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Epigenetics and aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649606/elevated-5hmc-levels-characterize-dna-of-the-cerebellum-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Reinhard Stöger, Paula J Scaife, Freya Shephard, Lisa Chakrabarti
5-methylcytosine and the oxidation product 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are two prominent epigenetic variants of the cytosine base in nuclear DNA of mammalian brains. We measured levels of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in DNA from post-mortem cerebella of individuals with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. 5-methylcytosine levels showed no significant differences between Parkinson's disease and control DNA sample sets. In contrast, median 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were almost twice as high (p < 0...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649287/regulating-role-of-fetal-thyroid-hormones-on-placental-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-epidemiological-evidence-from-the-environage-birth-cohort-study
#2
Bram G Janssen, Hyang-Min Byun, Harry A Roels, Wilfried Gyselaers, Joris Penders, Andrea A Baccarelli, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Fetal development largely depends on thyroid hormone availability and proper placental function with an important role played by placental mitochondria. The biological mechanisms by which thyroid hormones exert their effects on mitochondrial function are not well understood. We investigated the role of fetal thyroid hormones on placental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mtDNA methylation. We collected placental tissue and cord blood from 305 mother-child pairs that were enrolled between February 2010 and June 2014 in the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort (province of Limburg, Belgium)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646838/immune-response-cytokines-as-potential-biomarkers-for-ddt-induced-neurodegeneration
#3
Héctor Luis Maldonado-Pérez, Judith Graber, Mark Gregory Robson
Background: The world incidence rate of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is 64 cases per 1,000 individuals. Due to the aging population, the prevalence of AD is however increasing and yet, little remains known about the etiology of AD. Objective: Previous studies suggested relationships between AD, neuro-inflammation and organochloride pesticide exposures, therefore, we aimed to study the association between DDT and possible biomarkers of AD. Materials and Methods: We explored literature on inflammation, pesticide exposure and biomarkers associated with AD...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646162/associations-between-global-dna-methylation-and-telomere-length-in-healthy-adolescents
#4
Yutong Dong, Ying Huang, Bernard Gutin, Anas Raed, Yanbin Dong, Haidong Zhu
Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetics regulates telomere dynamics in adults. However, the relationship between these pathways in children and youth remains unknown. Thus, we examined this association in 542 healthy adolescents aged 14 to 18 years old (44.8% African Americans; 55.2% females). Global DNA methylation level (%5-mC) was quantified using ELISA method. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was defined as relative telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, Tanner stage, BMI, PA, and batch effect, revealed that %5 mC was associated with LTL (adjusted β = 0...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642604/turning-the-tide-in-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#5
REVIEW
Michael W N Deininger, Jeffrey W Tyner, Eric Solary
Myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are aggressive myeloid malignancies recognized as a distinct category owing to their unique combination of dysplastic and proliferative features. Although current classification schemes still emphasize morphology and exclusionary criteria, disease-defining somatic mutations and/or germline predisposition alleles are increasingly incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. The developing picture suggests that phenotypes are driven mostly by epigenetic mechanisms that reflect a complex interplay between genotype, physiological processes such as ageing and interactions between malignant haematopoietic cells and the stromal microenvironment of the bone marrow...
June 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642327/declining-histone-acetyltransferase-gcn5-represses-bmsc-mediated-angiogenesis-during-osteoporosis
#6
Huan Jing, Li Liao, Xiaoxia Su, Yi Shuai, Xinjing Zhang, Zhihong Deng, Yan Jin
Angiogenesis is disrupted in age-related and postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms of the disorder remain elusive. We confirmed in this study that, in accordance with the decrease of H-type vessels, the proangiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) declined during osteoporosis. Screening of the histone acetyltransferase family revealed that GCN5 decreased in BMSCs derived from osteoporotic femur. Further analysis identified that GCN5 plays important roles in regulating the proangiogenic potential of BMSCs...
June 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638677/changes-in-sirtuin-2-and-sirtuin-3-mrna-expressions-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Murat Kara, Servet Yolbaş, Cem Şahin, Süleyman Serdar Koca
OBJECTIVE: Sirtuins (SIRTs) play a prominent role in metabolism, apoptosis, aging, inflammation, and epigenetics. Inflammation, apoptosis, and epigenetics are pathogenic issues in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate SIRT2 and SIRT3 mRNA expressions in patients with RA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with RA and 26 healthy controls were enrolled. Disease activity was determined using the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (score of >2...
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637423/the-relation-between-dna-methylation-patterns-and-serum-cytokine-levels-in-community-dwelling-adults-a-preliminary-study
#8
Chris P Verschoor, Lisa M McEwen, Vikas Kohli, Christina Wolfson, Dawn Me Bowdish, Parminder Raina, Michael S Kobor, Cynthia Balion
BACKGROUND: The levels of circulating cytokines fluctuate with age, acute illness, and chronic disease, and are predictive of mortality; this is also true for patterns of DNA (CpG) methylation. Given that immune cells are particularly sensitive to changes in the concentration of cytokines in their microenvironment, we hypothesized that serum levels of TNF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 would correlate with genome-wide alterations in the DNA methylation levels of blood leukocytes. To test this, we evaluated community-dwelling adults (n = 14; 48-78 years old) recruited to a pilot study for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), examining DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip...
June 21, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637314/dna-methylation-signatures-and-coagulation-factors-in-the-peripheral-blood-leucocytes-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#9
Lian Li, Hong Zheng, Yubei Huang, Caiyun Huang, Shuang Zhang, Jing Tian, Pei Li, Anil K Sood, Wei Zhang, Kexin Chen
Solid tumors are increasingly recognized as a systemic disease that is manifested by changes in DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites in the blood. Whereas many studies have reported gene mutation events in the circulation, few studies have focused on epigenetic DNA methylation markers. To identify DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood for ovarian cancer, we performed a two-stage epigenome-wide association study. In the discovery stage, we measured genome wide DNA methylation for 485,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood in 24 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 24 age-matched healthy controls...
June 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#10
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630479/attention-cognitive-control-and-motivation-in-adhd-linking-event-related-brain-potentials-and-dna-methylation-patterns-in-boys-at-early-school-age
#11
Hartmut Heinrich, Juliane Grunitz, Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Simone Wahl, Björn Albrecht, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Peter A Fasching, Gunther H Moll, Anna Eichler
In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627520/unique-aspects-of-the-perinatal-immune-system
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoming Zhang, Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#13
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625654/line-1-hypomethylation-is-associated-to-specific-clinico-pathological-features-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Andrea Imperatori, Nora Sahnane, Nicola Rotolo, Francesca Franzi, Elisa Nardecchia, Laura Libera, Chiara Romualdi, Maria Cattoni, Fausto Sessa, Lorenzo Dominioni, Daniela Furlan
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that selected genetic and/or epigenetic changes associated with advanced tumours may help identifying early non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that recur after resection. Among epigenetic changes, long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation is seen early during carcinogenesis and may act in concert with genetic alterations to cancer progression. LINE-1 hypomethylation and gene mutations frequently involved in lung cancer, were analysed to evaluate their prognostic role in resected stage I NSCLC...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625020/methylation-of-the-ribosomal-rna-gene-promoter-is-associated-with-aging-and-age-related-decline
#15
Patrizia D'Aquila, Alberto Montesanto, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, Vincenzo Mari, Andrea Corsonello, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino
The transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is subject to epigenetic regulation, as it is abrogated by the methylation of CpG dinucleotides within their promoter region. Here, we investigated, through Sequenom platform, the age-related methylation status of the CpG island falling into the rDNA promoter in 472 blood samples from 20- to 105-year-old humans and in different tissues (blood, heart, liver, kidney, and testis) of 15 rats 3-96 weeks old. In humans, we did not find a consistently significant correlation between CpG site methylation and chronological age...
June 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624982/towards-ageing-well-use-it-or-lose-it-exercise-epigenetics-and-cognition
#16
Irene Maeve Rea
More and more people are living into the 90s or becoming centenarians. But, the gift of increased 'age span' seldom equates with an improved 'health-span'. Governments across the world are expressing concern about the epidemic of chronic disease, and have responded by initiating policies that make prevention, reduction and treatment of chronic disease, a public health priority. But understanding, how to age long and well, with the avoidance of chronic disease and later life complex disease morbidity is challenging...
June 17, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623907/dna-methylation-dysregulations-in-rheumatic-heart-valve-disease
#17
Kangjun Shen, Hui Liu, Ran Jing, Jiangfeng Yi, Xinmin Zhou
BACKGROUND: The epigenetic changes underlying the development of rheumatic heart valve disease (RHVD) remain incompletely understood. Limited evidence suggests that abnormal DNA methylation might be involved in the pathogenesis of RHVD. In the present study, we evaluated the DNA methylation dysregulations from myocardial tissue in RHVD patients systematically. METHODS: Right atrial myocardial tissue obtained from rheumatic valvular patients who had undergone valve replacements surgery (n = 73) and were compared to healthy controls (n = 4)...
June 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623901/biomarker-correlation-network-in-colorectal-carcinoma-by-tumor-anatomic-location
#18
Reiko Nishihara, Kimberly Glass, Kosuke Mima, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Peter Kraft, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, John Quackenbush, Shuji Ogino, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma evolves through a multitude of molecular events including somatic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant protein expression, influenced by host immune reactions. One way to interrogate the complex carcinogenic process and interactions between aberrant events is to model a biomarker correlation network. Such a network analysis integrates multidimensional tumor biomarker data to identify key molecular events and pathways that are central to an underlying biological process...
June 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621420/the-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-basic-developmental-biology-research-to-translational-approaches
#19
Benjamin Amram, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Ahuvit David, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The development of the eye has been a topic of extensive investigation, from the early studies on tissue induction to more recent breakthroughs in resolving the mechanism regulating progenitor patterning and their gradual and coordinated differentiation into diverse tissue types that function together throughout life. Among the ocular tissue types, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is at the forefront of developmental biology and stem cell research. The growing interest in this lineage stems from its importance for photoreceptor function as well as from its requirement during embryogenesis for the development of the photoreceptors and the choroid...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619824/the-histone-3-lysine-4-methyltransferase-setd1b-is-a-maternal-effect-gene-required-for-the-oogenic-gene-expression-program
#20
David Brici, Qinyu Zhang, Susanne Reinhardt, Andreas Dahl, Hella Hartmann, Kerstin Schmidt, Neha Goveas, Jiahao Huang, Lenka Gahurova, Gavin Kelsey, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, A Francis Stewart, Andrea Kranz
Germ cell development involves major reprogramming of the epigenome to prime the zygote for totipotency. Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylations are universal epigenetic marks mediated in mammals by six H3K4 methyltransferases related to fly Trithorax, including two yeast Set1 orthologs: Setd1a and Setd1b. Whereas Setd1a plays no role in oogenesis, we report that Setd1b deficiency causes female sterility. Oocyte specific Gdf9iCre conditional knockout (Setd1b(Gdf9) cKO) ovaries develop through all stages however follicular loss accumulated with age and unfertilized metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibited irregularities of the zona pellucida and meiotic spindle...
June 15, 2017: Development
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