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Epigenetics and aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927842/parental-contributions-to-early-embryo-development-influences-of-urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternatives-among-couples-undergoing-ivf-treatment
#1
Haotian Wu, Lisa Ashcraft, Brian W Whitcomb, Tayyab Rahil, Ellen Tougias, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception urinary concentrations of phthalates and phthalate alternatives associated with diminished early stage embryo quality in couples undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male, but not female, urinary concentrations of select metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with diminished blastocyst quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive health, they are in widespread use across the world...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927666/epigenetic-biomarkers-in-progression-from-non-dysplastic-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#2
T Nieto, C L Tomlinson, J Dretzke, S Bayliss, M Dilworth, A D Beggs, O Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a metaplastic condition affecting the lower oesophagus due to long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux and chronic inflammation, is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OADC). There is no clinical test to predict which patients with BO will progress to OADC. The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic surveillance of patients with BO. Epigenetic changes have been well characterised in the neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis to colonic carcinoma, another gastrointestinal cancer associated with chronic inflammation...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#3
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924065/the-more-the-messier-centrosome-amplification-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-personalized-treatment-of-colorectal-cancers
#4
REVIEW
Monica M Mahathre, Padmashree Cg Rida, Ritu Aneja
Colon cancer is currently the third most common cancer and second most fatal cancer in the United States, resulting in approximately 600,000 deaths annually. Though colorectal cancer death rates are decreasing by about 3% every year, disease outcomes could be substantially improved with more research into the drivers of colon carcinogenesis, the determinants of aggressiveness in colorectal cancer and the identification of biomarkers that could enable choice of more optimal treatments. Colon carcinogenesis is notably a slow process that can take decades...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922854/identification-of-hiv-infection-related-dna-methylation-sites-and-advanced-epigenetic-aging-in-hiv-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-u-s-veterans
#5
Kristin N Nelson, Qin Hui, David Rimland, Ke Xu, Matthew S Freiberg, Amy C Justice, Vincent C Marconi, Yan V Sun
OBJECTIVE: HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk than healthy persons for aging-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and non-AIDS defining cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may modulate changes in the host cell epigenome, and these changes represent a potential mechanism through which HIV infection accelerates aging. We assessed the difference in DNAm age, an aging marker involving multiple age-related CpG sites, among antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in a cohort of veterans from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922636/dna-methylation-and-substance-use-risk-a-prospective-genome-wide-study-spanning-gestation-to-adolescence
#6
C A M Cecil, E Walton, R G Smith, E Viding, E J McCrory, C L Relton, M Suderman, J-B Pingault, W McArdle, T R Gaunt, J Mill, E D Barker
Epigenetic processes have been implicated in addiction; yet, it remains unclear whether these represent a risk factor and/or a consequence of substance use. Here, we believe we conducted the first genome-wide, longitudinal study to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in early life prospectively associate with substance use in adolescence. The sample comprised of 244 youth (51% female) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), with repeated assessments of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k array; cord blood at birth, whole blood at age 7) and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use; age 14-18)...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920589/dna-methylation-of-regulatory-regions-of-imprinted-genes-at-birth-and-its-relation-to-infant-temperament
#8
Bernard F Fuemmeler, Chien-Ti Lee, Adelheid Soubry, Edwin S Iversen, Zhiqing Huang, Amy P Murtha, Joellen M Schildkraut, Randy L Jirtle, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes is relevant to neurodevelopment. METHODS: DNA methylation status of the DMRs of nine imprinted genes in umbilical cord blood leukocytes was analyzed in relation to infant behaviors and temperament (n = 158). RESULTS: MEG3 DMR levels were positively associated with internalizing (β = 0.15, P = 0.044) and surgency (β = 0.19, P = 0.018) behaviors, after adjusting for birth weight, gender, gestational age at birth, maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education level, smoking status, parity, and a history of anxiety or depression...
2016: Genetics & Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919074/epigenetic-stress-responses-induce-muscle-stem-cell-ageing-by-hoxa9-developmental-signals
#9
Simon Schwörer, Friedrich Becker, Christian Feller, Ali H Baig, Ute Köber, Henriette Henze, Johann M Kraus, Beibei Xin, André Lechel, Daniel B Lipka, Christy S Varghese, Manuel Schmidt, Remo Rohs, Ruedi Aebersold, Kay L Medina, Hans A Kestler, Francesco Neri, Julia von Maltzahn, Stefan Tümpel, K Lenhard Rudolph
The functionality of stem cells declines during ageing, and this decline contributes to ageing-associated impairments in tissue regeneration and function. Alterations in developmental pathways have been associated with declines in stem-cell function during ageing, but the nature of this process remains poorly understood. Hox genes are key regulators of stem cells and tissue patterning during embryogenesis with an unknown role in ageing. Here we show that the epigenetic stress response in muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells) differs between aged and young mice...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918975/epigenetic-control-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-failure
#10
REVIEW
Diana Bernstein, Maria L Golson, Klaus H Kaestner
Type 2 diabetes is a highly heritable disease, but only ∼15% of this heritability can be explained by known genetic variant loci. In fact, body mass index is more predictive of diabetes than any of the common risk alleles identified by genome-wide association studies. This discrepancy may be explained by epigenetic inheritance, whereby changes in gene regulation can be passed along to offspring. Epigenetic changes throughout an organism's lifetime, based on environmental factors such as chemical exposures, diet, physical activity, and age, can also affect gene expression and susceptibility to diabetes...
November 21, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913608/the-clinical-utility-of-circulating-neuroendocrine-gene-transcript-analysis-in-well-differentiated-paragangliomas-and-pheochromocytomas
#11
M Pęczkowska, J Cwikla, M Kidd, A Lewczuk, A Kolasinska-Ćwikła, D Niec, I Michałowska, A Prejbisz, A Januszewicz, J Chiarelli, L Bodei, I Modlin
CONTEXT: Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (PPGLs) exhibit variable malignancy, which is difficult to determine by histopathology, amine measurements or tissue genetic analyses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a 51-neuroendocrine gene blood analysis has clinical utility as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Well-differentiated PPGLs (n = 32), metastatic (n = 4); SDHx mutation (n = 25); 12 biochemically active, Lanreotide treated (n = 4)...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913501/mutations-in-aml-prognostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#12
Courtney D DiNardo, Jorge E Cortes
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy characterized by the proliferation and aberrant differentiation of immature clonal myeloid cells. The prognosis of AML is variable, based on clinical features such as patient age, performance status, and comorbidities, as well as leukemia-specific genetic features including cytogenetics and molecular classification. The modern application of next-generation sequencing technology has uncovered marked heterogeneity and genomic complexity within AML, based on the presence or absence of cooperating mutations within functional categories such as epigenetic regulators, cell signaling and proliferation pathways, and master hematopoietic transcription factors...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911909/early-onset-paternal-smoking-and-offspring-adiposity-further-investigation-of-a-potential-intergenerational-effect-using-the-hunt-study
#13
David Carslake, Pia R Pinger, Pål Romundstad, George Davey Smith
Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911095/epigenetic-alterations-in-blood-mirror-age-associated-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-changes-in-human-liver
#14
Madhusudhan Bysani, Alexander Perfilyev, Vanessa D de Mello, Tina Rönn, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
AIM: To study the impact of aging on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human liver. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: We analysed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in human liver samples using Illumina 450K and HumanHT12 expression BeadChip arrays. RESULTS: DNA methylation analysis of ∼455,000 CpG sites in human liver revealed that age was significantly associated with altered DNA methylation of 20,396 CpG sites. Comparison of liver methylation data with published methylation data in other tissues showed that vast majority of the age-associated significant CpG sites overlapped between liver and blood, whereas a smaller overlap was found between liver and pancreatic islets or adipose tissue, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903442/are-micrornas-true-sensors-of-ageing-and-cellular-senescence
#15
REVIEW
Justin Williams, Flint Smith, Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
All living beings are programmed to death due to aging and age-related processes. Aging is a normal process of every living species. While all cells are inevitably progressing towards death, many disease processes accelerate the aging process, leading to senescence. Pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and skin diseases have been associated with deregulated aging. Healthy aging can delay onset of all age-related diseases...
November 26, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903268/long-term-outdoor-air-pollution-and-dna-methylation-in-circulating-monocytes-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#16
Gloria C Chi, Yongmei Liu, James W MacDonald, R Graham Barr, Kathleen M Donohue, Mark D Hensley, Lifang Hou, Charles E McCall, Lindsay M Reynolds, David S Siscovick, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may mediate effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation in monocytes, which are central to atherosclerosis, has not been studied. We investigated the association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and DNA methylation (candidate sites and global) in monocytes of adults (aged ≥55). METHODS: One-year average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901293/live-birth-sex-ratios-and-father-s-geographic-origins-in-jerusalem-1964-1976
#17
J Groeger, M Opler, K Kleinhaus, M C Perrin, R Calderon-Margalit, O Manor, O Paltiel, D Conley, S Harlap, D Malaspina
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. METHODS: We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. RESULTS: Of all live births recorded, 51...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893962/proteopathic-strains-and-the-heterogeneity-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
Lary C Walker
Most age-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the misfolding and aberrant accumulation of specific proteins in the nervous system. The proteins self-assemble and spread by a prion-like process of corruptive molecular templating, whereby abnormally folded proteins induce the misfolding and aggregation of like proteins into characteristic lesions. Despite the apparent simplicity of this process at the molecular level, diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and others display remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, both clinically and pathologically...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891827/gpx3-methylation-in-bone-marrow-predicts-adverse-prognosis-and-leukemia-transformation-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#19
Jing-Dong Zhou, Jiang Lin, Ting-Juan Zhang, Ji-Chun Ma, Lei Yang, Xiang-Mei Wen, Hong Guo, Jing Yang, Zhao-Qun Deng, Jun Qian
Epigenetic inactivation of GPX3 has been identified in various cancers including leukemia. Moreover, aberrant DNA methylation was also found as a dominant mechanism of disease progression in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This study intended to explore GPX3 promoter methylation and its clinical relevance in 110 patients with MDS. GPX3 methylation was examined by real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (RQ-MSP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). GPX3 methylation was identified in 15% (17/110) MDS patients, and significantly higher than controls, and lower than acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (P = 0...
November 28, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891254/prostate-cancer-epigenetic-alterations-risk-factors-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Asgar A Kalla, Muhammed M Islam, Mike Sathekge, Razia Moorad
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis...
2016: Prostate Cancer
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