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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240004/gut-microbiota-and-pancreatic-diseases
#1
Marianna Signoretti, Roberta Roggiolani, Caterina Stornello, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
Changes in diet, lifestyle and exposition to environmental risk factors account for the increased incidence of pancreatic disorders, including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The role of the microbiome in the development of pancreatic disorders is increasingly recognized. The translocation of gut bacteria and endotoxins following gut barrier failure is a key event contributing to the severity of acute pancreatitis, while small intestine bacterial overgrowth is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis and further worsens their symptoms and malnutrition...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239984/cost-effectiveness-of-extended-release-naltrexone-to-prevent-relapse-among-criminal-justice-involved-persons-with-a-history-of-opioid-use-disorder
#2
Sean M Murphy, Daniel Polsky, Joshua D Lee, Peter D Friedmann, Timothy W Kinlock, Edward V Nunes, Richard J Bonnie, Michael Gordon, Donna T Chen, Tamara Y Boney, Charles P O'Brien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Criminal-justice-involved persons are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol®) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal-justice-involved U.S. adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life, and downstream cost-offsets...
February 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239978/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-its-management-in-children-with-achondroplasia
#3
Rossana Tenconi, Sonia Khirani, Alessandro Amaddeo, Caroline Michot, Geneviève Baujat, Vincent Couloigner, Livio De Sanctis, Syril James, Michel Zerah, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Brigitte Fauroux
Sleep-disordered breathing is a common feature in children with achondroplasia. The aim of our study was to review the poly(somno)graphic (P(S)G) findings and consequent treatments in children with achondroplasia followed in the national reference center for skeletal dysplasia. A retrospective review of the clinical charts and P(S)G of 43 consecutive children (mean age 3.9 ± 3.5 years) with achondroplasia seen over a period of 2 years was performed. Twenty four (59%) children had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
February 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239961/in-pursuit-of-neurophenotypes-the-consequences-of-having-autism-and-a-big-brain
#4
David G Amaral, Deana Li, Lauren Libero, Marjorie Solomon, Judy Van de Water, Ann Mastergeorge, Letitia Naigles, Sally Rogers, Christine Wu Nordahl
A consensus has emerged that despite common core features, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has multiple etiologies and various genetic and biological characteristics. The fact that there are likely to be subtypes of ASD has complicated attempts to develop effective therapies. The UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project is a longitudinal, multidisciplinary analysis of children with autism and age-matched typically developing controls; nearly 400 families are participating in this study. The overarching goal is to gather sufficient biological, medical, and behavioral data to allow definition of clinically meaningful subtypes of ASD...
February 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239956/spreading-of-thelazia-callipaeda-in-greece
#5
E Papadopoulos, A Komnenou, A Thomas, E Ioannidou, V Colella, D Otranto
Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), the so-called oriental eyeworm, has been increasingly reported as an agent of infection in animals and humans from many European countries. Clinical signs range from subclinical to moderate or severe ocular disorders (e.g., epiphora, photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, ulcers). The disease has been also diagnosed in animals from countries of the Balkan area (e.g., Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia), but only a single case of canine thelaziosis, presumably autochthonous, was reported in Northern Greece...
February 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239952/increased-hippocampal-thalamus-and-amygdala-volume-in-long-term-lithium-treated-bipolar-i-disorder-patients-compared-with-unmedicated-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#6
Carlos López-Jaramillo, Cristian Vargas, Ana M Díaz-Zuluaga, Juan David Palacio, Gabriel Castrillón, Carrie Bearden, Eduard Vieta
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) suggest that lithium is associated with increased volumes of cortico-limbic structures. However, more rigorous control of confounding factors is needed to obtain further support for this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in brain volumes among long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, unmedicated BD-I patients, and healthy controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 32 euthymic BD-I patients (16 on lithium monotherapy for a mean of 180 months, and 16 receiving no medication for at least the 2 months prior to the study) and 20 healthy controls...
February 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239946/a-voxel-based-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#7
Jonathan Repple, Susanne Meinert, Dominik Grotegerd, Harald Kugel, Ronny Redlich, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Nils Opel, Christian Buerger, Katharina Förster, Theresa Nick, Volker Arolt, Walter Heindel, Michael Deppe, Udo Dannlowski
OBJECTIVE: The absence of neurobiological diagnostic markers of bipolar disorder (BD) leads to its frequent misdiagnosis as unipolar depression (UD). We investigated if changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) could help to differentiate BD from UD in the state of depression. METHODS: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) we employed a voxel-based analysis approach to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in 86 patients experiencing an acute major depressive episode according to DSM-IV (N=39 BD, mean age 39...
February 27, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239901/molecular-prevalence-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-in-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer-in-a-brazilian-population
#8
T R Bellott, C F Baez, S G Almeida, M T Venceslau, M G Zalis, M A Guimarães, M C Rochael, F B Luz, R B Varella, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a newly described oncogenic virus, has been found in association with tumours other than Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). As yet, little is known about the involvement or influence of MCPyV on the development of these tumours and its prevalence in various populations. AIM: To assess the prevalence of MCPyV DNA in cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). METHODS: The prevalence of MCPyV DNA was assessed in 96 cases of NMSC in a Brazilian population comprising 76 subjects, and these results were correlated with epidemiological and demographical data...
February 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239882/palmar-fasciitis-and-polyarthritis-a-rare-paraneoplastic-syndrome-related-to-ovarian-cancer
#9
C van Marcke, E Seront, C Docquier, B Filleul
Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by diffuse inflammation of the palmar fascia, tendon sheaths, and joints of the fingers and wrists, which rapidly progresses to flexion contracture of the hands. This paraneoplastic syndrome, originally linked to ovarian carcinoma, has also been associated with multiple different malignancies. As PFPAS usually precedes the detection of cancer, its symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy and should be thoroughly investigated...
February 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239791/mri-study-for-the-features-of-brain-conduction-pathways-in-patients-with-an-ultra-high-risk-of-endogenous-psychoses
#10
A S Tomyshev, I S Lebedeva, T A Akhadov, M A Omel'chenko, M V Ublinskii, N A Semenova, V G Kaleda
Diffusion parameters of brain tracts (n=18) were studied in 27 men with ultra-high risk of endogenous attack-like psychoses and 27 mentally healthy men of the same age group (fractional anisotropy; and average, radial, and axial diffusion). Correlation analysis was performed between these parameters and severity of mental disorders (SOPS scale). The indexes of radial diffusion and axial diffusion were shown to change in the left anterior thalamic radiation and right posterior cingulum bundle, respectively. Our results are consistent with published data that disturbances in the frontal and temporal lobes play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
February 27, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239782/inhibition-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-growth-by-selected-australian-plants-natural-approaches-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-ankylosing-spondylitis
#11
V Winnett, J Sirdaarta, A White, F M Clarke, I E Cock
A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional Australian medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune inflammatory diseases. One hundred and six extracts from 40 native Australian plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and/or to inhibit bacterial growth were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (K. pneumoniae). Eighty-six of the extracts (81.1%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. The D...
February 27, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239760/incidence-and-outcome-of-acute-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-hospitalized-children
#12
Vivek Athwani, Maneesha Bhargava, Rahul Chanchlani, Amar Jeet Mehta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in hospitalized children. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 242 children between 6 mo to 18 y of age hospitalized with primary cardiac, renal or any systemic disorder at a tertiary care center in India. The primary outcome was the development of CRS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the risk of mortality secondary to CRS...
February 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239754/neprilysin-facilitates-adipogenesis-through-potentiation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#13
Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Mookwang Kwon, Sun-Jung Cho, Young Ho Koh, Keejung Yoon
Neprilysin (NEP) is a zinc metallopeptidase that cleaves a number of small peptides into inactive forms. Despite the recent evidence of a significant correlation between the levels of NEP in plasma and the severity of obesity in humans, a cause-and-effect relationship or a functional role of NEP in obesity has remained uncertain. In this study, we show that NEP has a positive regulatory effect on fat cell formation from precursor cells. NEP increases the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line in differentiation conditions...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239743/sleep-depressive-anxiety-disorders-and-obesity-in-puerto-rican-youth
#14
Daphne Koinis-Mitchell, Nicolás Rosario-Matos, Rafael R Ramírez, Pedro García, Glorisa J Canino, Alexander N Ortega
OBJECTIVE: Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. METHODS: Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239741/-impingement-syndromes-of-the-shoulder
#15
M Beirer, A B Imhoff, S Braun
In addition to tears of the rotator cuff, isolated impingement syndrome of the shoulder is the most common diagnosis in shoulder disorders. This is of high relevance in orthopedic sports medicine. In fact, impingement of the shoulder is not the diagnosis but rather a symptom of a functional or even a structural pathology. Detailed knowledge about the different types of impingement and the underlying causes is essential to provide adequate treatment. Primarily, impingement of the shoulder should be treated nonoperatively...
February 26, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239676/intact-ventral-striatal-prediction-error-signaling-in-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#16
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Ziye Xu, Deanna M Barch, James A Waltz
BACKGROUND: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons code a computational quantity, reward prediction error (RPE), which has been causally related to learning. Recently, this insight has been leveraged to link phenomenological and biological levels of understanding in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, results have been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes. Here we present results from two studies with relatively large Ns to assess VS RPE in schizophrenia. METHODS: In the current study we analyzed data from two independent studies, involving a total of 87 chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 61 controls...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239674/dietary-supplementation-of-coenzyme-q10-plus-multivitamins-to-hamper-the-ros-mediated-cisplatin-ototoxicity-in-humans-a-pilot-study
#17
Felice Scasso, Andrea Elio Sprio, Luciano Canobbio, Chiara Scanarotti, Giorgio Manini, Giovanni Nicolao Berta, Anna Maria Bassi
Oxidative stress exerts major role in the pathogenesis of side effects of many antineoplastic drugs, including ototoxicity of cisplatin. In particular, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis of different types of hearing cells. Antioxidants and ROS scavengers may thus represent potential therapeutic options to prevent platinum-associated ototoxicity. The aim of this preliminary case-control study was to explore the efficacy of a dietary antioxidant supplement, in order to hamper the occurrences of ototoxicity in patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239649/switching-harmful-visceral-fat-to-beneficial-energy-combustion-improves-metabolic-dysfunctions
#18
Xiaoyan Yang, Wenhai Sui, Meng Zhang, Mei Dong, Sharon Lim, Takahiro Seki, Ziheng Guo, Carina Fischer, Huixia Lu, Cheng Zhang, Jianmin Yang, Meng Zhang, Yangang Wang, Caixia Cao, Yanyan Gao, Xingguo Zhao, Meili Sun, Yuping Sun, Rujie Zhuang, Nilesh J Samani, Yun Zhang, Yihai Cao
Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239631/early-adverse-life-events-are-associated-with-altered-brain-network-architecture-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#19
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jonathan R Acosta, Kareem Hamadani, Carinna Torgerson, John D van Horn, Lin Chang, Bruce Naliboff, Kirsten Tillisch, Jennifer S Labus
INTRODUCTION: Early adverse life events (EALs) increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women)...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239602/first-case-of-cd40lg-deficiency-in-ecuador-diagnosed-after-whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-patient-with-severe-cutaneous-histoplasmosis
#20
Luis Alberto Pedroza, Nina Guerrero, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Cristina Tafur, Roque Macias, Greta Muñoz, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Shalini N Jhangiani, Levi B Watkin, Ivan K Chinn, James R Lupski, Jordan S Orange
Severe infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are commonly observed in patient with secondary immunodeficiency disorders. We report a two and a half years old boy previously healthy with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. Using whole exome sequencing, we found an indel mutation at the CD40LG gene, suggesting a diagnosis of hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, even in the absence of the usual features for the disease. Interestingly, the patient lives in a region endemic for histoplasmosis. The unusual infections in our case suggest that in children with severe histoplasmosis and resident in endemic areas, HIGM syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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