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Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xing Chen, Detlef Wolf, Juliane Siebourg-Polster, Christian Czech, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer, Omar Khwaja, Martin Strahm
Progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy characterizes Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and other similar muscle disorder diseases. Objective assessment of muscle functions is an essential and important, although challenging, prerequisite for successful clinical trials. Current clinical rating scales restrain the movement abnormalities to certain predefined coarse-grained individual items. The Kinect 3-D sensor has emerged as a low-cost and portable motion sensing technology used to capture and track people's movement in many medical and research fields...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Fumihiro Matsuda, Junya Yamada, Norihide Itoh, Eiichi Saitoh
Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is shown to be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of gait abnormality due to movement disorders. However, the use of 3DGA in actual clinics remains uncommon. Possible reasons could include the time-consuming measurement process and difficulties in understanding measurement results, which are often presented using a large number of graphs. Here we present a clinician-friendly 3DGA method developed to facilitate the clinical use of 3DGA. This method consists of simplified preparation and measurement processes that can be performed in a short time period in clinical settings and intuitive results presentation to facilitate clinicians' understanding of results...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ariel Finkielsztein, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil-derived microparticles (PMN)-MPs) are lipid bilayer, spherical microvesicles with sizes ranging from 50-1,000 nm in diameter. MPs are a newly evolving, important part of cell-to-cell communication and signaling machinery. Because of their size and the nature of their release, until recently MP existence was overlooked. However, with improved technology and analytical methods their function in health and disease is now emerging. The protocols presented here are aimed at isolating and characterizing PMN-MPs by flow cytometry and immunoblotting...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joseph Ochaba, Eva L Morozko, Jacqueline G O'Rourke, Leslie M Thompson
The accumulation of misfolded proteins is central to pathology in Huntington's disease (HD) and many other neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, a key pathological feature of HD is the aberrant accumulation of mutant HTT (mHTT) protein into high molecular weight complexes and intracellular inclusion bodies composed of fragments and other proteins. Conventional methods to measure and understand the contributions of various forms of mHTT-containing aggregates include fluorescence microscopy, western blot analysis, and filter trap assays...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Feda Almurnak, Alaa Jaradah, Husam Hamdouna
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Dennis D Spencer, Jason L Gerrard, Hitten P Zaveri
Intracranial electrophysiological recording in patients with refractory focal epilepsy is the gold standard for defining epileptogenic tissue. Although the concordance of intracranial electrophysiology, structural MRI, and pathology can identify brain regions for resection, complete seizure control after surgery is not achieved in all patients with focal epilepsy. Repetitive identical behavioural seizures suggest one onset area, but epileptogenesis might be distributed and connected by functional and structural brain networks outside the seizure onset area, which could explain poor postsurgical outcomes in some patients...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Jennifer F Buckman, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Maria Fonoberova, Igor Mezić, Marsha E Bates
OBJECTIVE: It has been nearly 15 years since Kazdin and Nock published methodological and research recommendations for understanding mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy. Their arguments and enthusiasm for research on mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) resonated across disciplines and disorders, as it shined a light on the crucial importance of understanding how and for whom treatments instigate behavior change and how therapeutic mechanisms might be extended to "situations and settings of everyday life...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katie Witkiewitz, Corey R Roos, Davood Tofighi, M Lee Van Horn
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have found support for coping as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) following coping skills training interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD). One potential reason for null findings is heterogeneity in the patterns of coping skills acquired during treatment. This study sought to identify latent classes of coping and to test the latent class variable as a mediator of the effect of a combined behavioral intervention for AUD. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study (N = 1,124; mean age = 44...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Kevin A Hallgren, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
OBJECTIVE: Interest in studying mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatments has grown considerably in the past two decades. Much of this work has focused on identifying which variables statistically mediate the effect of SUD treatments on clinical outcomes. However, a fuller conceptualization of MOBCs will require greater understanding of questions that extend beyond traditional mediation analysis, including better understanding of when MOBCs change during treatment, when they are most critical to aiding the initiation or maintenance of change, and how MOBCs themselves arise as a function of treatment processes...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Tambri Housen, Annick Lenglet, Cono Ariti, Shabnum Ara, Showkat Shah, Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Altaf Paul, Zahoor Wagay, Kerri Viney, Simon Janes, Giovanni Pintaldi
The present study aimed to culturally adapt, translate, and validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist (HTQ-16) prior to use in a cross-sectional mental health population survey in the Kashmir Valley. Cultural adaptation and translation of the HSCL-25 and the HTQ-16 employed multiple forms of transcultural validity check. The HSCL-25 and HTQ-16 were compared against a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Zoe R Smith, Rosanna P Breaux, Cathrin D Green, Joshua M Langberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. METHOD: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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