models of the hypothesis yield selections of evidence matching instances of the hypothesis, but their deliberations yield selections of potential counterexamples to the hypothesis. The results of 228 experiments using Wason's selection task corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants made dependent choices of items of evidence: the selections in 99 experiments were significantly more redundant (using Shannon's measure) than those of 10,000 simulations of each experiment based on independent selections...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Nicholas Binney
Some philosophers of medicine argue that there are objective facts about the biological function of organs, and that these facts are used to objectively define diseases. The function of the heart is taken to be particularly obvious and well established. Contrary to this, I argue that the function of the heart is not fixed by nature, but rather that it is historically contingent. The disease heart failure results from the dysfunction of the heart. In opposition to the common-sense intuitions of philosophers, medics do not define heart failure simply as a reduced cardiac output, and up to half of patients with heart failure have a normal cardiac output...
May 17, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Robert M O'Brien
Venn diagrams are used to provide an intuitive understanding of multiple regression analysis and these diagrams work well with two variables. The area of overlap of the two variables has a one-to-one relationship to the squared correlation between them. This approach breaks down, however, with three-variables. Making the overlap between the pairs of variables consistent with their squared bivariate correlations often results in the overlap of two of these variables with the third variable that is not the same as the variance of the third variable accounted for by the other two variables...
2018: PloS One
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Fuyuan Xiao, Bowen Qin
Dempster⁻Shafer evidence theory is widely applied in various fields related to information fusion. However, how to avoid the counter-intuitive results is an open issue when combining highly conflicting pieces of evidence. In order to handle such a problem, a weighted combination method for conflicting pieces of evidence in multi-sensor data fusion is proposed by considering both the interplay between the pieces of evidence and the impacts of the pieces of evidence themselves. First, the degree of credibility of the evidence is determined on the basis of the modified cosine similarity measure of basic probability assignment...
May 9, 2018: Sensors
Ying Mao, Shengqiang Wang, Zhongfeng Qiu, Deyong Sun, Muhammad Bilal
Secchi disk depth (Zsd ), represents water transparency which is an intuitive indicator of water quality and can be used to derive inherent optical properties, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and primary productivity. In this study, the Zsd was derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data over the Bohai Sea (BHS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) using a regional tuned model. To validate the GOCI derived Zsd observations, in situ data, were collected for the BHS and YS regions. Results showed a good agreement between the GOCI derived Zsd observations and in situ measurements with a determination coefficient of 0...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Takayuki Niizato, Hisashi Murakami
Collective behaviors that seem highly ordered and result in collective alignment, such as schooling by fish and flocking by birds, arise from seamless shuffling (such as super-diffusion) and bustling inside groups (such as Lévy walks). However, such noisy behavior inside groups appears to preclude the collective behavior: intuitively, we expect that noisy behavior would lead to the group being destabilized and broken into small sub groups, and high alignment seems to preclude shuffling of neighbors. Although statistical modeling approaches with extrinsic noise, such as the maximum entropy approach, have provided some reasonable descriptions, they ignore the cognitive perspective of the individuals...
2018: PloS One
Tomer D Ullman, Andreas Stuhlmüller, Noah D Goodman, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time...
August 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Moira R Dillon, Elizabeth S Spelke
The origins and development of our geometric intuitions have been debated for millennia. The present study links children's developing intuitions about the properties of planar triangles to their developing abilities to read purely geometric maps. Six-year-old children are limited when navigating by maps that depict only the sides of a triangle in an environment composed of only the triangle's corners and vice versa. Six-year-old children also incorrectly judge how the angle size of the third corner of a triangle varies with changes to the other two corners...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Alison Wright-Reid
Crisis situations are inherently uncertain and threatening. Although the primal stress reactions they provoke deliver some advantages, they so severely restrict intellect and behaviour that consultants observe crisis teams making the same mistakes over and again. Stress risks can be managed before, during and after a crisis. Crisis planning can select the right people, control the crisis team environment, and mitigate fatigue risks and memory demands. Because stress reactions are primitive, stress can be manipulated at a remarkably primitive level and teams can increase their resilience through such basics as sleep and breathing skills...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Nicoló Cesana-Arlotti, Ana Martín, Ernő Téglás, Liza Vorobyova, Ryszard Cetnarski, Luca L Bonatti
Infants are able to entertain hypotheses about complex events and to modify them rationally when faced with inconsistent evidence. These capacities suggest that infants can use elementary logical representations to frame and prune hypotheses. By presenting scenes containing ambiguities about the identity of an object, here we show that 12- and 19-month-old infants look longer at outcomes that are inconsistent with a logical inference necessary to resolve such ambiguities. At the moment of a potential deduction, infants' pupils dilated, and their eyes moved toward the ambiguous object when inferences could be computed, in contrast to transparent scenes not requiring inferences to identify the object...
March 16, 2018: Science
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich
The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis)...
March 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
James R Young, Colette Sih, Melanie M Hogg, Brittany L Anderson-Montoya, Heather T Fasano
The Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report pain scale validated in numerous countries, but not in Cameroon. We postulated that while cultural factors influence pain perception and expression, the FPS-R should remain culturally acceptable for pediatric use. A convenience sample of 36 pediatric patients, aged 4 to 16 years, representing three primary language groups, was enrolled at Mbingo Baptist Hospital (MBH). Pre- and postanalgesia FPS-R scores and vital signs were obtained. Audio-recorded cognitive interviews were performed with each participant...
April 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Fumihiro Matsuda, Junya Yamada, Norihide Itoh, Eiichi Saitoh
Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is shown to be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of gait abnormality due to movement disorders. However, the use of 3DGA in actual clinics remains uncommon. Possible reasons could include the time-consuming measurement process and difficulties in understanding measurement results, which are often presented using a large number of graphs. Here we present a clinician-friendly 3DGA method developed to facilitate the clinical use of 3DGA. This method consists of simplified preparation and measurement processes that can be performed in a short time period in clinical settings and intuitive results presentation to facilitate clinicians' understanding of results...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Roger W Nightingale, Cameron R Bass, Barry S Myers
BACKGROUND: Cervical bilateral facet dislocations are among the most devastating spine injuries in terms of likelihood of severe neurological sequelae. More than half of patients with tetraparesis had sustained some form of bilateral facet fracture dislocation. They can occur at any level of the sub-axial cervical spine, but predominate between C5 and C7. The mechanism of these injuries has long been thought to be forceful flexion of the chin towards the chest. This "hyperflexion" hypothesis comports well with intuition and it has become dogma in the clinical literature...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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