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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926668/examining-life-goals-of-community-dwelling-low-income-older-adults
#1
Elizabeth P Howard, Kara E Louvar
Self-care and self-management programs are touted as a means to age successfully. Yet, these programs pay little regard to a critical first step-the personal goals of older adults. The capacity to self-identify goals and pursue actions toward goal achievement transcends age. An examination of life goals identified by community-dwelling, low-income older adults indicates that functional performance mechanisms are valued. Maintenance of health and increased physical activity were the two most commonly identified personal goals within a sample of 161 community-dwelling older adults residing in subsidized housing...
September 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926440/epidural-labor-analgesia-fentanyl-dose-and-breastfeeding-success-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Amy I Lee, Robert J McCarthy, Paloma Toledo, Mary Jane Jones, Nancy White, Cynthia A Wong
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is an important public health concern. High cumulative doses of epidural fentanyl administered for labor analgesia have been reported to be associated with early termination of breastfeeding. We tested the hypothesis that breastfeeding success is adversely influenced by the cumulative epidural fentanyl dose administered for labor analgesia. METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of parous women at greater than 38 weeks gestation who planned to breastfeed, had successfully breastfed a prior infant, and who received neuraxial labor analgesia...
October 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924492/the-essentials-of-a-global-index-for-cognitive-function
#3
Joseph Mathew Antony, Ian Weaver, Matthew Rueffer, Najla Guthrie, Malkanthi Evans
Cognition is comprised of the faculties: perception, creativity, intuition, and ratiocination. Optimal levels of cognition are needed for independent functioning and balanced living. With an aging population that continues to grow, dietary supplements that tilt the balance towards maintenance of cognition are being marketed for vulnerable populations facing these challenges. Randomized clinical trials provide the causal inference necessary to define the efficacy of emerging nutraceuticals. Cognition testing, in particular, requires a battery of tests that encompass all brain regions involved in cognition so as to provide endpoints necessary for product validation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923411/hormone-replacement-therapy-after-treatment-for-cervical-cancer-are-we-adhering-to-standard-of-care
#4
Lisa A Rauh, Aaron F Pannone, Leigh A Cantrell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and bone care health maintenance practices for cervical cancer patients with iatrogenic menopause, and, secondarily, to investigate the potential impact of specific demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: Women diagnosed with iatrogenic menopause due to cervical cancer treatment between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015 were identified from the University of Virginia's tumor registry...
September 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922648/a-theoretical-and-empirical-modeling-of-anxiety-integrated-with-rdoc-and-temporal-dynamics
#5
Brandon Frank, Nicholas C Jacobson, Landon Hurley, Dean McKay
The newly launched Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) emphasize specific mechanisms over diagnostic categories of psychopathology. In our view, RDoC provides a useful heuristic for mental health disorders, but does not capture the complexity of psychological data when proposed mechanisms are viewed as static entities. However, temporal and complex system dynamics may advance RDoC's utility. By investigating temporal patterns within trajectories and the interaction of complex networks, we propose that dynamic modeling provides comprehensive methods with which to investigate the etiopathology and maintenance of mental health disorders...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920972/-a-phd-completed-prevention-and-treatment-of-peri-implant-diseases-cleaning-of-titanium-dental-implant-surfaces
#6
A Louropoulou
The effect of various instruments on titanium dental implant surfaces was evaluated. Furthermore, a clinical guideline was developed regarding the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases. Air abrasive devices appear to be the most suitable meachnical instruments to remove biofilm from implant surfaces. From the available chemotherapeutica, (citric)acid and hydrogen peroxide seem to have the best potential. Regular controls and meticulous maintenance from both the patients and dental care professionals are mandatory to avoid problems...
September 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919771/the-challenge-of-perioperative-pain-management-in-opioid-tolerant-patients
#7
REVIEW
Flaminia Coluzzi, Francesca Bifulco, Arturo Cuomo, Mario Dauri, Claudio Leonardi, Rita Maria Melotti, Silvia Natoli, Patrizia Romualdi, Gennaro Savoia, Antonio Corcione
The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919760/attitudes-toward-antipsychotic-treatment-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-and-their-clinicians-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Martha Sajatovic, Faith DiBiasi, Susan N Legacy
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics are recommended as first-line therapy for acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder; however, published literature suggests their real-world use remains limited. Understanding attitudes toward these medications may help identify barriers and inform personalized therapy. This literature review evaluated patient and clinician attitudes toward the use of antipsychotics for treating bipolar disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews identified English language articles published between January 1, 2000, and June 15, 2016, that reported attitudinal data from patients, health care professionals, or caregivers; treatment decision-making; or patient characteristics that predicted antipsychotic use for bipolar disorder...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919143/long-term-safety-of-glycopyrrolate-eflow-%C3%A2-cs-in-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-results-from-the-glycopyrrolate-for-obstructive-lung-disease-via-electronic-nebulizer-golden-5-randomized-study
#9
Gary T Ferguson, Thomas Goodin, Robert Tosiello, Alistair Wheeler, Edward Kerwin
BACKGROUND: The use of long-acting bronchodilators is an essential component of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLDEN 5 Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of a nebulized glycopyrrolate formulation (SUN-101) delivered via the investigational eFlow(®) Closed System (eFlow(®) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: Subjects were randomized in a 4:3 ratio to nebulized glycopyrrolate 50 μg twice daily (BID) or tiotropium 18 μg once daily (OD) and treated for 48 weeks...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918861/exercise-self-efficacy-correlates-in-people-with-psychosis
#10
Davy Vancampfort, Paul Gorczynski, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Annetie Naisiga, David Basangwa, James Mugisha
Despite the recognition of the importance of exercise self-efficacy in exercise adoption and maintenance, previous investigations on exercise self-efficacy in people with psychosis is scarce. The present study aimed to (1) explore if exercise self-efficacy differed between stages of behavior change in Ugandan outpatients with psychosis, and (2) assess sociodemographic, clinical and motivational correlates of exercise self-efficacy. In total, 48 patients (24 women) completed the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES), the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, the Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and questions pertaining to intrinsic motivation in the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917267/distance-delivered-physical-activity-interventions-for-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
David Mizrahi, Claire E Wakefield, Joanna E Fardell, Veronica F Quinn, Qishan Lim, Briana K Clifford, David Simar, Kirsten K Ness, Richard J Cohn
This review aimed to determine the feasibility of distance-delivered physical activity (PA) interventions in childhood cancer survivors (CCS), and assess the effect on PA levels, and physical, physiological and psychological outcomes. We searched electronic databases until May 2016, including studies following intensive treatment. Meta-analyses were conducted on randomized controlled trials. We calculated the effect of interventions on PA levels and physical, physiological and psychological health outcomes...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915827/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-walking-program-in-a-disadvantaged-area-using-the-re-aim-framework-by-mixed-methods
#12
Camila Tiome Baba, Isabela Martins Oliveira, Adriele Evelyn Ferreira Silva, Leonardo Moreira Vieira, Natalia Caroline Cerri, Alex Antonio Florindo, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: The positive health impact of physical activity (PA) is well known, yet a large proportion of the world's population remains sedentary. General PA programs are common as health promotion initiatives. However, effectiveness evaluations of such PA programs on individual and organizational aspects, which could inform the decision-making process of public health bodies are still lacking, particularly in the most socially disadvantaged areas, where health promotion schemes are particularly needed...
September 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915825/effect-of-a-mobile-app-intervention-on-vegetable-consumption-in-overweight-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Sarah Mummah, Thomas N Robinson, Maya Mathur, Sarah Farzinkhou, Stephen Sutton, Christopher D Gardner
BACKGROUND: Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18-50 years with BMI=28-40 kg/m(2) near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) and randomly assigned to either the stand-alone, theory-based Vegethon mobile app (enabling goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback and using "process motivators" including fun, surprise, choice, control, social comparison, and competition) or a wait-listed control condition...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#14
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#15
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913928/a-new-complementary-approach-for-oral-health-and-diabetes-management-health-coaching
#16
Ayse Basak Cinar, Ruth Freeman, Lone Schou
BACKGROUND: Health coaching (HC) is based on 'partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximise their personal and professional potential' to adopt healthy lifestyles through 'building awareness and empowerment'. This study's objective is to assess, for the first time to our knowledge, the effectiveness of HC compared with health education (HE) using clinical and subjective measures among type 2 diabetes (DM2) patients in Turkey and Denmark...
September 14, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910608/strengthening-advocacy-efforts-with-empirical-evidence-a-case-example-of-the-conduct-uptake-and-utilisation-of-research-in-drug-policy-decision-making-in-vietnam
#17
Thu Vuong, Alison Ritter, Nhu Nguyen, Robert Ali
During the last decade, international aid agencies and advocates have been working with Southeast Asian governments to move away from punitive responses towards people who use drugs to more public health, humane approaches. The lack of local scientific evidence about the effectiveness of different treatment approaches has made this advocacy work more challenging. This paper reflects on a generation of treatment research evidence and how it can assist advocacy efforts. The case example is the cost-effectiveness research, comparing centre-based compulsory treatment with community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam (2012-2015)...
September 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910203/the-t-box-transcription-factor-tbx2-regulates-cell-proliferation-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#18
Jing Wang, Yin Liu, Zhongyuan Su, Li Pan, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
PURPOSE: Vertebrate eye development and function critically depend on the regulation of proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling RPE cell proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and in disease. The T-box transcription factor TBX2 is an important cell cycle regulator in development and oncogenesis, but its specific role in RPE cell proliferation is far from clear...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905716/lack-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-urban-roof-rats-rattus-rattus-at-a-texas-facility-housing-naturally-infected-nonhuman-primates
#19
Carolyn L Hodo, Nicole R Bertolini, John C Bernal, John L VandeBerg, Sarah A Hamer
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, uses kissing bugs as a vector, and is maintained in nature by a variety of wildlife reservoirs. Many natural cases of Chagas disease have been reported in NHP at facilities across the southern United States, where infected vectors and wildlife occur. Infection of NHP with T. cruzi can diminish their value as research models and lead to health problems and death. Identifying the modes of transmission and role of wildlife reservoirs in these facilities is therefore critical to guide interventions to reduce transmission...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905447/assessment-of-the-quality-of-neonatal-care-in-the-solomon-islands
#20
Shidan Tosif, Titus Nasi, Amy Gray, Nahad Sadr-Azodi, Divi Ogaoga, Trevor Duke
AIM: To identify strengths and obstacles for improving the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands. Improving the quality of newborn care is a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Action Plan for Healthy Newborns in the Western Pacific. The neonatal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, a lower-middle-income country, has improved slower than overall child mortality. In 2013, neonatal mortality (13.2/1000) constituted 44% of under-5 deaths (30.1/1000). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of newborn care in five provincial hospitals using a World Health Organization assessment tool for hospital quality of care...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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