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Epigenetics and aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457866/epigenetic-effects-of-metformin-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
S C Bridgeman, G C Ellison, P E Melton, P Newsholme, Cds Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly via modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452766/traumatic-stress-and-accelerated-dna-methylation-age-a-meta-analysis
#3
Erika J Wolf, Hannah Maniates, Nicole Nugent, Adam X Maihofer, Don Armstrong, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Melanie Garrett, Nathan A Kimbrel, Adriana Lori, Va Mid-Atlantic Mirecc Workgroup, Allison E Aiello, Dewleen G Baker, Jean C Beckham, Marco P Boks, Sandro Galea, Elbert Geuze, Michael A Hauser, Ronald C Kessler, Karestan C Koenen, Mark W Miller, Kerry J Ressler, Victoria Risbrough, Bart P F Rutten, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Eric Vermetten, Christiaan H Vinkers, Monica Uddin, Alicia K Smith, Caroline M Nievergelt, Mark W Logue
BACKGROUND: Recent studies examining the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and accelerated aging, as defined by DNA methylation-based estimates of cellular age that exceed chronological age, have yielded mixed results. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity in association with accelerated DNA methylation age using data from 9 cohorts contributing to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD Epigenetics Workgroup (combined N = 2186)...
December 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441447/transcriptional-mechanisms-of-secondary-fracture-healing
#4
REVIEW
Joseph L Roberts, David N Paglia, Hicham Drissi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growing evidence supports the critical role of transcriptional mechanisms in promoting the spatial and temporal progression of bone healing. In this review, we evaluate and discuss new transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of secondary bone repair, along with emerging evidence for epigenetic regulation of fracture healing. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the candidate gene approach has identified new roles for several transcription factors in mediating the reactive, reparative, and remodeling phases of fracture repair...
February 13, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440637/cytosine-modifications-exhibit-circadian-oscillations-that-are-involved-in-epigenetic-diversity-and-aging
#5
Gabriel Oh, Sasha Ebrahimi, Matthew Carlucci, Aiping Zhang, Akhil Nair, Daniel E Groot, Viviane Labrie, Peixin Jia, Edward S Oh, Richie H Jeremian, Miki Susic, Tenjin C Shrestha, Martin R Ralph, Juozas Gordevičius, Karolis Koncevičius, Art Petronis
Circadian rhythmicity governs a remarkable array of fundamental biological functions and is mediated by cyclical transcriptomic and proteomic activities. Epigenetic factors are also involved in this circadian machinery; however, despite extensive efforts, detection and characterization of circadian cytosine modifications at the nucleotide level have remained elusive. In this study, we report that a large proportion of epigenetically variable cytosines show a circadian pattern in their modification status in mice...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438699/dna-methylation-patterns-separate-senescence-from-transformation-potential-and-indicate-cancer-risk
#6
Wenbing Xie, Ioannis Kagiampakis, Lixia Pan, Yang W Zhang, Lauren Murphy, Yong Tao, Xiangqian Kong, Byunghak Kang, Limin Xia, Filipe L F Carvalho, Subhojit Sen, Ray-Whay Chiu Yen, Cynthia A Zahnow, Nita Ahuja, Stephen B Baylin, Hariharan Easwaran
Overall shared DNA methylation patterns between senescence (Sen) and cancers have led to the model that tumor-promoting epigenetic patterns arise through senescence. We show that transformation-associated methylation changes arise stochastically and independently of programmatic changes during senescence. Promoter hypermethylation events in transformation involve primarily pro-survival and developmental genes, similarly modified in primary tumors. Senescence-associated hypermethylation mainly involves metabolic regulators and appears early in proliferating "near-senescent" cells, which can be immortalized but are refractory to transformation...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436922/breast-cancer-family-history-and-allele-specific-dna-methylation-in-the-legacy-girls-study
#7
Hui-Chen Wu, Catherine Do, Irene L Andrulis, Esther M John, Mary B Daly, Saundra S Buys, Wendy K Chung, Julia A Knight, Angela R Bradbury, Theresa H M Keegan, Lisa Schwartz, Izabela Krupska, Rachel L Miller, Regina M Santella, Benjamin Tycko, Mary Beth Terry
Family history, a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, can have both genetic and environmental contributions. Shared environment in families as well as epigenetic changes that also may be influenced by shared genetics and environment may also explain familial clustering of cancers. Epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, can change the activity of a DNA segment without a change in the sequence; environmental exposures experienced across the life course can induce such changes. However, genetic-epigenetic interactions, detected as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs; a...
February 13, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436791/promoter-hypermethylation-of-the-eyes-absent-4-gene-is-a-tumor-specific-epigenetic-biomarker-in-iranian-colorectal-cancer-patients
#8
Matineh Barati Bagerabad, Sahar Tavakolian, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypermethylation of Eyes Absent 4 (EYA4) is also implicated in Iranian Colorectal Cancer (CRC) patients or not. From fresh frozen tissues, samples from 38 paired (cancer and normal) CRC tissue specimens were used in this study, the DNA was isolated, sodium bisulfite treated and analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase (MSP) chain reaction using primers specific for unmethylated or methylated promoter sequences of the EYA4 gene. We also analyzed EYA4 mRNA expression using real time RT-PCR...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435587/a-disease-associated-microrna-cluster-links-inflammatory-pathways-and-an-altered-composition-of-leukocyte-subsets-to-noninfectious-uveitis
#9
Fleurieke H Verhagen, Cornelis P J Bekker, Marzia Rossato, Sanne Hiddingh, Lieuwe de Vries, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Aridaman Pandit, Jeannette Ossewaarde-van Norel, Ninette Ten Dam, Maartje C A Moret-Pot, Saskia M Imhof, Joke H de Boer, Timothy R D J Radstake, Jonas J W Kuiper
Purpose: The cause of noninfectious uveitis (NIU) is poorly understood but is considered to be mediated by a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and-relatively unexplored-epigenetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNAs that are important epigenetic regulators implicated in pathologic signaling. Therefore, we mapped the circulating miRNA-ome of NIU patients and studied miRNA perturbations within the broader context of the immune system. Methods: We designed a strategy to robustly identify changes in the miRNA profiles of two independent cohorts totaling 54 untreated patients with active and eye-restricted disease and 26 age-matched controls...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432878/longitudinal-associations-between-glucocorticoid-receptor-methylation-and-late-life-depression
#10
Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Hye-Ran Kim, Myung-Geun Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jae-Min Kim
It has been suggested that hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation plays a role in the etiology of depression. HPA axis function is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), which are influenced by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation). The association between the DNA methylation of the GR gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1; NR3C1) and late-life depression as well as the role of NR3C1 methylation in the prediction of the incidence of depression have not yet been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432558/models-of-epigenetic-age-capture-patterns-of-dna-methylation-in-glioma-associated-with-molecular-subtype-survival-and-recurrence
#11
Peter Liao, Quinn T Ostrom, Lindsay Stetson, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
Background: Models of epigenetic aging (epigenetic clocks) have been implicated as potentially useful markers for cancer risk and prognosis. Using two previously published methods for modeling epigenetic age, Horvath's clock and epiTOC, we investigated epigenetic aging patterns related to WHO grade and molecular subtype as well as associations of epigenetic aging with glioma survival and recurrence. Methods: Epigenetic ages were calculated using Horvath's clock and epiTOC on 516 lower grade glioma and 141 glioblastoma cases along with 136 non-tumor (normal) brain samples...
February 8, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428949/elevated-global-dna-methylation-is-not-exclusive-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-is-also-observed-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-types-1-and-2
#12
Hamid Hamzeiy, Doruk Savaş, Ceren Tunca, Nesli Ece Şen, Aslı Gündoğdu Eken, Irmak Şahbaz, Daniela Calini, Cinzia Tiloca, Nicola Ticozzi, Antonia Ratti, Vincenzo Silani, A Nazlı Başak
Adult-onset neurological disorders are caused and influenced by a multitude of different factors, including epigenetic modifications. Here, using an ELISA kit selected upon careful testing, we investigated global 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) levels in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS and fALS), spinocerebellar ataxia types 1 and 2 (SCA1 and SCA2), Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. We report a significant elevation in global 5-mC levels of about 2-7% on average for sALS (p < 0...
February 9, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427568/aging-and-nutrition-induce-tissue-specific-changes-on-global-dna-methylation-status-in-rats
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Guarasci, Patrizia D'Aquila, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, F Lattanzio, Andrea Corsonello, Giuseppe Passarino, Dina Bellizzi
A number of epigenetic studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns exhibit a tissue specificity, but not much has been done to highlight the extent of this phenomenon. Moreover, it is unknown how external factors modulate the plasticity of the tissue specific epigenetic profile. We examined global DNA methylation profiles in tissues from rats of different age, fed with standard or low-calorie diet, and evaluated their association with aging and nutrition. Tissue-specific variations occur during aging with hyper-methylation taking place in all tissues except for liver...
February 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427040/novel-epigenetic-markers-for-gastric-cancer-risk-stratification-in-individuals-after-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#14
Masahiro Maeda, Satoshi Yamashita, Taichi Shimazu, Naoko Iida, Hideyuki Takeshima, Takeshi Nakajima, Ichiro Oda, Sohachi Nanjo, Chika Kusano, Akiko Mori, Hiroshi Moro, Harumi Yamada, Shoichiro Tsugane, Toshiro Sugiyama, Yoshiharu Sakai, Toshikazu Ushijima
BACKGROUND: The risk stratification of healthy individuals after Helicobacter pylori eradication is an urgent issue. The assessment of aberrant DNA methylation accumulated in gastric tissues with normal appearance, which can reflect overall epigenomic damage, is a promising strategy. We aimed to establish novel epigenetic cancer risk markers for H. pylori-eradicated individuals. METHODS: Gastric mucosa was collected from eight healthy volunteers without H. pylori infection (G1), 75 healthy individuals with gastric atrophy (G2), and 94 gastric cancer patients (G3) after H...
February 9, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425818/dna-methylation-of-the-klf14-gene-region-on-whole-blood-provide-prediction-for-the-chronic-inflammation-at-the-adipose-tissue
#15
Chihiro Iwaya, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Ken Yamamoto, Yasutaka Maeda, Noriyuki Sonoda, Hiroki Shibata, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Krüppel-Like Factor 14 (KLF14) gene, which appears to be a master regulator of gene expression on the adipose tissue and have previously been associated with BMI and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) by large GWAS studies. In order to find predictive biomarkers for the development of T2D, it is necessary to take into account changes in the epigenome affected by environmental factors. This study focused on aging and obesity, which are T2D risk factor, and examines epigenetic changes and inflammatory changes. Thus we investigated DNA methylation change at Klf14 promoter region of different organs using mice for comparing aging and weight...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423788/evaluation-of-extraction-methods-for-methylated-cell-free-fetal-dna-from-maternal-plasma
#16
Ji Hyae Lim, Bom Yi Lee, Jin Woo Kim, You Jung Han, Jin Hoon Chung, Min Hyoung Kim, Dong Wook Kwak, So Yeon Park, Hee Back Choi, Hyun Mee Ryu
PURPOSE: Recently, fetal placenta-specific epigenetic regions (FSERs) have been identified for quantification of cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies of a column-based kit and magnetic bead-based kit for quantification of methylated FSERs from maternal plasma. METHODS: Maternal plasma was extracted from normal pregnant women within the gestational age of 10~13 weeks (n = 24)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423397/age-is-relative-impact-of-donor-age-on-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cell-functionality
#17
REVIEW
Elisabeth Tamara Strässler, Katriina Aalto-Setälä, Mostafa Kiamehr, Ulf Landmesser, Nicolle Kränkel
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells: limited availability of source material due to legal restrictions in some countries, immunogenic rejection and ethical concerns. Also, the donor's clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Therefore, iPSCs seem ideal to tackle the two biggest tasks of regenerative medicine: degenerative diseases with genetic cause (e.g., Duchenne's muscular dystrophy) and organ replacement in age-related diseases (e...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423319/improvement-of-long-term-memory-access-with-a-pro-dopamine-regulator-in-an-elderly-male-are-we-targeting-dopamine-tone
#18
Thomas McLaughlin, David Han, James Nicholson, Bruce Steinberg, Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Eric Braverman, Mona Li, Lyle Fried, Rajendra Badgaiyan
With aging, there is decline in both short-term and long-term memory. This effect is magnified by epigenetic insults on specific, dopamine- related genes (e.g., DRD2, DAT1) as well as by impaired or reduced mRNA transcription. In addition, long-term memory ability is positively correlated with dopamine function and there is evidence that aging is associated with a reduction in brain dopamine D2 receptors, with an acceleration seen in aging-induced dementia. As a result, the authors tested the acute effect of a Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220Z, liquid Nano variant) on an aspect of long-term memory performance in a 77-year-old, highly functional male, using the Animal Naming Test (ANT)...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421168/associations-of-urinary-phthalate-metabolites-and-lipid-peroxidation-with-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-deletions
#19
Alexandra M Huffman, Haotian Wu, Allyson Rosati, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, Brian W Whitcomb, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Phthalates, a chemical class of plasticizers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and DNA deletions (mtDNAdel) are emerging biomarkers for cellular oxidative stress and environment exposures. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations on sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel in male partners undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART)...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420841/daphnia-magna-micrornas-respond-to-nutritional-stress-and-ageing-but-are-not-transgenerational
#20
Jack Hearn, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Harriet Barton, Matthew Tung, Phil Wilson, Mark Blaxter, Amy Buck, Tom J Little
Maternal effects, where the performance of offspring is determined by the condition of their mother, are widespread and may in some cases be adaptive. The crustacean Daphnia magna shows strong maternal effects: offspring size at birth and other proxies for fitness are altered when their mothers are older or when mothers have experienced dietary restriction. The mechanisms for this transgenerational transmission of maternal experience are unknown, but could include changes in epigenetic patterning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been shown to play roles in intergenerational information transfer, and here we test whether miRNAs are involved in D...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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